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UNITED STATES COAST PILOT 

PHILIPPINE ISLANDS 



r'A.HT II 

PALAWAN, MIHDAHAO, AID SOLO ARCHIPELAGO 



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CORNELL 

UNIVERSITY 

LIBRARY 



JIViaiOM Of XMUXttllS AND ISLAJSD POSSlSSIO&t 

LIBRARY 



Cornell University Library 
VK 911.U58 
v.2 

United States coast pilot, Philippine Is 



3 1924 007 510 641 




Cornell University 
Library 



The original of this book is in 
the Cornell University Library. 

There are no known copyright restrictions in 
the United States on the use of the text. 



http://www.archive.org/details/cu31924007510641 



Serial No. 152 

DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE 

U. S. COAST AND GEODETIC SURVEY 

E. LESTER JONES, DmECTOB 



UNITED STATES COAST PILOT 



PHILIPPINE ISLANDS 



PART II 



PALAWAN, MINDANAO, AND SULU ARCHIPELAGO 



FIRST EDITION 




PRICE, 50 CENTS 



WASHINGTON 

GOVERNMENT PRINTING OFFICE 

1921 



THE COMPASS. 



• 


n 


Points) 


• 


" 


Points. 


- 


n 


Points. 





00 


North: 


' 120 


56 


SE. byE. ME. 
SE. by E.: 


241 


53 


SW.byW.MW. 


2 


49 


N.ME. 


123 


45 


244 


41 


SW.by W-MW. 


5 


38 


N.HE. 


126 


34 


SE. % E. 


247 


30 


WSW.: 


8 


26 


N.J^E. 


129 


23 


SE. H E. 


250 


19 


WSW. x w. 


11 


15 


N.byE.: 


132 


11 


SE.ME. 


253 


08 


WSW. M W. 


14 


04 


N. byE. ME. 


135 


00 


SE.: 


255 


56 


WSW. Vi W. 


16 


53 


N. by E. ME. 


137 


49 


SE. M S. 


258 


45 


W. by S. 


19 


41 


N. by E. M E. 


140 


38 


SE. % S. 


261 


34 


W.MS. 


22 


30 


NNE.: 


143 


26 


SE. MS. 


264 


23 


W.MS. 


25 


19 


NNE. M E. 


146 


15 


SE. by S.: 
SSE. M E. 


267 


11 


W.MS. 


28 


08 


NNE. HE. 


149 


04 


270 


00 


WEST: 


30 


56 


NNE. ME. 


151 


53 


SSE. M E. 


272 


49 


W. MN. 


33 


45 


NE.byN.: 


154 


41 


SSE. ME. 


275 


38 


W. MN. 


36 


34 


NE. M N. 


157 


30 


SSE.: 


278 


26 


W.VN. 
W. by N. 
WNW. MW 


39 


23 


NE. HN. 


160 


19 


S. by E.ME. 


281 


15 


42 


11 


NE.MN. 


163 


08 


S. byE. ME. 


284 


04 


45 


00 


NE.: 


165 


56 


S. byE. ME. 
S. by E.: 


286 


53 


WNW. M W. 


47 


49 


NE. ME. 


168 


45 


289 


41 


WNW. M W. 


50 


38 


NE.J^E. 


171 


34 


S. ME. 


292 


30 


WNW.: 


53 


26 


NE.ME. 
NE.byE.: 


174 


23 


S. HE. 


295 


19 


NW.byW.MW- 


56 


15 


177 


11 


S. ME. 


298 


08 


NW.by W.^W. 


59 


04 


NE.byE. ME. 


180 


00 


South: 


300 


56 


NW.byW.MW. 


61 


53 


NE.byE. !^E. 


182 


49 


S,«W. 


303 


45 


NW. by W. 


64 


41 


NE.by E. 94 E. 


185 


38 


8.XW. 


306 


34 


NW.M W. 


67 


30 


ENE.: 


188 


26 


S.XW. 


309 


23 


NW. M W. 


70 


19 


ENE. J£ E. 


191 


15 


S. by W.: 


312 


11 


NW. M W. 


73 


08 


ENE. H E. 


194 


04 


S. by W. M W. 


315 


00 


NW.: 


75 


56 


ENE. M E. 


196 


53 


S. by W. M W. 


317 


49 


NW. X N. 


78 


45 


E.byN.: 


199 


41 


S. by W. M W. 


320 


38 


NW. MN. 


81 


34 


E.%N. 


202 


30 


SSW.; 


323 


26 


NW.MN. 


84 


23 


E.MN. 


205 


19 


SSW. H w. 


326 


15 


NW. by N. 


87 


11 


E.MN. 


208 


08 


SSW. M w. 


329 


04 


NNW. X W. 


90 


00 


EAST.: 


210 


56 


SSW. m w. 


331 


53 


NNW. M W. 


92 


49 


E.MS. 


213 


45 


SW. by S.: 


334 


41 


NNW-M W. 


95 


38 


E.J^S. 


216 


34 


SW.MS.. 


337 


30 


NNW.: 


98 


26 


E.MS. 


219 


23 


SW. M S. 


340 


19 


N by W. X W. 


101 


15 


E. by S. 
ESE. M E. 


222 


11 


SW.MS. 


343 


08 


N. by W. M W^ 


104 


01 


225 


00 


SW-: 


345 


56 


N. byW.M W- 
N. by W.: 


106 


53 


ESE. \"2 E. 


227 


49 


SW. M w. 


348 


45 


109 


41 


ESE. ME. 


230 


38 


sw. m w. 


351 


34 


N-MW. 


112 


30 


ESE.: 


233 


26 


SW.MW. 


354 


23 


N. MW. 


115 


19 


SE. byE. ME. 


236 


15 


SW. by W.: 


357 


11 


N.JiW. 


118 


08 


SE. by E. M E. 


239 


04 


SW.byW.MW. 









CONTENTS. 



Page. 

Introductory iv 

Note v 

Navigational aids and the use 

of charts 1 

Index map of charts 1 

Philippine Islands IT 

General information 17 

Storm warnings 17 

Radio service 18 

Variation of the compass 18 

Tides and currents 19 

Coastwise navigation 20 

Palawan 21 

Islands northeast of Pala- 
wan 21 

Calamianes Islands 21 

Cabulauan Islands 32 

Cuyo Islands 33 

Linapacan and adjacent is- 
lands 40 

Palawan Island 42 

North coast of Palawan 42 

East coast of Palawan 42 

Shark Fin Bay 45 

Taytay Bay 48 

Dumaran Island 53 

Green Island Bay 55 

Honda Bay 57 

Puerto Princesa 60 

Puerto Princesa to Island 

Bay 62 

Island Bay 66 

Island Bay to Coral Bay__ 67 
Islands and channels south of 

Palawan 70 

Balabac Island 72 

North Balabac Strait 75 

Balabac Strait : 76 

Palawan Passage 81 

West coast of Palawan 82 

Sulu Sea 115 

Cagayan Islands 118 

Tubbataha reefs 120 

Cagayan Sulu Islands 123 

Mindanao 126 

North coast of Mindanao 126 

Iligan Bay 133 

Dapitan Bay 140 



Page. 
Mindanao — Continued. 

West coast of Mindanao 142 

South coast of Mindanao 144 

Zamboanga 144 

Sibuguey Bay 149 

Port Sibulan 162 

Dumanquilas Bay 166 

Illana Bay 170 

Sarangani Bay 187 

Sarangani Islands 188 

Davao Gulf 189 

Surigao Strait 208 

Islands northeastward from 

Mindanao 209 

Suluan Island 209 

Dinagat Island 210 

Siargao Island 223 

Bucas Islands 228 

Hinatuan 231 

Northeast and east coast of 

Mindanao 232 

Lianga Bay 248 

Bislig Bay 251 

Pujuda Bay 256 

Palmas Island 258 

Sulu Archipelago 259 

Basilan Group 259 

Pilas Islands 263 

Tapiantana Islands 265 

Samales Islands 266 

Jolo Group 267 

Tapul Islands 274 

Tawitawi Group 278 

Pangutarang Group and is- 
lands westward 291 

Sibutu Islands 295 

North coast of Borneo 300 

Sandakan Harbor 306 

Mallawalle Island 314 

Banguey Island 321 

Marudu Bay 327 

Appendix 340 

United States Coast Pilots 340 

Field Stations of the Coast 

and Geodetic Survey 340 

Index '. 347 

hi 



INTRODUCTORY. 



Department of Commerce, 
U. S. Coast and Geodetic Survey, 
Washington, D. C, December 31, 1920. 

This publication covers the coasts of Palawan, Mindanao, Sulu 
Archipelago, with the adjacent islands and waters, and includes a 
short description of the north coast of Borneo, with the channels and 
islands adjacent to it, based on surveys by officers of the British Navy. 
The descriptions of Philippine Islands and waters is based mainly 
on the work of the United States Coast and Geodetic Survey. The 
waters of the southern part of the Sulu Sea, the Sulu Archipelago, 
and the west coast of Palawan have not yet been surveyed ; the notes 
relating to those waters have been compiled from a variety of sources, 
principally from the Spanish Derrotero, the Eastern Archipelago 
Pilot, and the China Sea Directory, with additions and corrections 
from reconnoissances by United States and Philippine Islands Gov- 
ernment vessels and the mercantile marine. 

This volume covers the area formerly included in Sections V and 
VI-VII, Philippine Islands Sailing Directions, compiled by John 
Dow, nautical expert in the Manila field station of the United States 
Coast and Geodetic Survey, and it consists of a rearrangement and 
revision of the fourth edition of that publication, together with a 
large amount of new information gathered by the various field officers 
of the Survey. The present (first) edition has been prepared in the 
field station of the United States Coast and Geodetic Survey at 
Manila by B. J. Christman, acting chief of chart division, under the 
supervision of H. C. Denson, Director of Coast Surveys. The aids 
to navigation are corrected to December 31, 1920. Navigators are 
requested to notify the Director of Coast Surveys, Manila, P. I., of 
any errors or omissions they may find in this publication or of addi- 
tional matter which they think should be inserted for the information 
of mariners. 

E. Lester Jones, 

Director. 



NOTE. 



The true courses and bearings are given in degrees, reading clock- 
wise from 0° at north to 360°, and are followed by the equivalent 
magnetic value from 0° at magnetic north to 360°, in pathentheses. 

Bearings relating to the visibility of lights are given from sea- 
ward. 

Heights for lights are given in feet above high water; for other 
features, above mean sea level. 

Distances are in nautical miles, unless otherwise stated, and may be 
converted approximately to statute miles by adding 15 per cent to the 
distances given. • 

Depths are referred to the mean of lower low waters. 

Currents are expressed in knots, which are nautical miles per hour, 
and are referred to by the direction toward which they set. 

Winds are referred to by the direction from which they blow. 

All charts referred to are published by the United States Coast and 
Geodetic Survey. 

The aids to navigation described in this volume are corrected to 
December 31, 1920. 

Notices to Mariners affecting the Charts and Sailing Directions of 
the Philippine Islands are published quarterly, and may be obtained 
free of charge on application to the Director of Coast Surveys, 
Manila, P. I. 



Missing Page 



PHILIPPINE COAST PILOT. 



PART IL— PALAWAN, MINDANAO, AND SULU ARCHIPELAGO. 

NAVIGATIONAL AIDS AND THE USE OF CHARTS. 

The Coast and Geodetic Survey is charged with the survey of the 
coasts, harbors, and tidal estuaries of the United States and its 
insular possessions, and issues the following publications relating to 
these waters as guides to navigation: Charts, Coast Pilots, Tide 
Tables, a catalogue of these publications, and Notices to Mariners, 
the last named published weekly by the Bureau of Lighthouses and 
the Coast and Geodetic Survey. 

Charts bear three dates, which should be understood by persons 
using them: (1) The date (month and year) of the edition, printed 
on the late charts below the border in a central position and on the 
older ones on the face of the chart ; (2) the date of the latest correc- 
tion to the chart plate, printed in the lower left-hand corner below 
the border; (3) the date of issue, stamped below the border and just 
to the left of the subtitle. 

Charts show all necessary corrections as to lights, beacons, buoys, 
and dangers, which have been received to the date of issue, being 
hand corrected since the latest date printed in the lower left-hand 
•corner. All small but important corrections occurring subsequent 
to the date of issue of the chart are published in Notice to Mariners, 
and should be applied by hand to the chart immediately after the 
receipt of the notices. 

The date of the edition of the chart remains unchanged until an 
extensive correction is made on the plate from which the chart is 
printed. The date is then changed and the issue is known as a new 
■edition. 

When a correction not of sufficient importance to require a new 
•edition is made to a chart plate, the year, month, and day are noted 
in the lower left-hand corner. 

All the notes on a chart should be read carefully, as in some cases 
they relate to the aids to navigation or to dangers that can not be 
clearly charted. 

The charts are various in character, according to the objects to 
which they are designed to subserve. The most important distinc- 
tions are the following: 

1. Sailing charts, mostly on a scale of approximately ii0 \ 0Qf „ 
which exhibit the approaches to a large extent of coast, give the off- 
shore surroundings, and enable the navigator to identify his position 
as he approaches from the open sea. 

2. General charts of the coast, on scales of 400*000 an d , aoo :t ooo > in- 
tended especially for coastwise navigation. 

1 



* NAVIGATIONAL AIDS. 

3. Coast charts, on a scale of eo & 00 , by means of which the navi- 
gator is enabled to avail himself of the channels for entering the 
larger bays and harbors. 

4. Harbor charts, on larger scales, intended to meet the needs of 
local navigation. 

Note. — General charts of the Philippine Islands are on scales 
■i6 0oo oo> sotfooo ? and 4 00*000 ; coast charts are on scales 100*000 and 
2 0*0 o o ■ 

Coast Pilots, relating to surveyed waters of the United States, 
Porto Rico, Alaska, and the Philippine Islands, contain all nautical 
descriptions of the coast, harbors, dangers, and directions for coast- 
ing and entering harbors. Similar information relating to Hawaii 
is published in Coast Pilot Notes. 

Coast Pilots are corrected for important information received to 
the date of issue, which is stamped on the correction sheets accom- 
panying the volume. From time to time, as the material accumu- 
lates, supplements are issued, containing the more important correc- 
tions since the publication of the volume. The supplements are 
printed on one side of the paper only, so that they maye be cut and 
pasted in the appropriate places in the volume. Supplements and 
other corrections for any volume can be furnished, free of charge, 
on application to the Coast and Geodetic Survey, Washington, D. C., 
provided the volume itself has not been superseded by a subsequent 
edition. 

Tide Tables. — The Coast and Geodetic Survey Tide Tables are 
issued annually in advance of the year for which they are made and 
contain the predicted time and height of the tides for each day in 
the year at the principal ports of the world, including the United 
States and its possessions. A table of tidal differences is given by 
means of which the tides at more than 3,000 intermediate ports may 
be obtained. Separate reprints from the general Tide Tables are 
issued for the -Atlantic and Pacific coasts of the United States and 
its dependencies. 

Agencies for the sale of the Charts, Coast Pilots, and Tide Tables 
of the Coast and Geodetic Survey are established in many ports of 
the United States and in some foreign ports. They can also be pur- 
chased in the office of the Coast and Geodetic Survey, Washington, 
D. C, or any of the field stations. If ordered by mail, prepayment is 
obligatory. Remittances should be made by postal money order or 
express order, payable to the " Coast and Geodetic Survey." Postage 
stamps, checks, and drafts can not be accepted. The sending of money 
in an unregistered letter is unsafe. Only catalogue numbers of 
charts need be mentioned. The catalogue of charts and other publi- 
cations of the survey can be obtained free of charge on application 
at any of the sale agencies or to the Coast and Geodetic Survey Office, 
Washington, D. C. 

Other Publications. — A list of lights, buoys, beacons, and day- 
marks of the Philippine Island and Notices to Mariners, showing 
changes and additions to the same, are published by the Bureau of 
Commerce and Industry and may be obtained free of charge on ap- 
plication to the Director, Bureau of Commerce and Industry, Manila, 
P. I. Notice to Mariners, relating to Philippine waters, is published 
quarterly by the Coast and Geodetic Survey and may be obtained 



NAVIGATIONAL AIDS. 



free of charge on application to the Director of Coast Surveys, 
Manila, P. I. 



USE OF CHARTS. 



Accuracy of Chart. — The value of a chart depends upon the char- 
acter and accuracy of the survey on which it is based, and the larger 
the scale of the chart the more important do these become. In these 
respects the source from which the information has been compiled is 
a good guide. 

This applies particularly to the charts of the Alaska Peninsula, 
Aleutian Islands, Arctic Ocean, and parts of Bering Sea and the 
Philippine Islands. The early Russian and Spanish surveys were 
not made with great accuracy, and until they are replaced by later 
surveys these charts must be used with caution. 

With respect to these regions the fullness or scantiness of the 
soundings is another method of estimating the completeness of a 
chart. When the soundings are sparse or unevenly distributed, it 
may be taken for granted that the survey was not in great detail. 

A wide berth should therefore be given to every rocky shore or 
patch, and this rule should invariably be followed, viz, that instead 
of considering a coast to be clear unless it is shown to be foul, the 
contrary should be assumed. 

With respect to a well-surveyed coast only a fractional part of the 
soundings obtained are shown on the chart, a sufficient number being 
selected to clearly indicate the contour of the bottom. When the bot- 
tom is uneven, the soundings will be found grouped closely together, 
and when the slopes are gradual fewer soundings are given. Each 
sounding represents an actual measure of depth and location at the 
time the survey was made. 

Shores and shoals where sand and mud prevail, and especially bar 
harbors and the entrances of bays and rivers exposed to strong tidal 
currents and a heavy sea, are subject to continual change of a greater 
or less extent, and important ones may have taken place since the 
date of the last survey. In localities which are noted for frequent 
and radical changes, such as the entrance to a number of estuaries 
on the Atlantic, Gulf, and Pacific coasts, notes are printed on the 
charts calling attention to the fact. 

It should also be remembered that in coral regions and where 
rocks abound it is always possible that a survey with lead and line, 
however detailed, may have failed to find every small obstruction. 
For these reasons when navigating such waters the customary sailing 
lines and channels should be followed and those areas avoided where 
the irregular and sudden changes in depth indicate conditions which 
are associated with pinnacle rocks or coral heads. 

Dredged Channels. — These are generally shown on the chart by 
two broken lines to represent the side limits of the improvement. 
Before completion of the project the depth given is that shown by 
the latest survey received from the engineer in charge. After com- 
pletion the depth given is the one proposed to be maintained by re- 
dredging when necessary. 

The actual depth of a completed channel may be greater that) the 
charted depth shortly after dredging, and less when shoaling occurs 



4 NAVIGATIONAL AIDS. 

as a result of storms or other causes. These changes are of too fre- 
quent occurrence and uncertain duration to chart. Therefore when 
a vessel's draft approximates the charted depth of a dredged channel, 
the latest information should be obtained before entering. 

Danger Curves. — The curves of depth will be found useful in 
giving greater prominence to outlying dangers. It is a good plan 
to trace out with a colored pencil the curve next greater than the 
draft of the vessel using the chart and regard this as a " danger 
curve," which is not to be crossed without precaution. 

Isolated soundings shoaler than surrounding depths should be 
avoided, as there is always the possibility that the shoalest spot 
may not have been found. 

Caution in Using Small- Scale Charts. — It is obvious that dan- 
gers to navigation can not be shown with the same amount of detail 
on small scale as on those of larger scale ; therefore, in approaching 
the land or dangerous banks regard should be had to the scale of 
the chart used. A small error in laying down a position means only 
yards on a large-scale chart, whereas on a small scale the same 
amount of displacement means large fractions of a mile. 

For the same reason, bearings to near objects should be used in 
preference to objects farther off, although the latter may be more 
prominent, as a small error in bearing or in laying it down on the 
chart has a greater effect in misplacing the position the longer the 
line to be drawn. 

Distortion op Printed Charts. — The paper on which charts are 
printed has to be dampened. On drying, distortion takes place from 
the inequalities of the paper, which varies with the paper and the 
amount of the original dampening; but it is not sufficient to affect 
ordinary navigation. It must not, however, be expected that ac- 
curate series of angles taken to different points will always exactly 
agree when carefully plotted upon the chart, especially if the lines 
to objects be long. The larger the chart the greater the amount of 
this distortion. 

Buoys. — Too much reliance should not be placed on buoys always 
maintaining their exact position, especially when in exposed posi- 
tions; it is safer, when possible, to navigate by bearings or angles 
to fixed objects on shore and by the use of soundings. 

Gas buoys and other unwatched lights can not be implicitly relied 
on ; the light may be altogether extinguished, or, if intermittent, the 
apparatus may get out of order. 

Lights. — The distances given in the Light Lists and on the charts 
for the visibility of lights are computed for a height of 15 feet for 
the observer's eye. The table of distances of visability due to height, 
published in the Light List, affords a means of ascertaining the effect 
of a greater or less height of the eye. The glare of a powerful light 
is often seen far beyond the limit of visibility of the actual rays of 
the light, but this must not be confounded with the true range. 
Again, refraction may often cause a light to be seen farther than 
under ordinary circumstances. 

When looking for a light, the fact may be forgotten that from 
aloft the range of vision is increased. By noting a star immediately 
over the light a bearing may be afterwards obtained from the stand- 
ard compass. 



NAVIGATIONAL AIDS. 5 

The actual power of a light should be considered when expecting 
to make it in thick weather. A weak light is easily obscured by 
haze, and no dependance can be placed on its being seen. 

The power of a light can be estimated by its candlepower as given 
in the Light Lists and in some cases by noting how much its visibility 
in clear weather falls short of the range due to the height at which 
it is placed. Thus a light standing 200 feet above the sea and re- 
corded as visible only 10 miles in clear weather is manifestly of 
little brilliancy, as its height would permit it to be seen over 20 
miles if of sufficient power. 

Fog Signals. — Sound is conveyed in a very capricious way through 
the atmosphere. Apart from the wind, large areas of silence have 
been found in different directions and at different distances from the 
origin of the sound signal, even in clear weather. Therefore, too 
much confidence should not be felt as to hearing a fog signal. The 
apparatus, moreover, for sounding the signal may require some time 
before it is in readiness to act. A fog often creeps imperceptibly 
toward the land and is not observed by those at a lighthouse until 
it is upon them, whereas a vessel may have been in it for many hours 
while approaching the land. In such a case no signal may be 
sounded. When sound travels against the wind it may be thrown 
upward; in such a case a man aloft might hear it when it is inau- 
dible on deck. The conditions for hearing a signal will vary at the 
same station within short intervals of time ; mariners must not, there- 
fore, judge their distance from a fog signal by the force of the sound 
and must not assume that a signal is not sounding because they do 
not hear it. 

Taken together, these facts should induce the utmost caution when 
nearing the land or danger in fog. The lead is generally the only 
safe guide and should be faithfully used. 

Submarine Bells have an effective range of audibility greater 
than signal sounded in air, and a vessel equipped with receiving 
apparatus can determine the approximate bearing of the signal. 
These signals can be heard also on vessels not equipped with the 
receiving apparatus by observers below the water line, but a bearing 
of the signal can not then be readily determined. 

Tides. — A knowledge of the tide, or vertical rise and fall of the 
water, is of great and direct importance whenever the depth at low 
water approximates to or is less than the draft of the vessel and 
wherever docks are constructed so as to be entered and left near the 
time of high water. But under all conditions such knowledge may 
be of indirect use, as it often enables the mariner to estimate in ad- 
vance whether at a given time and place the current will be running 
flood or ebb. In using the tables slack water should not be con- 
founded with high or low tide nor a flood or ebb current with flood 
or ebb tide. In some localities the rise or fall may be at a stand 
while the current is at its maximum velocity. 

The Tide Tables published by the Coast and Geodetic Survey give 
the predicted times and heights of high and low waters for most of 
the principal ports of the world and tidal differences and constants 
for obtaining the tides at all important ports. 

Plane or Reference for Soundings on Charts. — For the Atlantic 
coast of the United States and Porto Rico the plane of reference 
for soundings is the mean of all low waters ; for the Pacific coast of 



D NAVIGATIONAL, AIDS. 

the United States and Alaska, with the exception noted below, and 
for the Hawaiian and Philippine Islands, it is the mean of the lower 
low waters. For Wrangell Strait, Alaska, it is 3 feet below mean 
lower low water. 

For the Atlantic coast of the Canal Zone, Panama, the plane of ref- 
erence for soundings is mean low water, and for the Pacific coast 
of the same it is low-water springs. 

For foreign charts many different planes of reference are in use, 
but that most frequently adopted is low-water springs. 

It should be remembered that whatever plane of reference is used 
for a chart there may be times when the tide_ falls below it. When 
the plane is mean low water or mean lower low water there will 
generally be as many low waters or lower low waters below those 
planes as above them. Also the wind may at times cause the water 
to fall below the plane of reference. 

Tidal Currents. — In navigating coasts where the tidal range is 
considerable, special caution is necessary. It should be remembered 
that there are indrafts into all bays and bights, although the general 
set of the current is parallel to the shore. 

The turn of the tidal current offshore is seldom coincident with the 
time of high and low water on the shore. 

At the entrance to most harbors without important tributaries or 
branches the current turns at or soon after the times of high and 
low water within. The diurnal inequality in the velocity of current 
will be proportionately but half as great as in the height of the tides. 
Hence, though the heights of the tide may be such as to cause the 
surface of the water to vary but little in level for 10 or 12 hours, the 
ebb and flow will be much more regular in occurrence. 

A swift current often occurs in narrow openings between two bodies 
of water, because the water at a given instant may be at different 
levels. 

Along most shores not seriously affected by bays, tidal rivers, etc., 
the current usually turns soon after high and low waters. 

Where there is a large tidal basin with a narrow entrance, the 
strength of the current in the entrance may occur near the time of 
high and low water, and slack water at about half tide outside. 

The swiftest current in straight portions of tidal rivers is usually 
in the mid-channel, but in curved portions the strongest current is 
toward the outer edge of the curve. 

Countercurrents and eddies may occur near the shore of straits, 
especially in bights and near points. 

Tide Rips and Swirls occur in places where strong currents occur, 
caused by a change in the direction of the current, and especially over 
shoals or in places wherathe bottom is uneven. Such places should 
be avoided if exposed also to a heavy sea, especially with the wind 
opposing the current; when these conditions are at their worst the 
water is broken into heavy, choppy seas from all directions, which 
board the vessel, and also make it difficult to keep control owing to 
the baring of the propeller and the rudder. 

Current Arrows on charts show only the usual or mean direction 
of a tidal stream or current. It must not be assumed that the direc- 
tion of the current will not vary from that indicated by the arrow. 
In the same manner the velocity of the current constantly varies 



NAVIGATIONAL AIDS. 7 

with circumstances, and the rate given on the chart is a mean value, 
corresponding to an average range of tide. At some stations but 
few observations have been made. 

Fixing Position. — The most accurate method available to the navi- 
gator of fixing a position relative to the shore is by plotting with a 
protractor, sextant angles between well-defined objects on the chart. 
This method, based on the " three-point problem " of geometry, should 
be in general use. 

In many narrow waters, also where the objects may yet be at some 
distance, as in coral harbors or narrow passages among mud banks, 
navigation by sextant and protractor is invaluable, as a true position 
can in general be obtained only by its means. Positions by bearings 
are too rough to depend upon, and a small error in either taking or 
plotting a bearing might under such circumstances put the ship 
ashore. 

For its successful employment it is necessary, first, that the objects 
be well chosen, and, second, that the observer be skillful and rapid 
in his use of the sextant. The latter is only a matter of practice. 

Near objects should be used either for bearings or angles for posi- 
tion in preference to distant ones, although the latter may be more 
prominent, as a small error in the bearing or angle or in laying it on 
the chart has a greater effect in misplacing the position the longer 
the line to be drawn. On the other hand, distant objects should be 
used for direction because less affected by a small error or change of 
position. 

The three-arm protractor consists of a graduated circle with one 
fixed and two movable radial arms. The zero of the graduation is 
at the fixed arm, and by turning the movable arms each one can be 
set at any desired angle with reference to the fixed arm. 

Ta plot a position, the two angles observed between the three 
selected objects are set on the instrument, which is then moved over 
the chart until the three beveled edges in case of a metal instrument, 
or the radial lines in the case of a transparent or celluloid instru- 
ment, pass respectively and simultaneously through the three objects. 
The center of the instrument will then mark the ship's position, which 
may be pricked on the chart or marked with a pencil point through 
the center hole. 

The tracing-paper protractor, consisting of a graduated circle 
printed on tracing paper, can be used as a substitute for the brass 
or celluloid instrument. The paper protractor also permits the laying 
down for simultaneous trial of a number of angles in cases of fixing 
important positions. Plain tracing paper may also be used if there 
are any suitable means of laying off the angles. 

The value of a determination depends greatly on the relative posi- 
tions of the objects observed. If the position sought lies on the circle 
passing through the three objects, it will be indeterminate, as it 
will plot all around the circle. An approach to this condition, 
which is called a revolver, must be avoided. In case of doubt, select 
from the chart three objects nearly in a straight line or with the 
middle object nearest the observer. Near objects are better than 
distant ones, and, in general, up to 90° the larger the angles the 
better, remembering always that large as well as small angles may 
plot on or near the circle and hence be worthless. If the objects 



8 NAVIGATIONAL, AIDS. 

are well situated, even very small angles will give for navigating 
purposes a fair position when that obtained by bearings of the same 
objects would be of little value. 

Accuracy requires that the two angles be simultaneous. If under 
way and there is but one observer, the angle that changes less rapidly 
may be observed both before and after the other angle and the proper 
value obtained by interpolation. 

A single angle and a range give, in general, an excellent fix, easily 
obtained and plotted. 

The Compass. — It is not intended that the use of the compass to 
fix the position should be given up; there are many circumstances 
in which it may be usefully employed, but errors more readily creep 
into a position so fixed. Where accuracy of position is desired angles 
should invariably be used, such as the fixing of a rock or shoal or 
of additions to a chart, as fresh soundings or new buildings. In 
such cases angles should be taken to several objects, the more the 
better; but five objects is a good number, as the four angles thus 
obtained prevent any errors. 

When only two objects are visible a sextant angle can be used to 
advantage with the compass bearings and a better fix obtained than 
by two bearings alone. 

Doubling the Angle on the Bow. — The method of fixing by 
doubling the angle on the bow is invaluable. The ordinary form of 
it, the so-called "bow and beam bearing," the distance from the 
object at the latter position being the distance run between the times 
of taking the two bearings, gives the maximum of accuracy and is an 
excellent fix for a departure, but does not insure safety, as the 
object observed and any dangers off it are abeam before the position 
is obtained. 

By taking the bearings at two points and four points on the bow 
a fair position is obtained before the object is passed, the distance 
of the latter at the second position being, as before, equal to the dis- 
tance run in the interval, allowing for current. Taking afterwards 
the beam bearing gives, with slight additional trouble, the distance 
of the object when abeam; such beam bearings and distances, with 
the times, should be continuously recorded as fresh departures, the 
importance of which will be appreciated in cases of being suddenly 
shut in by fog. 

A graphic solution of the problem for any two bearings of the 
same object is frequently used. The two bearings are drawn on the 
chart, and the course is then drawn by means of the parallel rulers, 
so that the distance measured from the chart between the lines is 
equal to the distance made good by the vessel between the times of 
taking the bearings. 

Dangee Angle. — The utility of the danger angle in passing out- 
lying rocks or dangers should not be forgotten. In employing the 
horizontal danger angle, however, charts compiled from early Russian 
and Spanish sources, referred to in a preceding paragraph, should 
not be used. 

Soundings. — In thick weather, whe>i near or approaching the land 
or danger, soundings should be taken continuously and at regular 
intervals, and, with the character of the bottom, systematically re- 
corded. By marking the soundings on tracing paper, according to 



NAVIGATIONAL AIDS. 9 

the scale of the chart, along a line representing the track of the 
ship, and then moving the paper over the chart parallel with the 
course until the observed soundings agree with those of the chart, 
the ship's position will in general be quite well determined. 

Sumner's Method. — Among astronomical methods of fixing a 
ship's position the great utility of Sumner's method should be well 
understood, and this method should be in constant use. The Sumner 
line— -that is, the line drawn through the two positions obtained by 
working the chronometer observation for longitude with two as- 
sumed latitudes, or by drawing through the position obtained with 
one latitude a line at right angles to the bearing of the body as 
obtained from the azimuth tables — gives at times invaluable informa- 
tion, as the ship must be somewhere on that line, provided the chro- 
nometer is correct. If directed toward the coast, it marks the bearing 
of a definite point ; if parallel with the coast, the distance of the lat- 
ter is shown. Thus the direction of the line may often be usefully 
taken as a course. A sounding at the same time with the observation 
may often give an approximate position on the line. A very accu- 
rate position can be obtained by observing two or more stars at morn- 
ing or evening twilight, at which time the horizon is well defined. 
The Sumner lines thus obtained will, if the bearings of the stars differ 
three points or more, give an excellent result. A star or planet at 
twilight and the sun afterwards or before may be combined; also 
two observations of the sun, with sufficient interval to admit of a con- 
siderable change of bearing. In these cases one of the lines must be 
moved for the run of the ship. The moon is often visible during 
the day and in combination with the sun gives an excellent fix. 

Radio Compass positions are especially valuable at night and 
during fog or thick weather when other observations are not obtain- 
able. For practical navigating purposes radio vibrations may be 
regarded as traveling in a straight line from the sending station to 
the receiving station. Instruments for determining the bearing of 
this line are now available. The necessary observations may be 
divided into two general classes: First, where the bearing of the 
ship's radio call is determined by one, two, or more radio stations on 
shore and the resulting position or bearing is reported to the vessel ; 
secondly, where the bearings of two or more known shore radio sta- 
tions are determined on the vessel itself and- plotted as cross bearings. 
Experiments show that these bearings can be determined with a prob- 
able error of less than 2° and the accuracy of the resulting position is 
largely dependent on the skill and care of the observer. It must be 
remembered, however, that these lines are parts of great circles and 
if plotted as straight lines on a Mercator chart a considerable error 
may result when the ship and shore station are a long distance apart. 
The bearings may be corrected for this distortion, or still greater 
accuracy may be obtained by plotting the observed bearings on a 
special chart on the gnomonic projection and the resulting position 
transferred to the sailing chart. 

Radio bearings may be combined with position lines obtained from 
astronomical observations and used in ways very similar to the well- 
known Sumner Line when avoiding dangerous shoals or when making 
the coast. 

Change or Variation or the Compass. — The gradual change in 
the variation must not be forgotten in laying down positions by bear- 



10 NAVIGATIONAL AIDS. 

ings on charts. The magnetic compasses placed on the charts for the 
purpose of facilitating plotting become in time slightly in error, 
and in some cases, such as with small scales or when the lines are long, 
the displacement of position from neglect of this change may be of 
importance. The compasses are reengraved for every new edition 
if the error is appreciable. Means for determining the amount of 
this error are provided by printing the date of constructing the com- 
pass and the annual change in variation near its edge. 

The change in the magnetic variation in passing along some parts 
of the coast of the United States is so rapid as to materially affect 
the course of a vessel unless given constant attention. This is par- 
ticularly the case in New England and parts of Alaska, where the 
lines of equal magnetic variation are close together and show rapid 
changes in magnetic variation from place to place, as indicated by 
the large differences in variation given on neighboring compass roses. 

Local Magnetic Disturbance. — The term "local magnetic dis- 
turbance " or " local attraction " has reference only to the effects on 
the compass of magnetic masses external to the ship. Observation 
shows that such disturbance of the compass in a ship afloat is ex- 
perienced only in a few places. 

Magnetic laws do not permit of the supposition that it is the visible 
land which causes such disturbance, because the effect of a magnetic 
force diminishes in such rapid proportion as the distance from it in- 
creases that it would require a local center of magnetic force of an 
amount absolutely unknown to affect a compass half a mile distant. 

Such deflections of the compass are due to magnetic minerals in 
the bed of the sea under the ship, and when the water is shallow and 
the force strong the compass may be temporarily deflected when 
passing over such a spot, but the area of disturbance will be small, 
unless there are many centers near together. 

The law which has hitherto been found to hold good as regards 
local magnetic disturbances is that north of the magnetic equator 
the north end of the compass needle is attracted toward any center 
of disturbance ; south of the magnetic equator it is repelled. 

It is very desirable that whenever an area of local magnetic dis- 
turbance is noted the position should be fixed and the facts reported 
as far as they can be ascertained. 

Use or Oil for Modifying the Effect of Breaking Waves. — 
Many experiences of late years have shown that the utility of oil for 
this purpose is undoubted and the application simple. 

The following may serve for the guidance of seamen, whose atten- 
tion is called to the fact that a very small quantity of oil skillfully 
applied may prevent much damage both to ships ( especially of the 
smaller classes) and to boats by modifying the action of breaking 
seas. 

The principal facts as to the use of oil are as follows : 

1. On free waves — i. e., waves in deep water — the effect is greatest. 

2. In a surf, or waves breaking on a bar, where a mass of liquid 
is in actual motion in shallow water, the effect of the oil is uncertain, 
as nothing can prevent the larger waves from breaking under such 
circumstances, but even here it is of some service. 

3. The heaviest and thickest oils are most effectual. Eefined kero- 
sene is Of little use ; crude petroleum is serviceable when nothing else 



NAVIGATIONAL AIDS. 11 

is obtainable; but all animal and vegetable oils, such as waste oil 
from the engines, have great effect. 

4. A small quantity of oil suffices, if applied in such a manner as 
to spread to windward. 

5. It is useful in a ship or boat, either when running or lying-to 
or in wearing. 

6. No experiences are related of its use when hoisting a boat at sea 
or in a seaway, but it is highly probable that much time would be 
saved and injury to the boat avoided by its use on such occasions.. 

7. In cold water the oil, being thickened by the lower temperature 
and not being able to spread freely, will have its effect much reduced. 
This will vary with the description of oil used. 

8. For a ship at sea the best method of application appears to be 
to hang over the side in such a manner as to be in the water small 
canvas bags, capable of holding from 1 to 2 gallons of oil, the bags 
being pricked with a sail needle to f acilitate leakage of the oil. The 
oil is also frequently distributed from canvas bags or oakum inserted 
in the closet bowls. 

The positions of these bags should vary with the circumstances. 
Running before the wind, they should be hung on either bow — e. g., 
from the cathead — and allowed to tow in the water. 

With the wind on the quarter the effect seems to be less than in any 
other position, as the oil goes astern while the waves come up on the 
quarter. 

Lying-to, the weather bow and another position farther aft seem 
the best places from which to hang the bags, using sufficient line to 
permit them to draw to windward while the ship drifts. 

9. Crossing a bar with a flood tide, to pour oil overboard and allow 
it to float in ahead of the boat, which would follow with a bag tow- 
ing astern, would appear to be the best plan. As before remarked, 
under these circumstances the effect can not be so much trusted. 

On a bar, with the ebb tide running, it would seem to be useless 
to try oil for the purpose of entering. 

10. For boarding a wreck, it is recommended to pour oil overboard 
to windward of her before going alongside. The effect in this case 
must greatly depend upon the set of the current and the circum- 
stances of the depth of water. 

11. For a boat riding in bad weather from a sea anchor, it is rec- 
ommended to fasten the bag to an endless line rove through a block 
on the sea anchor, by which means the oil can be diffused well ahead 
of the boat and the bag readily hauled on board for refilling if nec- 
essary. 

USE OF SOUNDING TUBES. 

Although of undoubted value as a navigational instrument, the 
sounding tube is subject to certain defects which, operating singly or 
in combinations, may give results so misleading as to seriously en- 
danger the vessels whose safety is entirely dependent upon an 
accurate knowledge of the depths. 

Efforts have been made from time to time by the Coast and Cxeo- 
detic Survey to utilize tubes for surveying operations. The results 
obtained, however, have been so unsatisfactory that the general use 
of such tubes for surveying work has been discouraged. 
33452°— 21 2 



12 NAVIGATIONAL AIDS. 

In practical tests, carefully made by surveying parties, where 
up-and-down casts of the lead were taken with tubes attached to the 
lead, errors in the tube amounting at times to as much as 25 per cent 
of the actual depths have been noted. Errors of 10 to 12 per cent 
of the actual depth were quite common. 

It is also worthy of note that in the great majority of cases the 
tubes gave depths greater than the true depths, which, in actual use 
in coastwise navigation, would usually have resulted in the conclu- 
sion that the ship was farther offshore than was really the case. 

There are various types of tubes in common use which are too 
well known to require detailed description here. They are all based 
on the general principle that air is elastic and can be compressed, 
and that if a column of air in a tube be lowered into the water in 
such a way that the air can not escape, yet at the same time the pres- 
sure of the water can be transmitted to it, the amount by which the 
air is compressed furnished a measure of the depth to which it was 
lowered. 

Theoretically this principle is sound, but when we come to apply 
the theory to actual practice certain elements enter which result in 
errors in the depth determination. It is important to note that the 
amount of these errors depends on the depth; the greater the depth 
the greater the numerical value of the error. 

The causes which produce these errors are as follows : 

1. In order to give correct results the bore of the tube must be 
exactly cylindrical ; in other words, the volume of air in any one inch 
of length of the tube must be exactly the same as in an inch in any 
other part. But because of the way in which glass tubes are made, it 
is very difficult to accomplish this. The bore may taper slightly or 
vary in other ways from a true cylinder. If tapering, the minimum 
diameter of bore may be at the top, middle, or bottom of the tube as 
submerged. If the minimum diameter be at the top, the tube will 
register depths less than the actual depths of water; and if at the 
bottom, the registered depth will be greater than the true depth. 

This defect may be detected in a suspected tube by introducing a 
small quantity of mercury into the tube and comparing its length 
at different points along the bore. For satisfactory results, the 
length of this column should not vary more than 5 per cent. 

2. In order that even a perfect tube should give accurate results 
the conditions of barometric pressure and air and water temperatures 
under which the sounding is being taken must be the same as those 
under which the scale for reading the depths was made. 

In making the scale a barometric pressure of 29 inches is usually 
assumed as normal. 

Then if in actual use the barometer registers above normal, the 
air in the tube is already partly compressed, and when lowered to any 
given depth the amount of compression due to water pressure is cor- 
respondingly diminished. With a barometer below normal the re- 
verse is true, and it therefore follows that when the barometer reads 
above normal the tubes will register less than the true depths, whereas 
if the barometer reads below normal the registered depths will be 
greater than the true. The amount of error introduced from this 
cause is about 3 per cent of the depth for each inch of barometric 
pressure above or below normal. 



NAVIGATIONAL AIDS. 13 

The density of the air in the tube also depends directly upon its 
temperature. Therefore the difference between the temperature of 
the air in the tube before and after submergence will affect the 
accuracy of the sounding. Where the temperature of the tube in the 
air is greater than that of the tube in the water the depth recorded 
will be greater than the actual depth, and, conversely, when the tem- 
perature of the air is lower than that of the water the depth recorded 
will be less than the true depth. Also, the temperature of the water 
may vary at different depths, so that the actual amount of this error 
depends on the difference between the temperatures of the tube in 
the air and at the bottom. 

The amount of error introduced from this cause is about 1 per cent 
of the depth for each three degrees Fahrenheit difference in tempera- 
ture. 

3. While the tubes are usually 24 inches long, and the scales are 
designed for that length of tube, the manner of closing the upper end 
of the tube may introduce an error. The thickness of the caps used 
for this purpose varies considerably in different makes of tubes, even 
when such caps are made of the same material. This variation in 
thickness results in moving the tube slightly up or down in the scale. 
Thus, with a thin cap the sounding read from the scale will be too 
deep ; with a thick cap, the sounding read will be less than the true 
depth. 

Copper caps put on with sealing wax have been found to vary 
sufficiently to produce errors of about 5 per cent of the depth in 
depths of 50 to 70 fathoms. Rubber caps seem to be more nearly uni- 
form and to give better results when new. Rubbgr, however de- 
teriorates, and when used too long there is apt to be leakage of air. 

When removable caps are used care should be taken to see that they 
are pushed home thoroughly before sounding. 

4. The integrity of the air in the tube should be carefully pre- 
served. Even a slight leakage of air will result in showing a sound- 
ing considerably in excess of the true depth. 

Vessels sometimes approach dangers coming from depths of over 
100 fathoms. As they approach they begin feeling for the bottom, 
sounding at infrequent intervals to pick up depths of 75 to 100 
fathoms. So long as they get no bottom in such depths navigators 
feel secure. But a leaky tube may show no bottom at 100 fathoms 
when the ship is actually in much less depths, possibly resulting in 
disaster before the error is discovered. 

Special precautions should, therefore, be taken on this point. Cop- 
per caps should be sealed in place with sealing wax, and rubber caps 
should be supplied with wire clamps, giving a tight fit. 

5. Accumulated salt on the inner surface of the tube will cause the 
watermark to creep up and register greater than true depths. 

The type of tube exemplified by the well-known Bassnett sounder 
is based on the same principle as the ordinary glass tube, but is more 
complicated in design. It consists essentially of a metal case con- 
taining a glass tube closed at the upper end. Inside the glass tube is 
a metal tube, through which the water enters and is trapped by a 
valve at the top of the metal tube. 

In this device the scale is graduated directly on the glass tube, 
thus eliminating those errors due to thickness of cap; but, on the 



14 NAVIGATIONAL AIDS. 

other hand, the possibility of errors increases directly with the num- 
ber of working parts of which the sounder is made. 

In using sounders of this type care should be exercised to preserve 
perfectly gasketed joints between the bottom of the glass tube and 
the metal case and to keep the outlet valve well oiled and water- 
tight. 

Leaking valves and water remaining in the tube before a sounding 
is taken will give increased depths, while deficient depths may be 
recorded as a result of loss of water through suction at the inlet as 
the tube is being reeled in. 

The Bassnett type, in common with all other forms of pressure 
tube, is subject to the above-described errors due to variations in tem- 
perature and barometric pressure. 

It will be noted that wherever the amount of the various errors can 
be stated they are all small. Their importance lies in the fact that 
. two or more of them, acting together, may result in considerable 
errors. As already stated, actual experiments show that errors of 
10 to 12 per cent are not uncommon and that considerably greater 
errors may occur. 

There are certain precautions which can be taken to eliminate or 
reduce these errors: 

1. In purchasing tubes a type should be selected which can be 
used until broken or lost. The navigator can then make a study of 
the results obtained from each individual tube, and thus gain a fair 
idea of its accuracy under known conditions. This necessitates some 
permanent means of indentifying the various tubes used, which may 
readily be accomplished in the case of the glass tubes by means of 
various colored paints or threads. 

2. Before undertaking the sounding necessary to make any par- 
ticular landfall, the vessel should be stopped for an up-and-down 
cast of the lead in order to test the accuracy under the prevailing con- 
ditions of the tubes which are to be used. For this purpose it is not 
necessary to get bottom ; simply run out 60 to 80 fathoms of wire and 
then see how closely the tubes register that amount. A number- of 
tubes can be sent down at one time, and it is then possible to select 
one or two which register most nearly correct. 

It is well to keep a permanent record of the results of each tube 
tested. By so doing the navigator will soon obtain valuable informa- 
tion as to the performance of the various tubes and the degree to 
which they may be trusted. Such a record should, of course, take 
into account the various conditions affecting the result. 

It will be noted that the factors which produce errors may be 
divided roughly into three groups : 

(a) Inherent. — Those which occur as a result of permanent de- 
fects in the tube, such as the variation of the bore from a true cylin- 
der, variation in the thickness of the cap, etc. 

(b) External. — Those which occur as a result of the conditions 
under which the sounding was taken, variations of temperature or 
barometric pressure from the normal, etc. 

(c) Accidental. — Those which affect a single sounding, due to the 
failure of the tube to register properly, leakage of air, loss of water 
from leaky valves, errors due to the presence of salt in the tubes, 
etc. 



NAVIGATIONAL AIDS. 15 

These accidental errors are probably the most serious of the three 
types, both because they are apt to be larger in amount and because 
it is impossible to foresee when they will occur. But, on the other 
hand, they occur only as a result of a few known causes, already 
enumerated, and therefore by the exercise of proper caution in the 
use of the tubes they may be to a large extent eliminated. If the 
ordinary glass tube is used, see that the bore is thoroughly dry and 
free from salt and that the cap makes a tight fit. If using a sounder, 
see that the tube is free from water and that the valves are tight 
and well oiled. 

And, above all, during the course of the sounding take an occa- 
sional up-and-down cast as a check, for by that means alone can one 
be sure that the proper results are being obtained. 

The smallest possible number of tubes should be used. It is ob- 
viously much better to use, over and over again, one tube which is 
giving good results than to use a number whose errors are uncer- 
tain. This is particularly desirable where sounders involving valves 
are used. 

If a tube shows no bottom at 100 fathoms, examine the arming to 
make sure that the lead actually failed to find bottom. 

Finally, beware of overconfidence. Tubes which have been work- 
ing properly for a number of soundings suddenly develop errors. 
It is chiefly for this reason that they have been discarded for survey- 
ing operations. 

Assuming that the accidental errors can be reasonably controlled, 
the inherent and external errors present no serious difficulty. 

As already indicated, the bore of a tube (or at least of any tube 
which is capable of constant use) can be tested with mercury, and 
those tubes rejected which show variations in bore greater than 
about 5 per cent. 

Errors due to variations in the thickness of caps can be eliminated 
by using a scale graduated for a true length of 24 inches (the length 
of the glass tube) and removing the cap before the sounding is read. 

Errors due to differences between air and water temperatures 
can be reduced to a minimum, which can usually be neglected by im- 
mersing the tube before using in a bucket of sea water, newly 
drawn, so that its temperature has not had time to change. Care 
should, of course, be taken to see that no water enters the tube. 
When this is done there may still remain an error due to the differ- 
ence in temperature of the water at the surface and at the bottom. 
This may, if desired, be corrected by sending down a self -registering 
thermometer with the lead, but for the ordinary purposes of naviga- 
tion this is a refinement which may be ignored. 

There is no ready method available for correcting the error due 
to variations in the barometric pressure. The correction should be 
applied to the sounding recorded. 

It is interesting to note that sounding tubes which give good re- 
sults can readily be made from plain glass or metal tubes aboard 
ship — gauge glasses, for instance. One end of the tube is closed with 
a cork and sealing wax. A narrow strip of chart paper of uniform 
width, on which a line has been ruled with an indelible pencil, is 
inserted the entire length of the tube. The paper is held in place 
by bending the projecting lower end upward along the outside of 



16 NAVIGATIONAL AIDS. 

the tube and securing it with a rubber band. The height in which 
the water rises in the tube will be indicated by the blurring of the 
pencil line. 

If the air column in the tube is 24 inches long, the sounding may 
be read from any scale graduated for tubes of that length. If of a 
different length, a special scale must be prepared; its graduations, 
compared to those of the 24-inch scale, will be proportional to the 
comparative lengths of the two tubes. 

If certain precautions are taken, these tubes will give results 
which compare favorably with commercial tubes. The paper should 
be inserted uniformly in the tube, and its upper end, or a mark from 
which the measurement is taken, should coincide with the top of the 
air column. Metal tubes have the advantage of uniform bore, but 
if metal tubes are used the paper, in order to insure uniformity, 
should be fastened at the upper end when that end is being sealed 
and then stretched lightly at the bottom. The depth should always 
be read from the dry portion of the paper, as the wet portion is sub- 
ject to considerable change in length. 



GENERAL INFORMATION, PHILIPPINE ISLANDS. 

A general and historical description of the Philippine Islands is 
given in Part I of the Coast Pilot of the Philippine Islands. This 
group of islands comprises over 7,000 islands, of which 462 have 
areas exceeding 1 square mile. The largest is Luzon, with an area of 
40,814 square miles, with Mindanao next in size, having an area of 
36,904 square miles. The census of 1918 gives the population as 
10,350,640, of whom 855,368 are classed as non-Christians. These 
latter include the Moros and Igorotes, as well as the more backward 
hill people and wild tribes. 

The insular government is modeled on that of "the United States, 
with its executive, legislative, and judicial branches. The head of 
the executive branch is the Governor General, who is appointed by 
the President of the United States. The other officials appointed by 
the President are the vice governor, the insular auditor, deputy 
insular auditor, and the nine justices of the supreme court. The 
other executive and judicial officers are appointed by the Governor 
General with the advice and consent of the Senate of the Philippine 
Islands. The legislative branch is almost entirely elective. The 
islands are divided governmentally into 46 Provinces and 2 chartered 
cities (Manila and Baguio). The Provinces are divided into munici- 
palities, districts, and townships, which are further subdivided into 
barrios and sitios, the latter being an unorganized settlement- or 
small group of houses. 

The industry of the Philippine Islands is principally agricultural. 
The principal articles of export are hemp, coconut oil, sugar, tobacco 
products, and copra; also embroideries and some gold bullion and 
silver ore are exported. The total value of exports in 1918 was 
P270,388,964, the peso being equivalent to 50 cents United States 
currency. The total value of imports during the same year was 
§*197,198,423 and consisted of cotton and its manufactures, iron and 
steel and its manufactures, coal, rice, flour, automobiles, silk manu- 
factures, leather goods, meat and other food products, etc. About 
two-thirds of the total trade was with the United States. 

STORM WARNINGS. 

Typhoon signals (see Appendix, p. 344) are hoisted in accordance 
with advices from the central observatory of the Weather Bureau 
at Manila, and their meaning is the same wherever shown in the 
archipelago. The greater part of the area covered by this volume 
lies south of the typhoon belt, but is subject to sudden and severe 
tropical storms at times. The Manila observatory furnishes two 
regular daily weather reports to the Cavite naval radio station, and 
they are broadcasted for the information of mariners. During the 
progress of a typhoon special warnings are broadcasted, and inquiries 
from vessels are freely answered. 

17 



18 



PHILIPPINE ISLANDS. 



RADIO SERVICE. 

Time signals. — In cooperation with the Manila observatory, time 
signals are sent out from the Cavite naval radio station at 11 a. m. 
and 10 p. m. daily, including Sundays and holidays. The signals 
begin at 10.55 a. m. and 9.55 p. m., standard mean time of the one 
hundred and twentieth meridian east of Greenwich, and continue for 
five minutes, and during this interval every tick of the clock is trans- 
mitted except the twenty-eighth, twenty-ninth, fifty-fourth, fifty- 
fifth, fify-sixth, fifty-seventh, fifty-eighth, and fifty-ninth of each 
minute. The radio transmission is by a 5-kilowatt spark on a wave 
length of 952 meters, and by arc on a wave length of 5,000 meters. 
The daily weather reports immediately follow the time signals. 

In addition to the time service by radio, time signals are sent daily 
over the lines of the Postal Telegraph and Cable service at 11 a. m., 
and mariners can avail themselves of this service at the principal ports 
of the islands by applying at the local telegraph offices. 

The following is a list of governmental radio stations of the Philip- 
pine Islands. With the exception of the United States naval radio 
stations, they are open to general public service (commercial traffic). 
The insular government radio stations are under the control of the 
bureau of of Posts and are operated in connection with the land wire 
and cable service of that bureau. Information concerning regula- 
tions, rates, and commercial work of United States radio stations 
may be obtained by addressing the Director of Naval Communica- 
tion, Radio, Va. 



Location. 



Station. 



Latitude. 



Longitude. 



Call signal 



Wave length. 



United States naval radio stations: 

Cavite 

Olongapo 

United States Army radio station: 

Fort Mills, Corregidor Island . . 
Insular Government radio stations: 

San Jose, Mindoro 

Cuyo 

Iloilo '. 

Cebu 

Puerto Princesa 

Malabang 

Davao 

Zamboanga 

Jolo 

Margosatubig 

Isabelade Basilan 

Malar) gas 

Malita 

Batangas - 



14 28 55 N. 

14 49 02 

14 22 52 

12 27 30 
10 51 25 
10 40 00 
10 25 00 

9 44 00 

7 35 20 

7 04 00 

6 55 10 

6 02 40 

7 34 15 

6 40 00 

7 37 - 
6 24 - 

13 46 — 



120 55 00 E. 

120 16 59 

120 34 40 

121 03 00 

121 00 20 

122 35 

123 50 
118 42 

124 04 



125 
122 02 



121 
123 11 



00 
00 
40 
10 
20 
19 
00 00 



121 

123 01 

125 37 

121 04 



50 
50 50 



NPO 
NPT 

WVN 

WVY 

WVX 

KUVM 

KUXJ 

WW 

WVT 

WVO 

WVW 

WVS 

MG 

KHI 



600. 
600. 

300; 600; 1,800. 

600. 

600; 1,200. 
600; 1,200. 
600; 1,200. 
600; 1,200. 
600; 1,200. 
600; 1,200. 
600; 1,200. 
600; 1,200. 
600; 900. 
200. 



VARIATIONS OF THE COMPASS. 



The magnetic variations for 1920 at points mentioned are given 
below. The annual change may be neglected as it averages about 
1' for most places. 



GENERAL INFORMATION. 



19 



Locality. 



Coron Bay 

Cuyo 

Puerto Princesa 
Balabac Strait.. 
Jolo 



Compass 
varia- 
tion. 



Easterly. 



1 30 

1 50 

2 05 
2 15 
1 45 



Locality. 



Iligan 

Dapitan — 
Zamboanga 

Davao 

Mati 



varia- 
tion. 



Easterly. 



55 
55 
10 
10 
15 



TIDES AND CURRENTS. 

A general description of the tides and currents encountered in 
Philippine waters is given on page 31 of Part I, Coast Pilot, Philip- 
pine Islands, while the local peculiarities are mentioned in the body 
of this volume, with the description of the body of water affected. 

Tide Tables for western North America, Eastern Asia, and many 
island groups of the Pacific Ocean, including the Philippine Islands, 
are published annually in advance by the United States Coast and 
Geodetic Survey. This volume furnishes, at the nominal cost of 
10 cents, United States currency, full tidal data for the ports of 
the Philippine Islands. 

It contains a table of full daily predictions of the times and 
heights of high and low waters for certain standard or principal 
ports along the coast; full explanations for the use of this table 
are given on page 8. The use of Table 2 of the Tide Tables should 
be known to every navigator. By means of this table the predictions 
given for the standard ports are extended so as to enable one to 
obtain complete tidal data for each day for stations only a few miles 
apart for the greater part of the coast, and with almost the same accu- 
racy as though full predictions were given for all of these points. 

Instead of using the height differences of Table 2, however, a 
more accurate method is that of multiplying both high and low 
water heights at the standard port by the ratio of ranges for the 
given port to obtain the heights of the corresponding high and low 
waters. The ratio of ranges is given in Table 2 of the Tide Tables. 
The minus sign before the predicted heights in the Tide Tables indi- 
cates that the water is below the plane of reference, which is mean 
lower low water. > . . 

The time of high or low water at any given port in lable 2 is round 
by taking the time of the corresponding tide for that day from the 
standard port for reference and applying to it the time difference 
for the given port from the third column of Table 2, adding it if 
the sign is plus and subtracting if minus. , n iU 

Caution.— In using the Tide Tables slack water should not be 
confounded with high or low water. For ocean stations there is 
usuallv but little difference between the time of high or low water 
and the beginning of ebb or flood current ; but for places in narrow 
channels, landlocked harbors, or on tidal rivers the time of slack 
current may differ by two or three hours from the time ot high or 
low water stand, and local knowledge is required to enable one to 
make the proper allowance for this delay in the condition of tidal 
currents. 



20 PHILIPPINE ISLANDS. 

The figures given in Tables 1 and 2 of the Tide Tables are the 
times of high and low water, and these times are not necessarily the 
times of slack water. 

COASTWISE NAVIGATION. 

The navigation of coral seas demands constant vigilance. The 
lead gives little or no warning of the approach into danger, and 
the effect of uncertain and irregular currents is a constant source 
of danger on the longer courses. This is especially true of the 
Sulu Sea, where the shoals rise almost perpendicular from great 
depths and the currents vary not only with the seasons and the winds 
but from day to day. Aids to navigation are constantly being im- 
proved, but mariners are cautioned against relying too much on 
unwatched or automatic lights, as it has been found very difficult to 
keep them operating satisfactorily owing to the depredation of 
irresponsible natives. 

The surveys of the west coast of Palawan, the southern part of 
the Sulu Sea, and the Sulu Archipelago are not yet completed and 
should be navigated with caution. In the area covered by the surveys 
good, safe courses can readily be laid out on the charts, and there- 
fore no general routes are given here. 

The best harbors of refuge on the coast of Palawan and adjacent 
islands are the following : 

Coron, Halsey Harbor, Cuyo, Puerto Princesa, Port Ciego, Bala- 
bac, Ulugan Bay, and Malampaya Sound. 

On Mindanao and adjacent islands : Nasipit, Misamis, Port Masin- 
loc, Port Isabela, Port Banga, Port Sibulan, Dumanquilas Bay, 
Polloc Harbor, Port Lebac, Malalag Bay, Port Balete, Catarman 
Anchorage, Port Sibongo. 

In Sulu Archipelago : Dalrymple Harbor and Port Bongao. 

A description of these harbors and the directions for entering them 
are given in the detailed description of the coast, which includes 
landmarks, dangers, etc. 



PALAWAN. 

ISLANDS NORTHEAST OF PALAWAN. 

CALAMIANES GROUP. 

The Calamianes are a group of islands, including Busuanga, Coron, 
Culion, and a great number of smaller islands, situated southwestward 
from Mindoro, from which they are separated by Mindoro Strait. 
All the larger islands are, generally speaking, irregular in shape, 
hilly, and broken. The tops of the higher hills are covered with 
cogon, the lower slopes and valleys being wooded. The forests pro- 
duce good lumber for building or cabinet work. Cultivation is not 
practiced to any great extent, timber andjsome cattle being the prin- 
cipal products exported. 

Busuanga Island, the largest of the group, is about 34 miles long 
east and west and 18 miles wide at the widest part. It is very irregu- 
lar in form with several large bays. Mount Tundalara, in the southern 
part, rising to a height of 2,140 feet, is the highest point of the island. 
This peak is frequently covered by clouds, but when visible forms a 
very good landmark. 

From Macachin Point, the north point of the island, the coast 
trends in a general southeasterly direction for 23 miles and then 
northerly for 5 miles to Coconongon Point. Inagtapan Point, 2 miles 
eastward of Macachin Point, is the end of a ridge separating two low 
valleys extending across the island to the west coast. Two miles 
southward of this point lies Calauit Bay with the barrio of the same 
name on its northern shore. The Ditipac River empties into the head 
of the bay and also into Ilultuk Bay on the west coast, this making 
the northwest end of Busuanga an island locally known as Calauit 
Island. Launches drawing not more than 3 feet use the river as a 
cut-off, being careful to arrive at the eastern end when there is more 
than half tide on the flats at Calauit. 

Minuit (chart 4335) is the headquarters of a large hacienda. A 
large concrete house, close to the shore, makes a good landmark for 
approaching the anchorage off Minuit. A partially protected anchor- 
age may be found in the bay formed by the Busuanga shore and the 
small islands 1% miles eastward of Minuit. 

Port Caltom affords good protected anchorage. A long narrow coral 
reef extends from its head almost halfway to the entrance, with deep 
water on either side. 

Pangauaran Kiver entrance (chart 4335) is the best anchorage in this 
vicinity. Any small steamer can lie here securely and comfortably. 
A. small stone pantalan with 5 feet of water at its end makes the 
shore easily accessible. To enter, from a point % mile east of Mal- 
pagalen Island steer 180° (179° mag.) until the rocky point on the 
north side of Port Caltom is abeam, then steer 246° (245° mag.) for 
the entrance to the river. When the west entrance point is abeam 
change to 217° (216° mag.) and proceed to an anchorage in 10 to 12 

21 



22 PALAWAN. 

fathoms, mud bottom. In entering, favor the west side of the en- 
trance to avoid the coral reef that extends 100 yards off the east 
point. There is another good anchorage off the southeast end of 
Cabilauan Island, but it is difficult to approach unless weather and 
light conditions are favorable. 

Dicapadiac, Dimalanta, Lauit, Liatui, and Hadyibulac Islands are small 
islands lying between Cabilauan and the Busuanga shore. A number 
of reefs and shoals exist in this area. Their position and character can 
be best understood by reference to the chart. 

ISLANDS NORTHWARD OF BUSUANGA. 

Dimipac Island, 439 feet high, lies about 2 miles northward of Maca- 
chin Point. It is covered with trees and vegetation and is almost 
surrounded by a coral reef about 100 yards wide. Sail Rocks, a group 
of bare rocks 109 feet high, lie 1 mile northward of Dimipac Island 
and Northwest Rock, 127 feet high, is 2 miles farther northwestward. 
This is a large flat-topped *ock, about 200 yards in diameter, bare of 
vegetation and of dark appearance. Tanobon Island, lying 2 miles 
northeast of Inagtapan Point, is surrounded by a coral reef. Eocks 
extend off the northeast end for a distance of about 1 mile, and about 
1 mile northwest by west of the island are two rocks about 4 feet 
above high water. The bottom in this vicinity is generally irregular, 
but the dangerous shoals are close inshore. 

Colocoto Rocks, lying about 11 miles northeast of Macachin Point, 
are four large black rocks which appear as one when seen bearing 
125° (124° mag.) or opposite direction. The largest rock is 214 feet 
high. They have precipitous sides, are underscored from 3 to 15 feet 
by the action of the sea, and the only vegetation is a small vine, in- 
visible at a short distance away, so that they appear to be a slate- 
colored pile of barren rocks. 

Dumunpalit Island, 300 feet high, is situated about 7 miles south- 
eastward from Colocoto Rocks. It is small and rocky, with several 
detached rocks lying on the same reef. Outside the reef the water 
deepens rapidly to 20 fathoms or more. 

Diboyoyan and Dimaquiat are two small islands lying, respectively, 
5 miles northeastward and 4 miles eastward of Minuit. The first is 
surrounded by a coral reef. Outside the 5-fathom curve the depths 
increase rapidly. The latter is connected with Malpagalen Island, 
1 mile southeastward, by a coral and sand bar of varying depth with 
3% fathoms near the Dimaquiat end of the bar. A 4-fathom shoal 
lies 1% miles northwest by west from Dimaquiat Island, with two 
separate shoals between it and the island. Eight separate shoals, 
varying in depth from iy 2 to 6 fathoms, lie between Dimaquiat Island 
and the Busuanga shore. These shoals all rise abruptly from a very 
regular mud bottom. 

Nanga Islands, 7 miles north-northeastward of Coconongon Point, 
are two small wooden islands 249 and 173 feet high. They are joined 
by a reef, with several small rocky islets on the same reef. There 
is another rocky islet, 95 feet high and steep-to on all sides, about 1 
mile northeast of the northern Nanga Island. 

Camanga Island, 213 feet high, with several small rocky islets of 
varying height, lies 2 miles southward of the Nanga Islands. The 
90-foot islet, y 2 mile westward of Camaga Island, is bold and makes 



ISLANDS NORTH OF BUSUANGA. 23 

a conspicuous landmark. Neither the Nanga or the Camanga Islands 
are inhabited. 

Tara Island, the largest of the islands northeast of Busuanga, is 
about 3 miles long and over i/ 2 mile wide. The highest point, 477 
feet, is in the southern part of the island. The hills of a light brown 
oolor, with a distinct greenish tint during the rainy season, are bare 
of trees and from a distance appear as separate islands. The lower 
slopes and valleys are covered with bamboo and jungle, with a few 
small cultivated areas. The western shore is mostly sand beach with 
a wide coral reef and outlying rocks and islets. The eastern shore 
is nearly all rocky with steep bluffs. A good anchorage in 17 fathoms 
may be found off the barrio on the western shore. A small stone 
pier has been built in a break of the reef, which makes an excellent 
landing for small boats. 

Lagat, Bantac, and Calanhayaun Islands are ridges rather than de- 
tached summits. They are dark in color and covered with a good 
.growth of timber. Lagat, 261 feet high, is very steep and has nearly 
bare eroded cliffs on both sides, which show red or yellow through the 
sparse vegetation. There is a coral reef extending south from the 
island and a detached reef with 1*4 fathoms spot off the north end. 
Bantac Island, 396 feet high, and Calanhayaun Island, 248 feet high at 
its southern end, are connected by a coral reef. There are a number of 
rocky islets on detached reefs westward of these islands that show up 
well to the northward and southward. 

Lubutglubut, 366 feet high, and the brown rocks to the southward 
are practically bare, taking their dark color from the weathered rock. 
They are easily recognized and form excellent landmarks. 

East coast of Busuanga. — -Approaching Busuanga from the north- 
east, east, or southeast, Mount Minangas, 1,878 feet high, is the first to 
appear. It is the most northerly and highest of three cogon-covered 
peaks fairly close together on an irregular saw-toothed range of 
mountains lying along the east coast of the island. Mount Coco- 
nongon is a cone-shaped hill situated on the peninsula at the extreme 
northeast end of the island, is covered with trees and bushes, and 
stands out prominently from the mainland. 

Minangas Bay (chart 4335), 6 miles southeastward of Coconongon 
Point, is the best protected anchorage on the east coast of Busuanga. 
From a distance the entrance can be distinguished by several long 
reddish-brown scars, where small landslides have recently occurred 
on the east end of Napuscud Island. Vessels should not attempt to 
enter by the north passage, as there are a number of coral heads in 
the fairway not easily seen from the bridge of a vessel. When en- 
tering Minangas Bay by the south passage favor the southeast shore 
of Napuscud Island, keeping within about 250 yards of the shore, 
rounding the south end of the island to a well-sheltered anchorage 
midway between Napuscud and Busuanga Islands in about 15 
fathoms, mud bottom. A J^-fathom shoal lies % mile southward 
of the south end of Napuscud Island and a l^-fathom spot y 4 mile 
southeastward of the island. Both shoals are easily distinguished 
in a favorable light and avoided by favoring the island shore as 
recommended. The southern part of Minangas Bay is exposed to 
the northeast, and coral reefs extend a considerable distance off- 
shore. Napuscud and Depagal Islands are connected by a reef and 
the channel between the latter and Busuanga is foul. 



24 PALAWAN. 

From Minangas Bay the coast trends southeast for 7 miles to 
Alonon Point. This coast is characterized by a succession of high cliff 
points with low mangrove bights with coral reefs. Several islands 
and rocks lie on the reef close inshore. 

Port Borac, lying southwestward of Alonon Point, is easy to enter 
and is a very good anchorage for launches, but too small for large 
vessels. A stream empties into the bay. The bottom of the basin 
is mud, with no fringing reef; however, coral and sand is found 
along the shore at the entrance. 

Dinaran Island, lying 1 mile southeast of Alonon Point, is about 1 
mile long and *4 mile wide, rises to a height of 248 feet, and all 
but the summit is covered with trees and bushes. The western shore 
is steep-to, but a coral reef extends y 2 mile northeastward. There 
is a fair passage between Dinaran Island and Busuanga. A ridge 
with a 2-f athom shoal, about 2 miles north of Dinaran Island and 1 
mile east by north of Salung Island, marks the eastern side of this 
passage, while a 1%-fathom shoal, y 2 mile east of Alonon Point, 
divides it into two deep channels. 

Mataya Reef, lying southeast of Dinaran Island, is an extensive reef 
of coral and sand with its eastern edge marked by Mataya Island, 43 
feet high. There is a channel between the reef and Dinaran Island, 
but nothing would be gained by using it. Shoal water extends about 
iy 2 miles southward of Mataya Island, and vessels should keep about 
2 miles off the island in passing. The channel westward of Dinaran 
Island and Mataya Reef is contracted by reefs and shoals that extend 
about y 2 mile off the Basuanga shore southward of Port Borac. 

Bocao Point, 116 feet high, is the southeastern point of Busuanga 
Island. A coral reef with two rocky islets, 45 and 50 feet high, ly- 
ing near the outer edge, extends -& mile to the southeastward. 

Dibatuc Island, 435 feet high, lies close to the eastern entrance to 
Coron Passage and forms an important landmark. The island is 
covered with bushes and small trees, has little soil, and is unin- 
habited. 

Delian Island, 790 feet high, lies about 3 miles northeast of Calis 
Point, Coron Island. The eastern shore is rocky and cut up, with 
shoal water extending */£ mile offshore; the western shore is more 
regular and steep-to. A shoal, with 3% fathoms least water, lies 
1% miles east by north of the north end of the island. 

Coron Island, as its name indicates, is high and -rocky. From a dis- 
tance the high pinnacle peaks appear as separate islands that merge 
into one island as they are approached. The highest peak, 2,010 feet, 
is in the west-central part of the island. Calis Point, the southern 
point of Coron, is a vertical face of rock 400 feet high and undercut 
to a depth of 20 feet. There are no protected anchorages along the 
shore of Coron. The basin just northward of Calis Point has no 
channel over the bar. The channel to the bay, 2 miles northward, is 
very narrow, with a reef in the middle of the entrance. The other 
two bays on the east coast are both filled with coral. A shoal with 
a least depth of 2 fathoms lies 6 miles eastward of Coron. Between 
this shoal and Coron there are two banks or ridges with shoals of 1 
and 2 fathoms, the inner extending 5y 2 miles northeastward from the 
coast of Coron to within % mile of Dibatuc Island. The west coast 
of Coron has a narrow fringing coral reef. Coron Reef, awash at low 
water, lies 2 miles southwesterly of the highest peak of Coron. The 



CALAMIANES ISLANDS. 25 

reef extends about % mile parallel with the coast of Coron, the part 
awash being near the northern end. There are several shoals north- 
ward of Coron Reef, whose position may be best understood by 
reference to the chart. 

The northwestern coast of Coron from Balolo Point to Limaa 
Point is steep and much broken up, but there are no dangers more 
than % mile offshore. A coral reef extends about 250 yards off 
Balolo Point, but Limaa Point is clear and may be passed close-to. 

Coron Passage (chart 4351) , l^mile wide at its narrowest point, be- 
tween Limaa Point, Coron, and JEtoja Point, Busuanga, has a danger- 
ous 2-fathom shoal % mile 94° (93° mag.) from Limaa Point. The 
Busuanga shore should be avoided, as it has a broad fringing reef 
with shoals outside the part that bares. The Maquinit Islands lie on 
the shore reef eastward of Coron, and East Maquinit Island, 176 feet 
high, divides the passage into two channels. It is steep and may 
be passed close-to on either side. A reef awash % mile southwest- 
ward of Coron Point marks the southern side of the entrance to 
Coron Harbor. A narrow coral reef marked by a red buoy extends 
700 yards off the southeast shore of Uson Island, and midway be- 
tween the end of this reef and the reef awash is a coral shoal with 
a least depth of % fathom. 

Directions foe Coron Passage. — This passage is used by vessels 
trading between Manila, Coron, and Culion. Pass about 2*4 miles 
eastward and southward of Mataya Island and steer to pass close-to 
either northward or southward of Dibatuc Island and steer west 
until the tangent to Limaa Point bear 298° (297° mag.), change 
course to 302° (301° mag.) and keep close to the Coron coast. Round 
Limaa Point at a distance of 150 yards and pass northwest of East 
Maquinit Island at about the same distance. If bound for Culion, 
bring East Maquinit astern on a course 242° (241° mag.). This 
course will take the vessel about 200 yards off the end of the reef 
marked by a red buoy and the same distance off the edge of the reef 
fringing Balolo Point. When the southwest tangent to Tangat 
Island bears 330° (329° mag.) change course to 260° (259° mag.). 
If bound for Coron, when Coron Point bears 0° (359° mag.) steer 
314° (313° mag.) to an anchorage in 10 to 12 fathoms, mud bottom. 
Better-protected anchorage may be found westward of the town of 
Coron about midway between Canitauan Island and Uson Island in 
6 to 7 fathoms, mud bottom. Four beacons placed by the survey 
parties mark the channel temporarily. Without the beacons the 
entrance should not be attempted by strangers. Fresh water may 
be obtained from the pipes on a small wooden wharf on Uson Island. 

Coron, the seat of the municipal -government, is the principal town 
on the island of Busuanga. It has a population of about 700, and 
most of the business of the island passes through its harbor. A stone 
pier extends from the main street out to about low water, but, owing 
to the little water on the wide reef in front of the town, can only be 
used by small boats at or near high water. A pier with 3% fathoms 
of water at the outer end has been built about y 2 mile southeast of 
the town. In going alongside the pier care must be taken to avoid 
a 2-fathom spbt southward and a %-fathom spot westward of the 
end of the pier. A good road leads from the pier to the town. 

Uson Island, situated close to the southern shore of Busuanga, is 
undulating and of the same general appearance as Busuanga, the 



26 PALAWAN. 

higher hills being cogon covered. The highest hill, 670 feet, is in the 
southwestern part of the island. Vega, Pedrasa, East, Cabilauan, and 
Marinon are all small islands lying on the fringing shore reel. Cag- 
batan, 80 feet high, and Dimanglet, 290 feet high, lie southward of 
Uson and form good landmarks for navigation. 

Port Uson, lying between Uson Island and Busuanga, affords several 
good typhoon anchorages. The best anchorage is in 8 to 9 fathoms, 
mud, between Uson and Baquit Islands. The eastern entrance, from 
Coron Harbor, is clear and wide, with a least depth of 4 fathoms in 
the channel between the two islands. The best approach to this 
anchorage from the west is through the narrow channel between 
Pinas and Uson Islands. 

Another good anchorage is northward of Pinas Island in the ap- 
proach to Malbato Bay ; the head of the bay, however, is shallow with 
a rock awash about 300 yards southeastward of Dianglit Islet. A 
perfectly protected anchorage may be had in Dipulao Cove, northward 
of Baquit Island, in 2 to 4 fathoms, mud bottom. In entering vessels 
should favor the Baquit Island shore, as shoal water extends some 
distance off the Busuanga shore. The western entrance to Port Uson, 
between Uson Island and Mayanpayan Island, is clear and deep. A 
reef that bares at low water, lying % mile south of the southwest 
point of Uson Island and a 114-fathom shoal lying % mile east- 
northeastward of the south end of Batunan Island, divide the ap- 
proach to the entrance into three channels, the distance between the 
reef and the shoal being about 850 yards. 

Port Luyucan, lying northeast of Apo Island, affords anchorage for 
small vessels only, as the available anchorage space is contracted by 
a ll/4-f athom shoal near the center of the port. The channel through 
the mangroves northward of Apo Island is sometimes used by bancas 
at high water. 

Tangat Island, 1,510 feet high, is steep-to outside a narrow fringing 
reef. The channel eastward of the island is deep, but the reefs south- 
ward and westward of Calbi Island narrow it to less than 100 yards 
in navigable width close to the Tangat Island shore. The bay formed 
by Lusong, Busuanga, and Tangat Islands is clear and deep, with the 
exception of a rock awash, lying % mile southwestward of the north 
end of Tangat Island. Coral reefs extend about 975 yards south- 
ward of Ditalantang Point, and the head of the bay eastward is shoal. 
Cattle are brought down the river from Bintuan usually in flat- 
bottom boats and at high water. 

West coast of Busuanga. — Beginning 2y 2 miles westward of Lusong 
Island, the coast trends north-northwest for 13 miles and then 4 miles 
south-southwest to Detobet Point. The large body of water formed by 
this bend in the coast line is known as Gutob Bay. A number of large 
fertile valleys are found on this part of Busuanga. Eice and corn 
are raised for local use. Lumber is the principal export, while some 
cattle are shipped to Manila by way of Coron. Concepcion, Salva- 
tion, and Busuanga are the principal towns. The latter is the terminal 
of the telephone line from Coron and has a small stone pier on the 
bank of the Busuanga Kiver, about 750 yards from its mouth, where 
small boats can land. There is a bar at the mouth of the river, over 
which small boats have difficulty in crossing at low water. 



CALAMIANES ISLANDS. 27 

A coral reef that bares lies 1 mile southwestward of Salvacion 
Island, and there are several dangerous shoals from 1 to \y 2 miles 
west of the mouth of the Busuanga River. Northward of these shoals 
the eastern part of the bay is shoal and foul. The best protected an- 
chorage is between Bacbac and Capare Islands and the Busuanga 
shore northward of Detobet Point in 7 to 11 fathoms. No seas get 
into this area and the hills give good protection from all winds. 
Manolaba Island is connected with Capare by a reef. There is a rock 
awash y 2 mile southward of Manolebeng Island, a rock awash % mile 
eastward, and another rock that bares y 2 mile northward; midway 
between the latter two is a ^-fathom shoal. Talampetan Island and a 
200-foot hill lie near the southern edge of the coral reef fringing 
Capare Island. A 1-fathom shoal lies 1 mile east by south and a 
414-fathom shoal y 2 mile southeast of Talampetan Island. Talam- 
polan Island, lying % mile westward of the south end of Capare 
Island, has a broad fringing reef. The channel between the two 
islands has several shoals. The best entrance to Gutob anchorage is 
between Talampolan Island and Detobet Point, keeping well north- 
ward of the reef that extends about y 2 mile northwestward of the 
island. Malajon Island, about 2 miles westward of Detobet Point, is 
an almost barren rock rising abruptly on all sides and reaches a 
height of 779 feet. It may be passed close-to on all sides. 

From Detobet Point the coast trends north by east for 11 miles to 
the northwest point of Busuanga. The town of Buluang lies in a bend 
of the coast 5 miles northward from Detobet Point. A break in the 
reef before the town furnishes anchorage for launches or small ves- 
sels, but there is no protection from westward. Ilultuk Bay, 2 miles 
northward, affords good anchorage in 6 to 7 fathoms of water about 
li/4 miles from the entrance behind a point on the south shore. A 
small island, 121 feet high, lies near the south entrance point. Elet 
Island, 228 feet high, and Kalampisauan Island, 380 feet high, lie off 
the coast southwestward. 

A pinnacle rock, 43 feet high, lies 1*4 miles northwest of Elini- 
binid Point and about due west of the northwest point of Busuanga. 
Halfway between the rock and the main shore is a small 3-fathom 
shoal. A large bank having 6 to 8 fathoms of water extends iy 2 to 
2y 2 miles southwest of the pinnacle rock. 

There are several banks and shoals westward and northwestward 
of Busuanga whose position can be best understood by reference to 
the chart. 

Culion Island lies southwest of Busuanga, from which it is separated 
by a strait from 3 to 4 miles wide with a number of islands which 
contract the navigable channel to about y 2 mile at its narrowest part. 
The island of Culion has been reserved as a leper colony, and it is 
unlawful for any vessel to communicate with it without the permis- 
sion of the chief of Culion leper colony, Bureau of Health. Culion is 
about 20 miles long in a north-northwest and opposite direction, and 
its greatest breadth is about 10 miles. It is irregular on its northern 
and eastern sides with a number of islands lying just off the coast, 
but the western side is nearly straight. Mans Mountain, with two 
peaks close together, in the southern part, rises to a height of 1,380 
feet, and Mount Oltaloro, the highest peak on Culion, 2% miles south- 
eastward of Maus Mountain, rises to a height of 1,560 feet. Close to 

33452°— 21 3 



28 PALAWAN. 

the southern part of Culion is Dicabaito Island, which marks the 
northern side of Linapacan Strait. 

Galoc Island (chart 4350), lying close to the north shore of Culion, 
is about 4 miles long and % mile wide, rising to a height of 662 feet 
in the southwestern part; The shore is rocky and fringed by a coral 
reef. The channel between Galoc Island and Culion is narrow and 
can not be recommended, as there is a sharp turn in the narrowest 
part with a shoal close to the turning point and there are several 
reefs in mid-channel opposite the large reef-choked bay opening off 
this channel. The bay is only used in getting out firewood from the 
mangrove along the shore. Napula Island is a small island lying east- 
ward of Galoc. The channel between Napula and Culion is almost 
closed by reefs. 

Popotctan Island is separated from Galoc southward by a wide, deep 
channel, in which vessels can find protected anchorage. This island is 
highest in the western part, rising to a height of 345 feet. The west- 
ern shore is rocky; two small islands and a rocky ledge lie off the 
southwest point ; the rest of the shore line is mostly sand beach and 
mangrove over a fringing coral reef. The few people living on the 
island are engaged in fishing. West Nalaut Island, the most western 
of the Calamianes Islands, is 235 feet high, about i/ 5 square mile in 
area, and serves as a guide in entering Coron West Passage from the 
China Sea. The east third of the island is a low wooded sand spit. 
The shore line on the west side and up to the sand spit at both ends is 
very rocky. A fringing reef surrounds the entire island. The island 
is not inhabited. East Nalaut Island with its two peaks, 114 and 112 
feet high, is also a good landmark for vessels coming from the north- 
ward and westward. There is no reef on the west side, and the shore 
line is being rapidly undermined. 

Pamalican Islands lie 4 miles west by north of Kaniki Point, Busu- 
anga. The main island of the group is a low sand island about 425 
yards long, covered with trees reaching an elevation of about 70 feet. 

North Cay and South Cay are two small sand islets covered with 
trees. Maltatayoc Island is long and narrow, the western part rising 
to a height of 220 feet. Horse Island, wooded and partly cultivated, 
rises to an elevation of 245 feet. The island to the north on the same 
reef is 215 feet high and there is a small island 63 feet high just east- 
ward of the main island. Malcatop Island, partly cleared of timber 
and cultivated, rises to a height of 288 feet and is separated from 
East Malcatop by a narrow deep channel. The latter rises to a height 
of 128 feet near the south end and is partly cultivated by natives who 
come from Busuanga during the rainy season. The two Malbinchilao 
Islands and a 112-foot island lie on the same reef and are sparsely 
wooded. There are three houses on the sand beach at the northeast 
end of the middle island ; the others are not inhabited. Mangenguey 
Island, 171 feet high, is rocky on the west side and has a prominent 
boulder, 20 feet high, a few yards offshore. Rat Island, 156 feet high, 
is separated from Malbinchilao to the westward by a narrow channel 
with 4 fathoms of water. Pass Island, lying 2 miles southeastward, 
rises to a height of 110 feet and is rocky on the west and southwest. 
The east end is a sand spit not fringed by coral, and in case of neces- 
sity a vessel might be beached there. The channel to the eastward 
between Pass Island and Lajo Island is y 2 mile wide with a ^4-fathom 



CALAMI ANES ISLANDS. 29 

shoal midway in the SDuthern part. Halfway between Pass Island 
and the southern end of Malbinchilao Island is a coral reef with 
several rocks awash at the western end and a sand bar awash at low 
water to the eastward of the rocks. 

There are a number of channels among these islands, but some of 
them are complicated by shoals and should not be attempted without 
a careful study of the chart. The best channels leading from the 
westward to the main entrance between Calumbuyan and Lajo 
Islands are as follows : Southward of Popototan Island, this channel 
is clear and deep and needs no special directions. Northward of 
Popototan Island, head for Pass Island bearing 103° (102° mag.), 
when the east tangent of Eat Island bears 0° (359° mag.) change 
course to 81° (80° mag.) heading for a prominent tree on the 646-foot 
hill on the coast of Busuanga. A third channel lies between Malta- 
tayoc and Horse Islands to the northward, and the Malbinchilao 
Islands southward, passing either westward and southward of the 
two Malcatop Islands, or northward and eastward of them. Two 
shoals with depths of 3 and 4% fathoms lie % mile southward of the 
east end of Maltatayoc Island, and a reef and shoal extend 700 yards 
southwestward of East Malcatop Island. This latter reef can be 
easily avoided by heading for Pass Island bearing 145° (144° mag.^ 
until the south tangent of Calumbuyan Island bears 90° (89° mag.) 
when the course may be changed to 100° (99° mag.). 

Tantangon, Dicoyan, Calumbuyan, Lajo, and Lamud Islands lie across 
the western entrance to the strait between Busuanga. and Culion. As 
before stated, the best channel is between Calumbuyan and Lajo. 
This channel is over y 2 mile wide, deep and clear. There is a narrow 
deep channel between Calumbuyan and Dicoyan. The channel be- 
tween Dicoyan and Tantangon is almost y 2 mile wide, with 9 fathoms 
in the middle, but there are two dangerous reefs in the western ap- 
proach. The channel northward of Tantangon Island is narrow and 
tortuous. There is a narrow deep channel between Lamud and 
Culion, but no channel between Lamud and Lajo Islands, the reef be- 
tween them baring at low water. Tantangon is low. Dicoyan has 
several hills rising to a height of 200 feet and more. Calumbuyan is 
steep and rises to a height of 225 feet. Lajo and Lamud are 660 
feet and 570 feet, respectively. All of them are wooded and have 
fringing coral reef with some mangrove along the shore. Darab, 150' 
feet high, is a small island lying on the reef eastward of Lajo Island, 
and Dibu, 120 feet high, is a small island lying off the reef joining 
Lajo and Lamud Islands. 

Manglet Island, lying southward of the main channel in the western 
entrance to Coron Bay, is steep-to on all sides. The island has several 
summits, the eastern and highest being 298 feet high. The northern 
shore is rock but the southern is mangrove. Southward of the island 
is the entrance of a large irregular bay formed by Lamud and Marily 
Islands and the coast of Culion. Laput and Pachiri Islands lie close to 
the Culion shore. Alad, Eakbak, Magpa, Kalo, Nici, and Mona Islands 
with several shoals lie in this bay. Tampit, Ennanda, Demang, Lakit, 
and Naglayan Islands lie on the shore reef fringing the southern shore 
of Marily Island. Tending Island, 220 feet high, lies in the channels 
between Naglayan, Chindonan, and Culion Islands. A reef extends 
off the northwestern end for about 300 yards. Chindonan Island, 615 



30 PALAWAN. 

feet high,, is the easternmost of the islands lying along the southern 
side of this entrance to Coron Bay. Cacayaren Island lies on the 
northern shore reef and Burgur and Inluiucut Islands lie on the south- 
ern shore reef. A reef, steep-to on all sides, marked by a black and 
white beacon, lies 1 mile 150° (149° mag.) from Inluiucut Island. 

Port Culion is a narrow inlet that affords good anchorage for small 
vessels but not much swinging room. The eastern side is formed by 
Sebik Island, and the Culion leper settlement lies on the western 
shore. The entrance is marked by two beacons and the remains of 
two piers lie on the reef off the settlement but are only used by bancas. 
A fringing reef contracts the available anchorage space. Vessels 
generally go to the pier about y± m ^ & westward from the fort. This 
pier must be approached with care as the end is practically flush with 
the reef line. Both the fort and the cogon-covered hill back of the 
landing are prominent and make very good landmarks. A fixed red 
light, visible from a distance of 7 miles, is shown from the fort. 
Permission should be obtained from the chief of the Culion leper 
colony before going alongside the pier. Fresh water may be ob- 
tained from pipes on the pier. 

Coron Bay is the large body of water lying between Coron, Busu- 
anga, and Culion. There are a number of reefs, shoals, and banks in 
the bay whose position may be readily understood by reference to the 
chart. The entrance by way of Coron Passage has already been de- 
scribed. (See p. 25.) In approaching from southward and eastward 
the best entrance is just southward of Calis Point, Coron, where the 
channel is about 2y 2 miles wide, deep and clear. Guintungauan 
Island, the easternmost of the islands eastward of Culion, lies on the 
southern side of the channel. Shoal water extends about % mile 
eastward and northward -of it. The island rises to a height of 240 
feet, is fringed by a coral reef, which extends about y 2 m il e west- 
ward of the island. 

Bulalacao Island, 4 miles long by 2% miles wide, rises to a height 
of 710 feet and is thickly wooded. Bayuan Bay, on the north side of 
the island, offers fair shelter for vessels during either monsoon. The 
shore of the island is very irregular, rocky points extending out 
from i/4 to i/ 2 mile, the bights thus formed being fringed with coral. 
Several small islands lie on the shore reef. Malaroroy, Cauayan, and 
Dicalubuan Islands, at the western end are the most important, mak- 
ing excellent marks for passing through Tampel Pass. A shoal with 
a rock awash on its southern part lies 1^ miles northward of Man- 
dalala Point. Tampel Pass, between Bulalacao Island and Malcapuya 
and Tampel Island, is sometimes used by vessels coming from north- 
ern Palawan ports. It is about % mile wide, deep and clear. A reef 
bare at low water, lies 1*4 miles northeast of Tampel Island, and 
Animosa Beef lies 1% miles north of the north end of the island. Be- 
tween these two reefs there are a number of dangerous shoals. Mal- 
capuya, Tampel, Sina, and Tambon Islands are all connected by reefs; 
Tambon Island is about %y 2 miles long by iy 2 miles wide and is 
heavily wooded. Bayaca is a small islet on a detached reef, about % 
mile northward of Tubigan Point. Piedra Bianca, 15 feet high, is a 
conspicuous white rock on a reef lying % mile northwestward of 
Bayaca Islet and 1*4 miles westward of Animosa Reef. 



CALAMIANES ISLANDS. 31 

Dunaun Island, 455 feet high, is a conspicuous landmark. The 
island is wooded and is connected with Culion by a reef that bares at 
low water. The channel between Dunaun and Culion and Tambon 
Islands is deep but narrow, being only about 200 yards wide at its 
narrowest point with a least depth of 8 fathoms. It is of little use 
as there are no ports in this part of Culion. 

The east coast of Culion is irregular, steep, and wooded, with a 
number of islands and shoals off it. The principal islands are 
Dibanca Islands, Cheron, Guinlep, Calipipit, and Dipalian. Ditaytayan 
Island, 318 feet high, lies about 2 miles southwest of Bulalacao Island 
with the Tres Marias Rocks 1 mile eastward. Vessels going through 
Tampel Pass should pass about % mile westward of Ditaytayan 
Island. Mininlay, Calumbagan, and Canipo Islands lie on the western 
side of an extensive area of shoals extending 7 miles southward of 
Bulalacao Island. Malaposo Island, 294 feet high, lies on the eastern 
edge of this area and affords a good mark for avpiding these dangers. 
A shoal with a least known depth of 2y 2 fathoms lies 2^ miles south- 
southeastward of Guintungauan Island. This is the easternmost 
danger of the shoals southward and eastward of Bulalacao Island. 
Beta Shoal, with a least known depth of 4% fathoms, lies about 5 
miles eastward in latitude 11° 42' 58" N., longitude 120° 19' 48" E. 

Tres Seyes are four rocky islets lying 4% miles south by west from 
Canipo Island. They are steep-to with round summits, the highest 
being 81 feet. Shoal water extends off about 1 mile north-northwest- 
ward and vessels should give them a berth of iy 2 miles when passing 
to northward or eastward of them. Dicabaito Island, separated from 
the south end of Culion by a narrow deep channel, is 750 feet high. 
The shore line is eroded and rocky. The island lies on the northern 
side of Linapacan Strait and forms an excellent landmark when ap- 
proaching that strait from the China Sea. Dicabaito Channel (chart 
4342) northward of the island, affords protected anchorage in 7 to 9 
fathoms of water. 

The west coast of Culion is fairly regular, steep, and rocky, with 
a fringe of coral in the shallow bights. Saddle Rock, lying about 2 
miles northwestward of the entrance to Halsey Harbor, is a small 
rocky islet, 114 feet high, which, when seen from northward or 
southward, has the appearance of a saddle. It is fringed with a 
narrow reef, with rocks awash, which extends about y 2 mile off its 
eastern side. These are the only dangers on the west coast of Culion 
that do not show above water. 

Halsey Harbor (chart 4342) makes into the west coast of Culion 
Island,, about 4 miles from its southern extremity, and extends in a 
northeasterly direction for about 5 miles. Saddle Rock, already de- 
scribed, serves to mark the entrance. The shores of Halsey Harbor 
are in general steep and the water deep. Anchorage may be taken 
up anywhere in the middle of the harbor in from 15 to 18 fathoms, 
mud bottom, with perfect protection from all winds. Small vessels 
can enter the North Arm, passing through the narrow channel be- 
tween Gage and Iguana Islands. Water can generally be obtained 
from a small stream which discharges between the two highest hills 
on the southeast side of the harbor, about 3 miles above the entrance, 
but it can not be depended on during the dry season. 



32 PALAWAN". 

Halsey Harbor is of no commercial value at the present time, but 
would afford good refuge to a vessel overtaken by bad weather when 
in its vicinity. 

Alava Island, 434 feet high, divides the entrance into two channels— 
Research Channel, north of the island, and South Channel, eastward. 
It is surrounded by a narrow reef, which, on the northeast and 
southern ends, extends about % mile from the shore. 

South Channel, while comparatively straight, is narrow and has 
coral reefs on both sides which contract the navigable width to about 
200 yards. The least depth is 12 fathoms, and when the light is 
such as to show the location of reefs (generally by a light-green 
color of the water) it is easy to navigate. 

To enter by the south channel steer midway between Alava and 
Culion Islands, carefully avoiding the coral reefs on either side, and 
continue on, giving the northwest side of Rhodes Island a berth of 
about Yi mile to clear the coral reef making off from it. 

Research Channel is about % mile wide at the narrowest part and 
has at this point a clear channel of nearly y 2 mile, with depths of 21 
to 26 fathoms. The reefs on the northern side of the channel do not 
extend out over % mile. On the southern side there is a reef extend- 
ing from the northeasterly point of Alava Island in a northeasterly 
direction for about y 3 mile, but there is plenty of room to give it a 
good berth. 

To enter by Research Channel bring the highest part of Rhodes 
Island between the two peaks of Maus Mountain on a 95° (94° mag.) 
bearing and steer for them ; this course will lead through the middle 
of the channel. Maus Mountain (or Tetas de Calamianes) , situated 
about 4 miles eastward of the entrance, consists of two round-topped 
hills, each 1,380 feet in height. There are no dangers in going up 
the harbor. In general, keep in mid-channel and give all points a 
fair berth; at the place where the channel divides, about 3 miles 
from the entrance, give the coral reef off the low, wooded spit on the 
southeast side a good berth, as it extends westward from this point 
for over % mile. 

CABTTLAUAN ISLANDS 

are a small group of islands situated eastward of Linapacan Island, 
comprising Cabulauan, Nanga, Nangalao, Magranting, and Tubug 
Islands. The latter two are connected with Nangalao. They are all 
high and rocky. Cabulauan has a conspicuous rounding summit near 
the east shore which rises to a height of 775 feet. Along the south 
and west shores there are hills of lesser elevation. Nangalao Island 
rises to a height of 760 feet with lesser summits eastward and south- 
westward of the highest point. All the islands are sparsely wooded. 
Two rocky islets, 25 feet and 10 feet high, lie about 1%, miles south- 
ward of Cabulauan Island. There is a shoal, with a least known 
depth of 4% fathoms, 1% miles eastward, and another shoal, with 
3% fathoms, 3 miles southeastward of Cabulauan Island. 

Salimbubuc Island, 100 feet high, Canaron Island, 335 feet high, and 
Solitario Rock, 25 feet high, lie southeast of the Cabulauan Islands, 
rising out of a general depth of 30 to 40 fathoms of water. There is 
a 1^4-fathom shoal 8 miles westerly of Canaron Island. The area 
southward and southeastward of these islands has not yet been com- 



CABULAUAN AND CUYO ISLANDS. 33 

pletely surveyed. While apparently clear, vessels should use due 
care if compelled to pass through this area. 

Shoals. — Framjee Bank, Magallanes Bank, Narvaez Bank, Alpha 
Shoal, Beta Shoal, Aguirre Reef, Coutts Bank, Falmouth Banks, 
Areta Shoals, Panay Bank, Loreto Reef, Basco Beef, Alipio Reef, 
and a number of unnamed shoals and banks lie in the area eastward 
and southeastward of the Calamian group of islands. Their position 
and characteristics can readily be understood by reference to the 
chart. Discolored water generally marks those with less than 8 fath- 
oms of water on them, but vessels will do well to avoid anything less 
than 10 fathoms, as large coral bowlders lie on some of them and the 
least depth may not have been found during the survey. 

CUYO ISLANDS. 

This group of islands is located on the eastern part of the sub- 
merged plateau on which the Calamianes and Palawan are situated. 
The depths are fairly uniform, gradually deepening from 30 fathoms 
to 100 fathoms eastward of the Cuyo Islands. The latter depth curve 
has a south-southwesterly trend from the vicinity of Seco Islands to 
near Sombrero Rock. Northeastward of this plateau there is a deep 
basin with numerous banks and shoals, but there are large stretches 
of good water, and the various islands furnish well-defined leading 
marks. The courses which would be pursued are various, and no 
directions are given, as they may be readily laid out on the chart, the 
islands forming excellent marks for avoiding the different shoals. 
The route to the eastward of the islands is generally used in the north- 
east monsoon from Basilan Strait to Mmdoro Strait, thus taking 
advantage of the constant northerly current along the Panay Coast. 
All of the islands except Quiminatin are of volcanic origin. 

ftuiniluban Group, the northernmost of the Cuyo Islands, consists 
of several islands and rocks on a circular reef about 6 miles in diam- 
eter. They are of limestone formation, have no permanent streams, 
and very little wood, but are covered with tall grass. They are 
sparsely inhabited and there is some cultivation on the larger islands 
but they are of no commercial importance. The reef itself is flat and 
sandy with numerous coral heads, some of which bare at low water. 
Breakers are in evidence at the windward edge of the reef whenever 
the monsoons are blowing. Anchorage, partly protected from the sea 
during the northeast monsoon, may be had on the southwest side close 
up to the edge of the reef. Quinihiban, the largest of the group, lies 
near the northeast edge of the reef and rises to a height of 1,010 feet. 
From northerly directions it appears as a sharp cone. From east- 
erly directions it appears as a ridge with a dome-shaped elevation in 
the center. It has the reddish-brown color of cogon regions and 
makes a prominent landmark. 

Alcisiras Island, 510 feet high, lies southwest of Quiniluban with 
the small islands Calumpin, Yanuta, and Arorunga between them. 
Mandit Island, 183 feet high, lies % mile northeastward of Alcisiras. 
Maligun, Silad, and Tinitiuan Islands, 515, 335, and 480 feet high, 
respectively, Tatay and Namaroc Islets and Cambug Rock lie on the 
northwestern part of the reef. 



34 PALAWAN. 

Halog Islands are two small islands lying on a reef about 3 miles 
southeast of Quiniluban Island. The northeastern one is 80 feet 
high and the other y 2 mile southwestward of it 16 feet. The chan- 
nel between the Halog and Quiniluban reefs is 2 miles wide and 
free from danger, though there are several banks with from 6 to 9 
fathoms of water over them. 

A reef with a least depth of 2% fathoms lies 7 miles 193° (192°. 
mag.) from the highest point of Quiniluban Island. The reef is 
steep-to on the west, but a bank with 6 to 8 fathoms of water ex- 
tends about iy 2 miles eastward. 

Pamalican Island, 7 miles southwestward of Quiniluban Island, is 
low, covered with a scrub growth and uninhabited- The higher of 
its two hills is 83 feet high. The island is surrounded by a coral 
reef which extends about 1 mile off the northeast side. 

Manamoc Island lies about 3 Iniles southwest of Pamalican. It is 
720 feet high, roughly circular in form, about 1% miles in diameter, 
and surrounded by a wide coral reef partly bare at low water. A 
break in the reef permits the shallow draft native boats to enter the 
lagoon in the southwestern part of the island. This lagoon has 
about 3 feet of water at low tide. The population of the island is 
estimated at 300 and the products are rice and coprax, but there is 
no regular communication among any of these islands. 

Lean, 223 feet, Imaruan, 430 feet, and Oco, 90 feet in height, lie. 
respectively, 5 miles south, 6 miles south-southeast, and 10 miles east- 
southeast from Manamoc Island. These islets are all steep-to on the 
western sides with banks extending from y 2 to 1% miles northeast- 
ward. 

Dit Island is an oblong-shaped island about 1% miles in extent and 
rises to a height of 820 feet near the center. Two lesser peaks ap- 
pear as shoulders on the higher peak when viewed from north or 
south. The shore line is composed of large stones and bowlders with 
the exception of one small sand beach on the west side and one on 
the south. Two small shoals with depths of 2% and 3y 2 fathoms lie 
y 2 mile pff the southwest part of the island. This part of the island 
should be given a berth of at least 1 mile. 

Gosong Rocks, 15 feet high, are a group of rocks on a shoal about y± 
mile in diameter lying 2 miles 220° (219° mag.) from the south 
point of Dit Island. The channel between the rocks and Dit Island 
is deep and over 1 mile wide. 

A shoal with a least depth of Zy 2 fathoms lies b% miles 23° (22° 
mag.) from the highest part of Dit Island. The shoal lies on the 
southeastern part of a bank 2 miles in extent northwest and south- 
east and y 2 mile wide with depths of 6 to 9 fathoms. 

Maracanao Island, 431 feet high and about i/ 2 mile in diameter, lies 
8 miles eastward of the south end of Dit Island. The bank on which 
it lies is steep-to and free from dangers. 

Chinaman Shoals are two shoals lying 4 miles 10° (9° mag.) and 
6% miles 24° (23° mag.) from Maracafiao Island, with a least depth 
of 314 and 4 fathoms, respectively. In the area between these shoals 
and Luzon Bank, lying 11 miles eastward of Maracafiao Island, there 
are a number of banks with from 7 to 9 fathoms of water. Luzon 
Bank itself has a least known depth of 8 fathoms. There is a deep 
channel 16 miles wide between these banks, and the group of dangers 



CUYO ISLANDS. 35 

comprising Sultan Bank, 33,4 fathoms, Carmen Bank, 2y 2 fathoms, 
and Seco Islet, 9 feet above mean sea level. These banks lie on the 
northeast edge of the submerged plateau on which the Cuyos are 
situated and the water deepens abruptly northward and eastward 
of them. 

Agutaya Island is the second largest of the Cuyo group with an 
area of about 4y 2 square miles. The northeastern part is hilly. The 
middle and highest of the four peaks, 885 feet high, is covered with 
cogon, the others being wooded. The western part of the island is 
450 feet high in the center and slopes gradually to the beach. There 
are three barrios, Agutaya, Villa Fria, and Villa Sol, on the island, 
with an estimated population for the entire island of 3,000. Wide 
coral reefs, bare at low water, extend off the northwest and the south- 
east sides of the island. 

Guinlabo, 2y 2 miles southward of Agutaya Island, is a small islet, 
195 feet high, lying near the eastern edge of a shoal about y 2 mile in 
diameter. The islet is steep on all sides except the northwest, where 
there is a rocky beach. 

A reef with a least known depth of % fathom lies 3% miles 263° 
(262° mag.) from Guinlabo Islet; another reef with a least known 
depth of 2 fathoms lies 8 miles westward of Agutaya Island in lati- 
tude 11° 08' 40" N., longitude 120° 48' 12" E. Both reefs lie on 
banks that rise steeply out of depths of 40 to 45 fathoms. 

Matarabis Islet, situated about 11 miles east of the south end of 
Agutaya Island, is easily recognized by its steep conical hill, 364 feet 
high, which when viewed from northwest or southeast appears to be 
in the center of the island. This hill makes the islet the most promi- 
nent landmark in the group. The islet lies near the southern edge of 
a bank that slopes gradually toward the north. There is a bank with 
a least known depth of 5% fathoms about 3 miles 285° (284° mag.) 
from Matarabis Island. 

Siparay, 260 feet high, is a small islet lying 5 miles southward of 
Matarabis. Tacbubuc, 300 feet high, lies 3 miles southwestward of it. 
Both islets are steep-to on the southeast and a berth of y% mile clears 
all known dangers. 

Tagauayan Islands (chart 4336) are two islands connected by a 
rocky ledge and between them form the best-protected anchorage in 
the Cuyo Islands. The larger island has three high ridges, the north- 
ern being 556 feet high, the middle 390 feet, and the southern 490 
feet high. Both islands are steep-to except in Tagauayan Bay. The 
bay affords good anchorage during the southwest monsoon, though 
the wind draws with considerable force through between the two 
islands. Fair shelter from the northeast can be obtained behind the 
peninsula that forms the northern side of the bay. There is a ridge 
of shoals about the middle of the bay with a least depth of 23^ 
fathoms near the center of the bay. A wreck, visible at all stages of 
the tide, lies on the beach at the head of the bay. This wreck, the 
sharp rock on the ledge between the islands, and several hilltops make 
good marks for entering the bay. 

3 Cocoro Island, lying 4 miles south-southwest of the Tagauayan 
Islands, is steep-to and generally low with one hill, 293 feet high, in 
the southern part. The entire island is given over to the cultivation 
of rice and coconut trees. 



36 PALAWAN. 

Cuyo Island is about 6% miles long and 5 miles wide, and consists 
of two hills joined by a low narrow neck of land. Mount Bombon, 
the northern hill, is 851 feet high and about V/ 2 miles across, with a 
rounded outline and profile. The slopes of the hill are smooth and 
fairly steep, reddish brown in color during the dry season, and are 
covered with short grass and a few small bushes and bamboo. The 
shores in both of the bights directly south of the mountain are man- 
grove, while that of the northern end of Cuyo Island is steep and 
rocky. Mount Aguada, 602 feet high, lies in the center of the southern 
and larger part of the island. It is a sharp hill with long slopes that 
are covered with a mixed vegetation comprising cultivated land, 
orange, mango, bamboo, nangca, papaya, and arica. The shores are 
low rocky ledges, or mangroves with coconut along the beaches. 
There are extensive coral reefs along the western shore and in the 
bight on the eastern side. 

Luebuan Hill is a sharp peak on the eastern side, rising to a height 
of 360 feet, making an excellent landmark when approaching the 
island from the eastward. Putic Island is 420 feet high and promi- 
nent from the northwestward; it rises to a sharp peak and has rough, 
steep, rocky shores on the seaward sides. It is connected to Cuyo 
Island by a reef almost dry at low water. 

Cuyo (chart 4336) is a town of about 4,000 inhabitants, situated 
opposite a break in the reef on the west side of Cuyo Island. From 
the west and southwest, three iron roofs of school buildings are seen 
in the northern part of the town ; south of these are the iron roof of 
the church and gray stone walls of the fort and bell tower and the red 
roof of the tribunal ; and farther southward on the short stone mole 
is the light-colored storehouse from which a red lantern light is 
shown at night. The Philippine Weather Bureau maintains an ob- 
server at Cuyo. There is a wireless station and the town is con- 
nected with San Jose, Panay, by cable. Supplies of all kinds are 
scarce and expensive. Water is obtained from wells, is scarce and 
indifferent in quality. 

Good anchorage for small vessels, protected from all winds except 
those from the southwest, may be found in a break in the reef off 
the end of the mole. During the southwest monsoon vessels are 
sometimes obliged to seek shelter close to the northern side of Bisu- 
cay Island. 

Buoys. — There is a black can buoy marking the northern side of 
the entrance to the anchorage off Cuyo and a red nun buoy marking 
the southern side ; both buoys are moored in 3 fathoms of water. A 
fixed red light visible 7 miles is exhibited from the cupola of an old 
tower near the end of the stone pier. 

Direction. — Vessels bound for Cuyo should bring the pagoda on 
the end of the pier to bear 79° (78° mag.) and steer for it, passing 
midway between the point of the reef and anchoring 250 or 300 
yards from the end of the pier in 2% or 3 fathoms, sandy bottom. 
This course leads just southward of a 4 1 / 4-fathom shoal, the southern- 
most of the Gosong Dangers. The depth at the entrance between the 
reefs is 4 fathoms, decreasing gradually toward the pier. 

Indagamy Island, lying 1 mile westward of Putic Island, is small, 
steep, and rocky with an uneven rounded sky line reaching a height 
of 130 feet near the center. 



CTJYO ISLANDS. 37 

Gosong Dangers. — A shoal -with a least known depth of 2^4 fathoms 
lies 2% miles 305° (304° mag.) from Indagamy Island. This is the 
northernmost of a large number of dangers lying between the west 
coast of Cuyo, Putic, Bararin, and Bisucay Islands. There are sev- 
eral deep channels through this area, but the best approach to the 
town of Cuyo is through a deep channel % mile wide just north of 
Bisucay Island. Gosong Rock, 10 feet high, lies 1%, miles west-south- 
west of Indagamy Island. 

Bararin Island, a small triangular-shaped island, 297 feet high, lies 
4*4 miles west-northwest from the pier at Cuyo. It is steep-to on the 
western side, but a reef makes out from the southeastern shore. The 
island is covered with a scrub tropical growth and is of no commercial 
importance. 

Bisucay Island is oblong in shape, iy 2 by 1% miles, with a double- 
peaked hill, 320 feet high, near the middle. The hill slopes sharply 
from its summit to about the 100-foot elevation and then more gradu- 
ally to the shore. Coconuts fringe the shore and the peak is wooded. 
There is a deep channel, about y± mile wide, between Bisucay and 
Cuyo Islands. The northeast point is low and sandy ; the southeast 
point is rocky, with a 90-foot hill on it, which forms a good Jand- 
mark for passing through the line of shoals south and southeast of it. 
Imalaguan Island lies about 3 miles southward of Cuyo Island. It 
is about y s mile across, 280 feet high, has three summits, and is cov- 
ered with grass and bushes. There are several banks with 8 to 10 
fathoms of water between it and the Cuyo shore. 

Pandan, 82 feet high, is a small unimportant island lying on a bank 
about 4^/2 miles westward of Bisucay Island. The bank is about 3 
miles long in a northwest and opposite direction and iy 2 miles 
wide with general depths of 5 to 6 fathoms. A depth of \y 2 fathoms 
is shown % mile north of the island. 

Canipo Island, 540 feet high, lying 8 miles northwestward of Cuyo 
Island, presents the appearance of a ridge with regular slopes from 
all directions. It is covered with grass and underbrush. Some rice 
and coprax is produced, but the island is ^f small importance and 
vessels should keep well outside the 10-fathom curve as there is 
always danger of coral heads in less water. 

Paya, Patunga, Pamitinan, and Lubic, 180, 455, 422, and 483 feet 
high, respectively, are four small islands lying northwest and west- 
ward of Canipo. They are about 2% miles apart in a northeast and 
opposite direction, and all are steep-to, y 2 mile clearing all dangers. 
Cauayan Island, 240 feet high, lies 7l/ 2 miles northwest of Pamitinan, 
and Tabac Sock, 8 feet high, lies 7y 2 miles westward. A rock awash 
lies about % mile northeast of Tabac Eock. 

A rocky reef of small area with a least known depth of 2% fathoms 
lies iy 2 miles 236° (235° mag.) from the south point of Lubic Island. 
Round Islet, the westernmost islet of the Cuyo Group, is of basaltic 
formation, 100 feet high, steep sided, and has only pandanus growing 

at the top. 

Capno'yan is the most important of the islands lying southwest of 
Cuyo Island. It is roughly circular in shape, wooded, and rises near 
the southwest side to a short ridge, 468 feet high. Some cultivated 
areas and nipa houses are scattered over the island, the principal 
products being rice, corn, and cattle. The two villages on the eastern 
shore are almost hidden by coconut groves. The northern village 



38 PALAWAN. 

is marked by several black rocks on the sand beach near the high 
water line; the southern village by a boathouse at the beach. A 
narrow coral reef, with a sand beach at high-water line, surrounds 
the island with the exception of a short stretch at the southwest side, 
where there is a steep rocky bluff. The eastern side of the island 
is steep-to, but shoal water 5 to 6 fathoms extends southward to in- 
clude Malcatop and Pangatatan Islands. This area has numerous 
coral bowlders. A 5%-fathom shoal lies about 1 mile northwest of 
the island. 

Malcatop Island, 127 feet high, is covered with scrub trees and 
grass. It has two distinct summits, the northwestern one being the 
higher. The shore line is rocky, the northwestern and southern ends 
rising in steep rocky bluffs. The island is not inhabited but is partly 
cultivated by the natives from Capnoyan. 

Pangatatan Island, 127 feet high, rises abruptly to its peak near the 
northern shore. There is a small sand beach on the northeast side. 
The island is covered with scrub trees, bamboo, and underbrush and 
is not inhabited. 

Silat Island, 118 feet high, rises in an even slope from the northern 
shore for about one-third of its length, the southern end of the island 
being high and flat, with an almost perpendicular bluff at its southern 
end. The island is covered with trees, grass, and bamboo, and is only 
inhabited during the planting season, when the natives visit it to 
plant rice and camotes. 

Quiminatin Island and Quiminatin Chicos differ in character from 
the other islands of the group, resembling more the structure of 
Coron Island. Quiminatin Island, 580 feet high, rises in steep 
precipices on all sides and is eroded and undercut from 10 to 15 feet 
at the water line. The northwest corner is separated from the rest 
of the island by a deep saddle and the western shore of this point 
is the only landing place for ascending to the summit. Some large 
pieces of rock have fallen from the cliffs and are almost awash and 
there is a small sand beach on the northern side. A little scrub growth 
clings to the rocks, otherwise the island is barren. The water is 
very deep close-to. 

Quiminatin Chicos mark the eastern edge of a large shoal extending 
about 1% mile north and south and 1 mile east and west. The islands 
in structure and appearance are similar to Quiminatin, the larger 
one being 210 feet high. The shoal has a general depth of 4 fathoms 
with numerous coral bowlders, 4 or 5 feet in height, about y 2 mile 
southwest of the islands exists a coral head with only iy 2 fathoms 
of water over it. The edge of the shoal is abrupt, dropping into 20 
fathoms of water in a very steep slope. 

Santa Filomena Shoals are three shoal areas, lying o to 7 miles south- 
west of Quiminatin Island and having depths of 11/4, 2, and \y 2 
fathoms of water over coral heads that rise from a general depth of 
3 to 5 fathoms. Each shoal is about y 2 mile in diameter, steep-to 
with deep water between them. They are the outer dangers of the 
Cuyo Group in this direction. 

Ramon and Pacheco Shoals are two shoals lying between the Santa 
Filomena Shoals and Capnoyan Island. They are smaller in area, 
steep-to, and have least depths of 2% and Sy 2 fathoms, respectively. 

Piedra Blanca or White Rock lies 24 miles 182° (181° mag.) from 
Mount Aguada on Cuyo Island. It is a low bare rock, the highest 



CUYO ISLANDS. 39 

part being 12 feet above high water. It lies on the south edge of a 
shoal that extends y 2 mile eastward of the rock and 1*4 miles north- 
Avestward with depths of 4 to 8 fathoms of water. The shoal is 
steep-to, over 50 fathoms of water being found a short distance from 
the edge. 

Queen of the Sea Bank is a coral shoal of considerable area with a 
least depth of 3y 2 fathoms of water in latitude 10° 24'.3 N., longi- 
tude 120° 28'.5 E. The southern and western sides are very steep, 
but on the northern and eastern sides the soundings give ample 
warning. The shoal consists of sand and coral heads, but is rarely 
visible and seldom if ever breaks in heavy weather. This is the only 
danger found in this vicinity. Elax Eock does not exist in the loca- 
tion formerly assigned to it. 

Dalanganem Islands, situated on the western side of Cuyo West 
Pass, consist of Calandagan, Maducang, and four small islands or 
rocks. They are steep-to, rising abruptly from the sea, and have a 
rugged appearance, of a light brown or grayish color, depending 
upon the season. 

Calandagan Island is the largest and most important of the group, 
being about 2% miles long by % mile wide. Mount Dalanganem, at 
the southern end of the island, rises steeply and evenly to an east and 
west ridge, 704 feet in height. The southern and eastern slopes are 
barren and large bowlders lie at the base and along the lower slopes. 
The main part of the island, 1,024 feet high, is very rugged and is 
covered with grass, bushes, and trees, with some scattered houses and 
cleared spaces, where rice is planted in season. The northern slope 
consists of a Series of saw-tooth hills, all of which are covered with 
trees, grass, and brush. Tudela is located on the neck of low land that 
joins the two parts of the island. It consists of about 20 houses, a 
school, and church, but is of no commercial importance. Fair 
weather anchorage may be had off the northeast side of Calandagan 
Island in 9 to 11 fathoms, coral and sand, and in 4 or 5 fathoms on 
the shoal that extends % mile southward of the southwest end of the 
island. 

Nasolot Island, to the northward of Calandagan, appears to be a 
continuation of the series of hills of that island, the channel separat- 
ing the two being only about 200 yards wide and 2 fathoms deep. It 
is small, but rises to a height of 202 feet, the top of the peak being 
covered with trees and brush while the ends are bare. 

Maducang Island, the second largest island of the group, has the 
same general appearance as Calandagan, but has less vegetation and 
no permanent inhabitants. The ridge rises to a height of 965 feet, 
the surface being mostly loose rock and gravel. Anas Island, 296 feet 
high, is connected to the southeast end of Maducang by a reef that 
bares at low water. The channel between Maducang and Calandagan 
has a depth of 9 fathoms and affords anchorage with a little protec- 
tion under the lee of either island. 

Casirahan Island lies 5 miles east of the north end of Calandagan 
Island. It is rocky and steep-to, the southwestern end is barren, the 
northeastern and higher part, 115 feet high, is covered with grass 
and scrub trees. 

Cauayan Island (Bird Island) lies 2 miles 335° from Casirahan 
Island. It is a bare rock of a light gray color, and rises in almost 



40 PALAWAN. 

perpendicular cliffs to a height of 97 feet out of a depth of 20 fath- 
oms. The northeast corner is somewhat less steep and a landing may- 
be made there. A rock, almost awash at low water, lies about 100 
yards westward of the south end of the island. 

LINAPACAN ISLAND. 

Linapacan Island is the largest of an extensive group of islands 
lying in Linapacan Strait between the northeast coast of Palawan 
and the Calamianes Islands. It is about 9 miles in extent, roughly 
triangular in shape and of a very irregular outline. It is mountain- 
ous throughout, rising to an elevation of 1,086 feet in the southeastern 
part. All the points are high, steep, and rocky with mangrove or 
sand beaches in the bays between them. 

North Bay is a large bay open to northwest, on the north end of 
Linapacan Island. The head of the bay is divided into three parts 
by two projecting points. The old Spanish fort and barrio of San 
Nicolas are situated at the head of the western bay. There is a good 
launch anchorage in this bay in 6 to 7 fathoms, mud bottom. 

Northwest Bay is also open to northwestward, but good, well-pro- 
tected anchorage may be found in the easternmost of the two arms 
of the bay in 18 to 19 fathoms, mud bottom. In entering this bay, 
care must be taken to give the rocks making off from the shore % 
mile southeast of a small cogon-covered island, a good berth. En- 
trance to Northwest Bay is easy. Vanguardia Islet, 91 feet high and 
lying 3 miles northward of the western entrance point, makes a good 
mark for vessels approaching from northward, Alerta Rock, 70 feet 
high and lying 1% miles southeastward of Vanguardia Islet, is a 
good landmark for vessels approaching from eastward. There is a 
rock, 60 feet high, 1 mile westward of the north end of the point 
separating North Baj^ and Northwest Bay and a rock awash y 2 mile 
northeastward of the 60-foot rock. This rock, awash, is connected 
with Alerta Rock, 1 mile northwestward, by a bank with 7 fathoms of 
water. A deeper channel exists southeastward of the rock awash and 
the 60-foot rock, but the point is foul and should be given a good 
berth. There are a number of detached islets and rocks lying off the 
northwest point of Linapacan, but a berth of y 2 mile will clear all 
dangers. Calaylayan Bay, on the western side of Linapacan Island, 
affords well-protected anchorage for launches and small vessels ; the 
anchorage area is deep and is restricted by a wide coral reef making 
out from the eastern shore. Cagdanao Island, 291 feet high, lies before 
the entrance to the bay. It has coral reefs on the north, west, and 
south sides, but is steep-to on the east, the channel eastward of the 
island being % mile wide, deep, and clear. A shoal with a least 
known depth of 5% fathoms lies 1 mile 316° (315° mag.) from Cag- 
danao Island. A rock, 25 feet high and joined by a coral reef to a 
small, unnamed island, 50 feet high, lies % mile westward of Cag- 
danao Island. 

South Bay, lying eastward of Bubulauan Point on the south coast 
of Linapacan, affords well-protected anchorage in the northeast arm 
of the bay. Anchorage for launches may be found back of Tondaje 
Island in 10 to 14 fathoms, mud bottom. The entrance to South Bay 
is wide and open, but care must be taken to avoid Goson Eeef, lying 



LINAPACAN ISLAND. 41 

114 miles southwestward of the eastern entrance point, and also the 
rocks extending % mile westward of the point. The eastern part of 
Linapacan is more regular with steep, wooded ridges close to the 
shore. A land slide, situated 1% miles northward of Sidsid Point, 
makes a prominent landmark for vessels approaching Linapacan 
Strait from the southeastward. A number of detached rocks and 
shoals lie off this coast, a 101-foot rock lying 11/4 miles 107° (106° 
mag.) from the landslide. Good anchorage in southwest weather 
may be had off the bario of San Miguel, westward of Patoyo Island, 
and for launches and small vessels in the channel westward of Maap- 
dit Island. The channel west of He Island is much used by small 
launches not drawing over 4 feet to avoid the bad tide rips that 
often exist eastward of the island. Patoyo Island is easily recognized 
by its twin peaks, 740 feet high. ■ 

There are a large number of islands, rocks, and reefs, with deep 
channels between them, lying northeast of Linapacan Island. Their 
position may be best understood by reference to the chart. The chan- 
nel between Dicabaito Island, the southernmost of the Calamianes, 
and Dicapulan and Binalabag Islands is 3 miles wide, deep and clear. 
There is a partially protected anchorage for launches on the south 
side of the latter island. Beacon Rocks, 13 feet high, lie almost 1 
mile north of Pangaldauan Island, and a 2%-fathom reef lies 1 mile 
westward of the island. Dimanglet Island, lying iy 2 miles north of 
Bulauan Point, is readily recognized by its two peaks, 375 and 330 
feet high, separated by low ground. The red cliffs on the higher 
peak show up well from westward. Escucha Rock, 80 feet high, lies 
% mile northward, with a rock awash fo mile northwestward of it. 
Shoals with 2% fathoms least water lie % mile northwest and south- 
east of Escucha Rock. Inapupan, Bolina, Manlegad, Dimancal, Diman- 
sig, Ariara, and Malbatan form the northern side of a deep channel 
V/i miles wide with (Jued Islet and reef about in the middle of the 
channel. Mayokok Islet, 75 feet high, lies about 1 mile northeast of 
Patoyo Island, and the Hidong Islets, a cluster of rocks from 2 to 25 
feet high, lie 1% miles eastward of the same island. Torres Reef, 414 
fathoms least water, lying iy 2 miles 128° (127° mag.) from Debogso 
Islet, and Sabino Reef, 4% fathoms, lying in latitude 11° 30' 00" N., 
longitude 119° 59' 50" E., are the outer dangers to be avoided in 
approaching Linapacan Strait from the southeast. 

Malubutgiubut is the northwestern island of the Linapacan Group. 
It is easily recognized by its conical peak, 685 feet high, which, when 
viewed from northward, appears to be a pyramid. The island is 
partly wooded and partly covered with cogon. Base Rock, 12 feet 
high, lies 2y 2 miles north-northwestward and a 20-foot rock and a 
15-foot rock, 1% and % miles northward. Manga, Cacayatan, Lau- 
anan, and Condut Islands are joined together by a reef. Debogso Rock, 
165 feet high, lies about % mile westward of Cacayatan Island. 
Calibang Island is the largest of the islands westward of Linapacan 
Island. It is very irregular in shape, with a number of hills, the 
highest, 650 feet, being in the southeastern part of the island. Bar- 
selisa, a small islet, 205 feet high, lies 1 mile northward, and a rock 
awash lies 1 mile eastward of the north end of the island. 

Between Calibang Island and Gintu Islands, 3 miles eastward, are 
a number of dangerous banks and shoals. Gintu Island is surrounded 



42 PALAWAN. 

by coral reef and a long reef extends northwestward having a narrow 
channel between it and the island northward. A 50-foot rock lies 
about 1 mile southwestward and a 63,4-fathom shoal 1% miles south- 
ward of the island. A 4%-fathom shoal lies % mile southeast o± the 
6%-fathom shoal. 

PALAWAN ISLAND, 

the sixth island in point of size, is the most western of the Philippine 
Islands. It extends in a northeast and southwest direction between 
the parallels of 8° 21' and 11° 25' N. latitude, and is long, narrow, 
and high, forming the western boundary of the Sulu Sea. It has an 
area of about 4,027 square statute miles and a length of general shore 
line of about 674 miles (776 statute miles). The coast line is very 
irregular, being deeply indented by numerous bays and inlets, some 
of which form the finest harbors in the Archipelago. The shores are 
faced by numerous islands and reefs, and, owing to the unfinished 
surveys, navigation is conducted with difficulty. The island is 
sparsely inhabited and the interior little known. 

NORTH COAST OF PALAWAN. 

Between Crawford Point, on the west coast, and Darocotan Point, 
on the east coast, Palawan is about 8 miles wide. Midway between 
these two points a high promontory, 2 miles wide, extends north- 
ward for a distance of 5 miles. The shore line of the promontory is 
bold and irregular, there being only two small stretches of mangrove 
on the eastern side, the remainder being rock, or steep, sand beaches 
fringed with coral. The entire country is wooded. North Hill, 935 
feet high and a 965-foot hill, are two prominent hills that lie in the 
same latitude about equal distances from the east and west coast, 
respectively. Southward of these hills there is a single high ridge 
rising to an elevation of 1,200 feet. Northward there are two lower 
hills, one 475 feet high, near Liber Point the northwest point of 
Palawan, and a 550-foot hill close to Cabuli Point. These latter hills 
are inconspicuous except from an east or west direction. 

Cabuli Island lies % mile north of the northeast end of Palawan, 
from which it is separated by a channel having a depth of 5% fathoms. 
The island is 1% miles long north and south, 455 feet high, with a 
rather flat summit, and is steep-to on all sides. A good range for 
the channel between Cabuli Island and Palawan is to keep the north- 
erly of the Brother Islands halfway between a prominent knoll near 
the north end of Hoc Island and the highest peak near the center of 
the island. 

EAST COAST OF PALAWAN. 

General Remarks. — Surveys on the east coast of Palawan are 
still in progress. The observations made so far show that there are 
numerous dangerous shoals and coral reefs lying from 10 to 20 miles 
off this coast. The mountains of Palawan and the many small 
islands scattered along the coast afford ready marks for navigating 
the various channels. The directions given for entering the various 
ports are those used by the surveying vessels and have been found 
safe, but they are not intended in any way to lessen the necessity 



NORTH AND EAST COAST OF PALAWAN. 43 

of keeping that vigilant lookout which the navigation of coral seas 
on all occasions urgently demands. The adoption of the Palawan 
Passage in preference to the route on the east side of the island is 
recommended for sailing vessels bound for China ports. In the 
strength of the northeast monsoon sailing vessels may, taking the 
eastern route, reach the parallel of 10° N., or to the island of 
Dumaran, without any great difficulty; but to get beyond this they 
will experience considerable delay, even if they succeed at all, for 
the current at this season sets strongly southward between Palawan 
and the Cuyos, the velocity being almost in direct proportion to the 
strength of the wind. 

The British surveying vessel Royalist in 1850 during the month 
of December was delayed 15 days, vainly endeavoring to get around 
Dumaran against the monsoon, and had, after all, to make the 
passage into the China Sea via Panay and Mindoro. 

Tidal curkjents. — The flood sets along the shore southward and 
the ebb northward. The maximum velocity observed was 1% knots 
and the rise 7 feet. The currents on the east coast depend chiefly on 
the prevailing winds. 

Brother Islands are two small islands separated by a deep channel 
almost Y2 mile wide. Deep water exists between them and the Palawan 
Coast. The northern island, 110 feet high, lies % mile east- southeast 
of Cabuli Point, and there is a shoal with 4*4 fathoms, least known 
depth, % mile 140° (139° mag.) from this island. 

Darocotan Bay, westward of Darocotan Point, is about 3 miles wide. 
There is a good anchorage in southwest weather about midway 
between Darocotan Island and the barrio Tiniguiban in 8 fathoms, 
mud bottom. To approach this anchorage enter the bay from the 
northward, keeping Darocotan Island about y 2 mile distant. 
Launches and small boats can approach to within 300 yards of the 
town. The southern part of Darocotan Bay is foul, and vessels are 
advised" not to proceed farther south than a line drawn west from 
Darocotan Point. 

From Darocotan Point the coast trends southerly for 11 miles to 
Shark Fin Bay. It is faced by numerous islands and reefs, and is 
fringed by a coral reef extending out in places more than a mile. 
A rock with a least known depth of l 1 /^ fathoms lies 1*4 miles 114° 
(113° mag.) from Darocotan Point. A rock awash at one-fourth 
tide lies 1% miles northeast of the town of Sibaltan. A line joining 
these two rocks and Malonao Kock, at the entrance to Imorigue Bay, 
bounds the outer limit of shoals along this coast. Malonao Rock, 30 
feet high, is steep-to on all sides. 

Imorigue Bay, between Batas Island and Palawan, is filled with 
reefs and does not afford good anchorage. Vessels desiring to enter 
the channel westward of Imorigue Island should bring a saw-tooth 
projection about halfway up the eastern side of Imorigue Island in 
range with Shark Fin Peak, bearing 221° (220° mag.) before 
Malonao Bock bears 316° (315° mag.). When the northwest point 
of Imorigue Island bears 241° (240° mag.) steer for it, rounding 
the point close-to, and follow a mid-channel course westward of 
Talaotauan Island. 

Iioc Island, the largest of the islands between Batas and Lma- 
pacan Islands, lies on the east side of the inside route east of Pala- 
wan. It has two distinct mountain ranges separated by a valley 

33452°— 21 4 



44 PALAWAN. 

extending from the northwest to the southeast side. The island is 
heavily wooded. In the southern part of the island some timber 
has been cut and the land cleared and cultivated. The shore is 
fringed with coral reefs with the exception of a small stretch at 
the northeast end of the island which is undercut by the sea. A 
chain of rocks varying in height from 2 to 18 feet extends y 2 mile off 
the north end of the island. A rock, 78 feet high, on the edge of the 
shore reef near the north end of the island and a small islet, 185 
feet high, on the east side and about 1 mile from the south end make 
good landmarks when in this vicinity. A bank with a least known 
depth of 6*4 fathoms lies about % mile eastward of the 185-foot 
islet. 

Barangonan Island, lying 1 mile northeast of Hoc Island, has a 
double-peaked hill 385 feet high in the southwestern part, a 330- 
foot hill in the east, and a lesser elevation in the northwestern part. 
The island is easily recognized by the double peak, which is bare, 
while the other peaks in this locality are all wooded. 

Dado Rock lies 2 miles east-southeast of Barangonan Island. It 
rises vertically from the water to a height of 75 feet and is much 
undercut by the sea. Dado Bank, with a least known depth of 8 
fathoms, lies 1 mile southeastward. 

Bagambangan Island, a triangular-shaped island, 550 feet high, lies 
2 miles southeast of Hoc Island. It is wooded with the exception of a 
small area on the west side, which is partly under cultivation ; about 
halfway up the east coast there is a prominent pinnacle rock 90 feet 
high. A conical rock, 152 feet high, having a reddish appearance, lies 
1 mile southward of the island. 

Maosonon Island, 1 mile west of Bagambangan Island, is partly 
cultivated. The shore on the west side is volcanic rock, much eroded 
and steep-to. A small rocky islet, 25 feet high, covered with scrub 
trees and brush, lies on the reef extending off the southeast point of 
the island. little Maosonon Island, 139 feet high, lies % mile west- 
ward of the northwest point of Bagambangan Island on the western 
edge of a coral reef % mile long north and south and steep-to on all 
sides. 

Binulbulan Island, 2 miles southwest of Hoc Island, has three dis- 
tinct peaks, the northern and highest one being 660 feet high. The 
entire island is wooded. One mile off the southeast end of the island 
is a rocky island 155 feet high. Midway between this island and 
Binulbulan is another rocky islet 100 feet high. Shoals and de- 
tached rocks extend about y 2 mile off the southeast end of Binulbulan 
Island. 

Deribongan, Cagdanao, Maalequequen, and Pangisian Islands.— This 
group of islands lies 3 miles southwest of Bagambangan Island. 
Deribongan Island rises gradually from the sea to a peak 328 feet high 
near the central part of the island. A shoal with a least known depth 
of 4% fathoms lies 1% miles 84° (83° mag.) from Deribongan 
Island on the western part of an extensive bank. Halfway between 
Deribongan and Bagambangan Island is a small island, low and 
sandy at its west end and high and rocky at the east end, reaching an 
elevation of 120 feet. A rock 10 feet high lies 650 yards southwest 
of the islet, and a shoal with a least known depth of 5 fathoms lies 1 
mile westward. 



EAST COAST TO SHARK FIN BAY. 45 

Cagdanao Island can be recognized from, the northward by its bare 
cliffs, which rise vertically from the water 326 feet to the highest part 
of the island. 

Maalequequen has an elevation of 296 feet at its south end and 
slopes gradually to the northward. 

Pangisian Island has cliffs rising vertically from the water at its 
northeast end and a pinnacle rock, 150 feet high, inclined to the north- 
ward, stands out prominently. At distances of y 2 and 1 mile south- 
east of Pangisian Island are two rocks, 41 and 75 feet high, respec- 
tively. 

The channel between Deribongan and the other islands is over y 2 
mile wide, deep and clear, but there are a number of shoals and reefs 
eastward and southeastward of each of the other three islands. A 
rock awash lies y 2 mile eastward of the south end of Maalequequen 
with a ^4-fathom spot westward of it. 

Shoals. — The following shoals lie in the offshore passage eastward 
of the north end of Palawan : Benito Shoal, 6% fathoms, in latitude 
11° 19' 35" N., longitude 119° 51' 00" E. ; Primo Reef, ^ fathoms, 
in latitude 11° 15' 14" N., longitude 119° 51' 28" E.; Ubaldo Reef, 
23,4 fathoms, in latitude 11° 12' 14" N., longitude 119° 48' 30" E. 
Bera Bank, with a least known depth of 7 fathoms, lies 2 miles west- 
southwestward of this shoal ; and Tejada Reef, 514 fathoms, in lati- 
tude 11° 07' 56" N., longitude 119° 52; 05'^ E. They are all steep'to, 
the lead giving little indication of their existence. 

Batas Island forms the northern side of Shark Fin Bay. It is 
about 5 'miles long in an east-northeast and opposite direction and 
2% miles wide. The island is almost divided into two by the bays 
making into the low land between the two heavily wooded peaks. 
The western and higher peak has an elevation of 1,455 feet; the east- 
ern, 1,220 feet. The shore is bordered by a reef with numerous shoals 
off the west and southwest part of the island. Imorigue Island, a 
prominent island 1,062 feet high, lying westward of Batas Island, is 
connected to it by a reef which bares at low water. Talaotanan, lying 
westward of Imorigue Island and separated from it by a narrow chan- 
nel, is 157 feet high. The channel between it and Palawan has a 
depth of 7 fathoms and forms the northern entrance to the anchorage 
in Shark Fin Bay. 

SHARK FIN BAY 

is formed by Batas Island on the north, Maytiguid Island on the 
south, and the coast of Palawan on the west. Nearly the entire shore 
line is mangrove and is fringed with numerous reefs and shoals. The 
northwestern part of the bay, northeastward of the barrio of Oton, 
forms the best typhoon anchorage in this part of Palawan. 

Miraya Island, 125 feet high and heavily wooded, lies 1^4 miles off 
the southeast end of Batas Island. Maouao Island, 80 feet high, lies 
about 2 miles southwest of Batas Island, near the head of the bay. 
These two islands form excellent marks for approaching the 
anchorage. 

Directions. — The directions for entering the channel westward of 
Talaotauan Island through Imorigue Bay are given on page 43. 
To enter Shark Fin Bay from the northeast, round the east end of 
Batas Island in mid-channel. When the north end of Maalequequen 



46 PALAWAN. 

Island bears 45° (44° mag.), change course to 225° (224° mag.), 
passing about % mile westward of Miraya Island. When on line be- 
tween Mir ay a and Macuao Islands change course to head about 3° 
to the left of Maeuao Island, or a course 248° (247° mag.), and keep 
the north tangent of Miraya Island dead astern. Go nothing to the 
north of the line joining the two islands on account of several bad 
coral shoals on the north side of the bay. 

When the southwest tangent of Imorique Island bears 340° (339° 
mag.) steer for it until Malapari, the largest of a small group of 
islands on the right, is abeam, then change the course to 280° (279° 
mag.) for a distance of % or % mile and anchor in 8 to 10 fathoms, 
mud bottom. Small vessels can continue westward and southwest- 
ward behind the reef to within % of a mile of the barrio of Oton. 
One red and three black buoys now mark this part of the channel 
into Oton. 

When approaching Shark Fin Bay from the southward, from a 
point in mid-channel west of Dinit Island, steer north until the 
southern tangent to Malotamban Island is abeam, change course to 
315° (314° mag.) heading for the highest peak of Batas Island, 
when Miraya Island bears 45° (44° mag.) head for Macuao Island 
bearing 260° (259° mag.) ; keep this course until the southwest 
tangent to Imorigue Island bears 340° (339° mag.), and follow the 
previous directions to the anchorage. A 480-foot hill to the north- 
ward is on range with the tangent to Imorigue Island on this bearing. 

Maytiguid Island, lying on the south side of Shark Fin Bay, is 
separated from the coast of Palawan by Tanguingui Channel, which 
in some places is less than 200 yards wide. The island is irregular 
in shape, the shore line is fringed with mangroves except a few rocky 
points, and Negra Point at the south end, which is rocky, steep, and 
much undercut. There are two prominent high points on the island 
separated by a valley across the island. The north peak, 1,002 feet 
high, shows prominently to the northward, and is used in connection 
with Miraya Island as a range in coming down the inside passage 
from Hoc Island. The peak on the south side is 1,100 feet high, dome- 
shaped, and prominent when viewed from eastward. Practically all 
of Maytiguid Island is heavily wooded. 

Nabat Island, 226 feet high, lying just off the south end of Mayti- 
guid Island, has the same general appearance as Negra Point. It is 
of limestone formation with a prominent high point at each end. 
The shore is steep and has been much undercut by the action of the 
sea. 

Islands and shoals eastward of Shark Fin Bay.— A coral patch, awash 
at low water, lies iy 2 miles south of Miraya Island with a %-f athom 
patch 14 m il e northwestward of it. Miraya Island, in range with 
the east tangent of Batas Island, leads close eastward of the rock 
awash. 

A group of four large islands and a number of smaller islands and 
shoals lie to the eastward of the inside passage along this part of 
Palawan, affording excellent protection to vessels using this passage. 
This passage is from 1 to 2 miles wide and easily navigated.. The 
channels among the islands of the group are narrow and tortuous and 
should not be attempted except under the most favorable circum- 
stances. Calabugdong, the largest island of the group, is about 3 miles 
long and 1 mile wide, and reaches an elevation of 692 feet in the 



SHARK FIN BAY TO TAYTAY BAY. 47 

southern and higher of the two hills. A cliff 400 feet high halfway 
up the east side shows prominently when approaching from the 
northeast. The shore line on the west side, being well protected from 
the sea, is fringed with mangrove, while that on the east and north 
side is rocky with occasional stretches of sand beach. 

Maobanen Island, 2% miles long and 1 mile wide, lies y 2 mile south 
of Calabugdong Island. It is 706 feet high, the highest point being 
rear the middle of the island and sloping uniformly in all direc- 
tions. Unlike the other islands of this group, Maobanen is not 
heavily wooded, some of the peaks being bare and others covered with 
cogon. A rocky islet, .91 feet high, rising straight up from the water, 
lies 530 yards off the northeast end of Maobanen. On the northeast 
side of this islet is a conspicuous pinnacle rock, with rocks awash at 
half tide 100 yards northeast of it. 

Casian Island lies % mile east of Maobanen Island. Near the south- 
west end of the island is a sharp conical peak 865 feet high, which 
stands out prominently among the more rounded peaks of this local- 
ity. Separating the high ground on the east side of the island from 
that on the west side is a low flat valley. The town of Casian is situ- 
ated on a sand beach at the south end of this valley. Two beacons 
mark the entrance through the reef for small boats landing at the 
town. 

Debangan Island, separated from Casian Island by a narrow chan- 
nel 320 yards wide, has one prominent peak, 703 feet high. The 
island is wooded with the exception of a narrow strip along the west 
side, which is being cultivated- About 300 yards southwest of 
Debangan Island are several rocks, varying in height from 2 to 15 
feet, and 425 yards northeast of the island is a rock 30 feet high, 
rising vertically from the water. 

Cagdanao Island, lying about iy 2 miles northeast of Casian Island, 
has a sharp prominent peak, 533 feet high. Binga Island, 385 feet 
high, is a small oblong island lying 2% miles northeast of Cagdanao 
Island. A sharp, narrow, rocky point, 50 feet high, projects from 
the southeast end of the island, with a rocky islet, 30 feet high, 
lying 160 yards off the end of the point. Another rocky islet, 95 feet 
high, lies 215 yards off the north end of Binga Island. 

Maqueriben Island, 295 feet high, lies just off the northeast end of 
Calabugdong Island, and Malcorot, 276 feet high, and the two Buta- 
can Islands, 270 and 213 feet high, lie just off the northwest end. A 
%-fathom shoal lies almost % mile 330° (329° mag.) from the west- 
ern Butacan Island with a 4 1 / ^-fathom shoal and a S^-fathom shoal 
y 2 and 1 mile eastward of it. Malotamban Island, 168 feet high, is 
separated from the southwest coast of Calabugdong Island by a deep 
channel ^4 mile wide. Dinit Island, 247 feet high, is separated from 
the southwest end of Maobanen Island by a narrow, deep channel. 
The channel westward of the islands is over 1 mile wide, deep and 
clear. v 

Dadaliten Island, 257 feet high, lies near the western end of a shoal 
area nearly 2 miles long, bordering the north side of a channel 1*4 
miles wide, leading from the eastward into the inside passage and 

The shore line along this part of the coast of Palawan is mostly 
fringed with mangroves. The country back of the coast is mountain- 



48 PALAWAN. 

ous and has many prominent peaks. Shark Fin Peak, 1,915 feet high, 
is the most prominent peak on the north end of Palawan. It is sharp 
and so inclined that it has the appearance of a shark's fin. From the 
peak a ridge runs south a distance of 3 miles, with peaks ranging 
from 1,700 to 1,900 feet, the ridge ending in a sharp peak known 
as Sharp Shoulder. A valley running northwest separates Shark Fin 
Peak from the mountains to the northward. 

Silanga Peak, 1,535 feet high, is the highest .peak on the peninsula 
formed by Shark Fin Bay, Tanguingui Channel, Silanga Bay, and 
Mesecoy Bay. From the peak the ground slopes abruptly to the 
northward and more gradually to the southward. A valley 1 mile 
wide separates Silanga Peak from the higher mountains westward. 

The north and east shores of Silanga Bay are foul ; the west shore 
is fringed by a wide coral reef. To enter the bay, from midway 
between Nabat and Maytiguid Islands steer 269° (268° mag.) until 
Silanga barrio bears 298° (297° mag.), then steer for it, anchoring 
about % mile off the town in 10 to 12 fathoms. During the north- 
east monsoon, tide rips, dangerous to small boats, occasionally form 
off Nabat Island. 'Silanga Bay may also be entered by passing close 
southward of Nabat Island to avoid Royalist Reef, and passing 
midway between the Silanga Islands and Maytiguid on the above 
bearing. 



included between Maytiguid Island and Santa Cruz Point, is 10 
miles wide at the entrance and extends about 7 miles westward. 
This part of Palawan is mountainous. A range, with several promi- 
nent peaks reaching a height of 1,400 to 1,500 feet parallels the coast 
about 2y 2 miles inland. West of the barrio of Polarican this range 
turns westward toward Bacuit Bay on the west coast, while 
another ridge slopes northeastward toward the barrio of Mesecoy. 
There is a low valley between this range and Shark Fin range north- 
ward. With the exception of about iy 2 miles, at the town of Tay- 
tay, in the southwestern part of the bay, the entire shore line is 
fringed with mangroves. Reefs and shoals extend over 2 miles off 
the western shore of the bay. 

Mesecoy Bay, northward of Talacanen Island, is filled with shoals 
and is of little importance. Ditnot Islet, lying 1% miles southeast of 
Talacanen Island, has a conical rock mound about 30 feet high at 
each end. Quimbaludan Islet, another small island in this part of the 
bay, lies 1*4 miles southeast of Silanga Point, Quimbuluan and 
Guindabdaban are two small islands, about 50 feet high, lying in the 
west central part of the bay with a third low rocky islet 1 mile 
southeastward of Quimbuluan. 

Apulit Island, 585 feet high, lies 2y 2 miles southwestward of Negra 
Point, the northern entrance point to Taytay Bay. It is of limestone 
formation, easily recognized, and is an important landmark for ves- 
sels entering this bay. The island slopes gradually to the north- 
ward, but the southern point ends in a high bluff. 

Royalist Reef, with a least known depth of % fathom, lies iy 2 
miles eastward of Apulit. Between it and a 14-fathom reef lying 
1% miles 105° (104° mag.) from the south end of Nabat Island there 
is a clear, deep channel almost 1% miles wide. 



TAYTAY BAY. 49 

The two Pabellones (Elephant and Castle Islands) , lying 3 miles 
southward of Apulit Island, are also of limestone formation. They 
are separated by a narrow, deep channel, and a number of dangerous 
shoals lie eastward of them. 

Calabadian Island, iy 2 miles southeast of Castle Island, shows no 
indication of limestone formation. It is triangular in shape, has 
one peak 550 feet high near its center, from which the ground slopes 
gradually on all sides. 

Malatpnso Rock, 77 feet high, lying 3% miles eastward of the Pabel- 
lones Islands, stands out prominently when seen from any direction. 

Binatiean Island, Sy 2 miles north-northeast of Malatpuso Rock, is 
the easternmost of the islands lying off Taytay Bay. It is 1% miles 
long north and south and has one prominent peak, 570 feet high, near 
the north end. There are a number of shoals southward, eastward, 
and northeastward of the island and a 5^4-f athom shoal lies % mile 
northwestward. 

Directions. — There are several channels among the many shoals 
of Taytay Bay, but the following are recommended: When bound 
for Mesecoy, from a point about % mile southward of Nabat Island, 
steer for the south tangent of Talacanen Island bearing 266° (265° 
mag.). Hold this course until Quimbaludan Island is abeam, then 
haul southward. Anchor % mile southward or westward of Tala- 
canen Island in 14 to 16 fathoms of water. When approaching from 
southward, from a point 1 mile south of Apulit Island steer for the 
east end of Talacanen Island bearing 297° (296° mag.) . When Quim- 
baludan Island bears 45° (44°- mag.) haul westward and anchor as 
above. Small vessels can approach much closer to Mesecoy but 
should not attempt to do so unless the light is favorable, as there are 
several dangerous reefs in the vicinity. 

When bound for Taytay, from mid-channel westward of Dinit 
Island, steer 180° (179° mag.) when the south end of Apulit bears 
270° (269° mag.) change course to 230° (232° mag.) passing between 
Apulit and Elephant Islands to an anchorage in 18 to 20 fathoms, 
mud bottom. A good anchorage is in 18 fathoms with Taytay Head 
bearing 273° (272° mag.) and Taytay fort 203° (202° mag.). 

It is possible to approach close to the town of Taytay, but this 
should not be undertaken without a knowledge of the ranges through 
the narrow passage between the reefs. Keep the south end of Apulit 
Island in range with a prominent sag of the sky line of Casian 
Island, bearing 42%° true until the largest of a small group of black 
rocks on the edge of the reefs northward is in line with a notch in a 
prominent sag in the sky line westward of Silanga Peak bearing 
350° true. -When the fort on Taytay point bears 214° true haul 
westward and anchor in 3 to 5 fathoms, sand bottom, % mile north- 
ward of the fort. 

The best entrance to Taytay Bay from offshore is between Deban- 
gan and Binatiean Islands. A shoal with a least known depth of 
314 fathoms lies 1% miles northeast of Binatiean Island, but between 
this shoal and Debangan Island the channel is deep and clear. From 
a point about 1 mile south of Debangan Island steer for the south 
end of Apulit Island, bearing 250° (249° mag.) until Nabat Island 
bears 315° (314° mag.) ; steer for the east tangent to Castle Island 
bearing 207° (206° mag.), and when Apulit south tangent bears 



50 PALAWAN. 

270° (269° mag.) change course to 233° (232° mag.) and follow the 
previous directions. 

When entering the bay from southward keep to the north of a 
line joining the north tangent of Icadambanauan Island and Taytay 
Head. There is a 1%-fathom shoal 1 mile north of Santa Cruz Point 
and a ^-fathom patch % mile northeast of the same point. The 
west tangent of Apulit Island, in range with the 1,100- foot peak on 
Maytiguid Island, leads eastward of this reef. 

From Santa Cruz Point the coast trends south-southeast for 20 
miles to Esfuerzo Point and is very irregular, being cut into by deep 
bays and faced with islets and reefs. The mountains are wooded, the 
prominent points are rocky where the mountains come close to the 
shore, and the bays are generally lined with mangroves. Between 
Limbangan Point and Pangkang Point the coast recedes and forms 
Calauag Bay, at the head of which lies the barrio of Calauag. Ibobor 
Island, 600 feet high, lies across the entrance with a good channel to 
southward of it, the channel to westward being almost closed by 
reefs. Pifia and Tomandang are two small islets lying along the west- 
ern shore reef, while Babarocon Islet lies on the southern shore reef 
eastward of the latter. Eeefs that bare at low water lie along the 
southern shore from y 2 to 1 mile northeast of Babarocon Islet ; two 
rocks awash and a reef with iy 2 fathoms over it lies % mile north- 
ward and 1 mile northeastward of Pangkang Point, the southern en- 
trance point to the bay. 

Icadambanauan Island Hes 1 mile eastward of Santa Cruz Point. 
It may be recognized by its two hills, 500 and 512 feet high, at the 
north and the south ends of the island, respectively. Two groups 
of black rocks lie eastward of the island, and a white rock, 50 feet 
high, lies *4 m il e southwestward of a small wooded island off the 
southeast coast. Calabucay Island, 150 feet high, small and wooded, 
lies almost Zy 2 miles south-southeastward of Icadambanauan. There 
is a channel iy 2 miles wide with a 2- fathom coral shoal in the west- 
ern entrance. 

Cagdanao Island, 250 feet high, lies \y 2 miles southwestward of 
Calabucay Island. There is a 14-fathom reef y 2 mile northeastward 
of the island with deep water close-to. The recommended channel 
lies between this reef and Cagdanao Island. 

Paly Island, 610 feet high, is a long narrow island lying 2>y 2 miles 
east of Pangkang Point. The outer slopes of the island are steep-to 
and only sparsely wooded, so that the peculiar brown soil is plainly 
visible. The shore line is rocky with stretches of sand, shingle, or 
bowlders. Shoals extend northward, eastward, and southward of the 
island. There is a %-fathom patch about 1% miles from the north 
end of the island and 14 mile offshore, otherwise the west shore is 
clean and steep-to. 

Dangerous ground. — In the area westward of a line joining Binga 
Island and the eastern point of Dumaran Island there are numerous 
dangerous coral shoals. Their position and the nature of the chan- 
nels between them can best be understood by reference to the chart. 
The following courses are recommended: 

Directions. — Vessels rounding the east end of Dumaran Island, 
bound for Taytay, should keep eastward of the line joining Binga 
Island and the east point of Dumaran until the highest point of 
Debangan Island bears 306° (305° mag.) ; steer for this peak until 



TAYTAY BAY XO DUMAKAN ISLAND. 51 

Dadaliten Island bears 270° (269° mag.), when the course should be 
changed to 250° (249° mag.) to pass about 1 mile southward of 
Debangan and Dadaliten Islands and the previous directions for 
Taytay Bay be followed. If desiring to pass southward of Icadam- 
banauan Island, when the peak on Calabadian Island bears 270° 
(269° mag.) steer for it until Calabucay Island bears 225° (224° 
mag.) ; steer for this island until the south tangent to Icadam- 
banauan bears 271° (270° mag.), when the course should be changed 
to 254° (253° mag.) ; hold this course until the east tangent to Cag- 
danao Island bears 165° (164° mag.), keeping the east tangent of 
Cagdanao Island dead astern until the west tangent of Apulit Island 
is in range with the 1,100-foot peak on Maytiguid Island bearing 
359° (358° mag.) ; hold this range until the north tangent of Icadam- 
banauan Island bears 91° (90° mag.) ; then follow previous direc- 
tions. 

When bound for Calauag by the channel north of Paly Island, 
hold the 225° (224° mag.) course mentioned above until the west 
tangent to Paly Island bears 180° (179° mag.), steer for it; then 
steer for the prominent 950- foot peak, 1 mile south of Pangkang Point 
bearing 217° (216° mag.) ; then for the south tangent of Ibobor 
Island bearing 270° (269° mag.) ; then steer for Pina Island in range 
with the southern of two conical hilltops bearing 252° (251° mag.) ; 
when the low flat rock off Pangkang Point is in range with south 
tangent to Paly Island bearing 101° (100° mag.) change course to 
223° (222° mag.), heading between Tomandang Island and Dasilag 
Point, favoring the latter point. When the north end of Babarocon 
Island is in range with the north end of Paly Island, steer this as 
a back range on a course of 243° (242° mag.) to an anchorage of 
from 1 to 5 fathoms, mud bottom. 

Directions toe the channel northward of Dtjmaran Island. — 
When about 5 miles eastward of North Point, Dumaran Island, bring 
the 22-foot rock 1 mile westward of Carbucao, to bear 270° (269° 
mag,) and steer for it ; when the tangent to North Point bears 219° 
(218° mag.) head for it until the point is distant about Vi mile; round 
the point at this distance until the summit of North Point bears 90° 
(89° mag.), then change course to 270° (269° mag.) and keep the 
summit of North Point astern until the 950- foot peak southward of 
Pangkang Point bears 281° (280° mag.) steer for this peak; when 
the east tangent of Cagdanao Island bears 317° (316° mag.) steer for 
it until the south tangent of Ibobor Island bears 270° (269° mag.). 
If bound for Calauag, change course to 270° (269° mag.) and follow 
the directions previously given. If bound northward change course 
to 338° (337° mag.) when north tangent of Cagdanao Island bears 
287° (286° mag.) ; change course to 301° (300° mag.), keeping no less 
than 300 yards off the northeast part of Cagdanao Island and avoid- 
ing the y 4 -fathom shoal northward of the course Now -bring the 
east tanglnt of Cagdanao Island astern and steer 345° (344° mag.) 
until on the range west tangent Apulit Island and 1100- foot peak 
on Maytiguid Island bearing 359° (358° mag.) and follow directions 

^DuSn Channel is 1% miles wide between the westernmost 
point of Dumaran Island and Esfuerzo Point, Palawan. The navi- 
gable area of the channel northward of Esfuerzo Point is much con- 



52 PALAWAN. 

tracted by islands and reefs. Mayabacan Island, Central Island, South 
Island, and South Channel Island lie on the eastern side of the channel, 
Bivouac and North Channel Islands in the middle, and Capsalon Island 
on the west. There is a channel westward of the latter, but it is not 
recommended, as nothing would be gained by using it. While the 
southern part of Dumaran Channel has numerous dangerous shoals, 
there are good leading marks for the channels usually used by ves- 
sels in this vicinity. 

Direction for Dumtjean Channel. — If bound for Dumaran Chan- 
nelfrom the southeast of Dumaran Island steer 261° (260° mag.), 
heading very carefully for Flechas Point until the clump of trees on 
top of the 1,010-foot peak west of Capayas bears 293° (292° mag.) ; 
if coming from the open sea steer 344° (343° mag.) for the southwest 
tangent to Dumaran Island, changing course to 293° (292° mag.) 
when the clump of trees gets on this bearing; hold this course until 
the umbrella-shaped tree on South Channel Island is in range with 
the east tangent to Paly Island, bearing 352° (351° mag.) ; run this 
range until the southern one of the double points of Esfuerzo Point 
is abeam, the 950-foot peak south of Pangkang Point then shows in 
the sag between the two elevations of Capsalon Island; steer this 
range 331° (330° mag.) until the east tangent of Bivouac Island low 
point bears 0° (359° mag.), and steer for it, passing South Channel 
Island % mile on starboard side. If bound for North Point, Duma- 
ran Island, hold the 0° (359° mag.) course until the northwest 
tangent to Central Island bears 41° (40° mag.), then steer for it; 
when the west tangent of South Island bears 180° (179° mag.) steer 
0° (359° mag.), the west ends of Maruyogruyog and South Islands 
are then in range, when the north point of Mayabacan Island bears 
83° (82° mag.) change course to 30y 2 ° (29%° mag.), which will 
bring Bivouac Island summit dead astern; when the summit of 
North Point bears 90° (89° mag.) head for it, round North Point at 
a distance of about }4 mile, and steer on a course 60° (59° mag.) for 
4 miles. 

If bound for north Palawan ports by the inside route continue the 
0° (359° mag.) course for the east tangent to Bivouac Island and 
when the north tangent of Capsalon Island bears 297° (296° mag.) 
steer for it, changing to 322° (321° mag.) when the southwest tangent 
to South Island bears 142° (141° mag.), steering about a mid-channel 
course until the east tangent of Capsalon Island bears 178° (177° 
mag.) ; then change course to 358° (357° mag.), heading for the east 
tangent to Paly Island. When the east tangent of Cagdanao Island 
bears 317° (316° mag.) head for it and follow directions previously 
given. If desiring to go north by the channel east of Bivouac Island, 
when this island bears 210° (209° mag.) head for the southwest 
tangent to Paly Island, bearing 339° (338° mag.) until Cagdanao 
Island east tangent bears 317° (316° mag.). 

There are several channels leading into Dumaran Channel from the 
southwestward. The simplest seems to be as follows : Bring the 550- 
foot hill southeastward of the town of Dumaran to bear 27° (26° 
mag.) before Mount Uian, 4 miles northward of Flechas Point, bears 
330° (329° mag.) ; steer for the 550-foot hill until the range South 
Channel Island to east tangent Paly Island is reached. 



DUMARAN ISLAND. 53 

DUMABAN ISLAND, 

separated from Esfuerzo Point by the channel of the same name, is 
about 15 miles east and west and has a greatest width of about 12 
miles north and south. It is of irregular form and has no remark- 
able features by which to distinguish it, the interior of the island 
being a series of low hills, 400 to 500 feet high and heavily wooded. 
Most of the shore line is fringed with mangrove, and extensive coral 
reefs bare off Piyaui Point and eastward of North Point. Shoals 
extend off the north coast for a distance of about 3 miles and to a 
lesser distance off the south coast. 

North Point is a prominent landmark. Tt is steep-to on the north 
and west and affords good protection asrainst the northeast monsoon. 
Eastward of North Point the coast is foul and should be avoided. A 
shoal with a least known depth of 2% fathoms lies in the channel % 
mile northward of North Point. Cacbiicao Island, 115 feet high, lies 
2y 2 miles northward of North Point, with a 22-foot rock 1% miles 
westward of it. 

Pirata Head is the easternmost point of Dumaran Island. It is 
steep-to on the northeast, but a reef bares southeastward to Maraquit 
Island, which is 205 feet high and wooded. Cotat Island, 345 feet 
high, lies % mile southeast of Maraquit Island. The channel be- 
tween them is contracted by a 4 1 / 4-fathom shoal lying close to the 
latter island. Mantulali Island, 168 feet high, lies 1 mile southwest 
of Cotad Island with a 1^4-f athom shoal in the middle of the chan- 
nel between them. Langoy Island, 329 feet high, is separated from 
Mantulali Island by a deep channel, about 1 mile wide. All these 
islands are steep-to from seaward, with high dark cliffs, and they 
mark the outer limit of dangers for this part of Dumaran Island. 

Cambari Island, lying about 5 miles eastward of Pirata Head, is 
crescent shape, % mile in length, and about 230 feet high. The high- 
est point is near the southern end, and the ground slopes to sea level 
at the northern end. The western side of the island has bare over- 
hanging cliffs rising to the full height of the island over a wide 
bench about 5 feet above sea level. 

Araceli Bay (chart 4355) is a large indentation on the southwest 
side of Pirata Head, affording good shelter in 4 to 5 fathoms, mud 
bottom, off the town of Araceli lying on the northeast shore of the 
bay. The shores of the bay are fringed by mangroves, and coral 
shoals bare a considerable distance out, northward of the town being 
the only place where small boats can approach close to shore at low 
water. The town is nearly obscured by coconut trees. 

Directions. — Vessels bound into Araceli Bay are advised to pass 
between Langoy and Mantulali Islands. From eastward a ship may 
pass between Maraquit and Cotad Islands, favoring the Cotad side of 
the channel, passing over coral bottom of 4 to 5 fathoms. The en- 
trance between Cotad and Mantulali Islands is divided by a. 1%- 
fathom shoal. A range to pass between Baliog Point and Araceli 
Reef consists of a prominent black rock on reef off Araceli town in 
line with the west tangent of Araceli coconut grove and a large clump 
of trees on a prominent hill in the interior ofDumHran bearing 348° 
(347° mag ) When Baliog Point is abeam, change to 315° (314 
mag ) and proceed to an anchorage in 4 to 5 fathoms, mud bottom, 



54 PALAWAN. 



o 



with the south tangent to Maraquit Island bearing about 100° (99 
mag.) and the 257-foot hill back of Araceli bearing about 42° (41° 
mag.). A narrow winding channel leads to an excellent typhoon an- 
chorage in the basin northwestward of the town. A depth of 2 
fathoms may be carried through the channel, but vessels should not 
attempt to enter unless the channel is staked. 

Baearan, Langean, and Calasag Bays are indentations in the southern 
coast of Dumaran Island, lying 4%, 6, and 9 miles southwestward of 
Pirata Head. The shores of all three bays are mangrove lined, with 
a few short stretches of sand beach. The coral reefs make off a con- 
siderable distance from shore, and the heads of the bays are shoal. 
There are several small settlements on the shores of the bays, Bohol, 
in Calasag Bay, being the largest. Each of the bays has a good an- 
chorage protected from northeast monsoon weather, and Langean 
Bay has a good typhoon anchorage for small vessels northwestward 
of Langean Point. 

Directions. — Coming from Araceli Bay, to pass between the off- 
shore reefs and the coast of Dumaran Island, steer 229° (228° mag.), 
keeping the south tangent of Maraquit Island astern. To enter 
Baearan Bay, when the 235-foot rounded hill eastward of Caran 
bears 3° (2° mag.) steer for it until the tangent to the point between 
Baearan and Langean Bays bears 268° (267° mag.) ; then change 
course to 328° (327° mag.) and proceed to an anchorage in 3 to 5 
fathoms, mud bottom. 

To enter Langean Bay, continue the 229° (228° mag.) course until 
the hill on Langean Point bears 320° (319° mag.) ; then steer for it 
and anchor southwestward of the village of Dagsauay in 2 to 3 
fathoms, mud bottom. Better protected anchorage may be found 
northwestward of Langean Point, being careful to avoid a 1%- 
fathom shoal 870 yards 325° (324° mag.) from Langean Point. To 
approach Langean Bay from southward, steer 7° (6° mag.) for the 
western entrance point until the south tangent to Maraquit Island 
bears 49° (48° mag.) ; steer this course until the hill on Langean 
Point bears 320° (319° mag.) and follow previous directions. 

To enter Calasag Bay from the south, steer 344° (343° mag.) for 
Calasag Point until the mangrove island southwest of the town of 
Bohol bears 18° (17° mag.) ; steer for it until the first point north 
of Calasag Point bears 270* (269° mag.) ; then change course to 323° 
(322° mag.) and proceed to an anchorage in 4 or 5 fathoms, mud 
bottom. When approaching from Araceli, steer the 229° (228° 
mag.) course until the south tangent to Calasag Point bears 261° 
(260° mag.) ; steer for this point, and when the small mangrove 
island southwest of Bohol bears 352° (351° mag.) change course to 
323° (322° mag.) and anchor as directed above. 

From Calasag Point the coast trends westward for 6 miles to 
Piyaui Point, then northward for 5 miles to the head of Dumaran 
Bay. The first part of this stretch of coast has heavily wooded hills 
close to the shore, the points being high and rocky with a narrow 
coral fringe all along the shore line. Dangerous reefs and shoals ex- 
tend out about % mile at Calasag Point and widen out to 2 miles off 
Piyaui Point. Skarp Hill, a 525-foot hill close to the shore line, 
makes a prominent landmark for vessels approaching from south- 
ward. The western shore of Dumaran Island is fringed with man- 
groves. 



DUMARAN ISLAND. 55 

Dumaran (chart 4355) lies near the head of Dumaran Bay, on the 
west coast of Dumaran Island. It is connected with Araceli, at the 
east end of the island, by a good trail and telephone line. Dumaran 
Bay is a good typhoon anchorage, but is difficult to approach unless 
the channel is well marked. The following directions have been 
used: Leave the Dumaran Channel range 352° (351° mag.) when the 
prominent cove about iy 2 miles northward of Piyaui Point bears 
90° (89° mag.) and steer for the cove until Dumaran Point comes 
abeam; then steer 45° (44° mag.), and when the east tangent to 
Dumaran Point bears 0° (359° mag.) head for it. When the left 
tangent to the largest island in the bay bears 45° (44° mag.), change 
course to 7° (6° mag.) to pass between two small reefs west of this 
island and head for the fort, bearing 54° (53° mag.), anchoring in 
3 to 4 fathoms, mud bottom, with the west tangent of the largest 
island in the bay bearing 180° (179° mag.). Two black buoys and 
one red buoy have been placed to aid vessels entering the bay. 

From Esfuerzo Point, Palawan, the coast trends southwest for 12 
miles to Flechas Point. Heavily wooded mountains having well- 
defined peaks approach close to the shore at Flechas Point. Drake 
Peak, 1,260 feet high, the 1,010-foot peak about 2 miles southward, 
and Mount Ilian each has a well-defined clump of trees on the summit 
that makes an excellent landmark. The mountains in this vicinity 
are seldom obscured by clouds. Numerous shoals and reefs lie inside 
the 20- fathom curve, which in the vicinity of Flechas Point is about 
8 miles offshore. There are deep channels between them, but nothing 
would be gained by a vessel venturing among them. 

Capayas, a barrio lying about 7 miles northe"ast of Flechas Point, is 
the only settlement along this coast and is the headquarters of a 
lumber concession. To approach Capayas from the entrance to 
Dumaran Channel, steer 295° (294° mag.) for the 1,010-foot peak, 
being careful to avoid the shoals close-to on either side of this bear- 
ing. Head for Squall Point on the bearing 270° (269° mag.) for a 
distance of 1 mile, and then 348° (347° mag.) for 1 mile, to an 
anchorage off Capayas westward of Capayas Reef. A course of 
330° (329° mag.), heading for a conspicuous dead tree, may be used 
instead of the 348° course. 

To approach Flechas Point from the sea, head for Bay Peak, 1,795 
feet high, on the bearing 307° (306° mag.) until Flechas Point bears 
344° (343° mag.) ; then change course to 0° (359° mag.). To con- 
tinue to Capayas, from a point 1 mile east of Flechas Point steer 
18° (17° mag.) until the mouth of the Ilian River bears 267° (266° 
mag.) ; then change course to 87° (86° mag.) ; when Capayas Point 
bears 12° (11° mag.) change course to 37° (36° mag.) and when the 
conspicuous dead tree northward of the town bears 330° (329° mag.) 
head for it and anchor eastward of the town. 

GREEN ISLAND BAY. 

Between Flechas Point and Bold Point, 32 miles southwestward, 
the coast recedes about 7 miles, forming a large open bay known as 
Green Island Bay. The islands in the bay are all low and flat. 
Green Island and Johnson Island are the only ones distinguishable 
when passing offshore. At a distance of 6 or 8 miles only the tops 



56 PALAWAN, 

of the trees on Green Island are visible and they then appear like 
a hedge on the horizon. Johnson Island is a little higher and does 
not appear so flat, but this is due to the few higher trees near the 
center, as the island itself is flat. 

There are numerous banks and shoals in Green Island Bay. They 
are usually surrounded by much deeper water, are generally smooth 
on top, with the shoalest part near the center. Under favorable 
conditions bottom can be seen in about 8 fathoms and often a shoal 
of this depth can be seen at a distance. The lead gives very little 
warning, and on any sudden change in depth the vessels should proceed 
with great caution. In the bay itself, the islands and sand cays 
afford ready means of fixing the position of the vessel while passing 
through the various channels. The most conspicuous landmarks 
when making the course from Langoy Island to Bold Point on the 
way to Puerto Princesa are Sharp Hill, the 525-foot hill near the 
south shore of Dumaran Island; Drake Peak, the 1,010-foot peak 
2 miles southward of Drake Peak; Bay Peak, the highest peak, 1,210 
feet of Barbacan Eange; and the outer of two peaks northward of 
Bold Point on Palawan. The higher mountains in the interior of 
Palawan are frequently covered by clouds, while the peaks named 
above, though lower, are easily recognized and seldom obscured. 

Flechas Point is steep and high, being the end of the ridge from 
Mount Baring. From the southward and southeastward, the point 
merges into the higher background and is not reliable as a landmark 
on account of its similarity in appearance to several other places. 
Bay Peak, 1,795 feet high, lying 3 miles westward, is separated from 
the higher peaks back -of Flechas Point by a deep valley, and is 
easily recognized even at night on account of the lowland westward. 
Between Bay Peak and Barbacan Range there are many low hills. 
The highest point of Barbacan Range is a rounded hill, covered with 
trees, with a small knob on the western side. About iy 2 miles 
northwest of the barrio Rizal there is a sharp, conical hill, heavily 
wooded, and about 3 miles farther inland is the end of a high, sharp, 
ridge which, when viewed from the southeastward, appears like a 
lone, sharp conical hill, and is an excellent landmark when the higher 
mountains are obscured by clouds. Stripe Peak, Mount St. Pauls, 
Liberty Cap, Cleopatra Neeble, and Escarpado are all high moun- 
tain masses, frequently obscured by clouds. 

Dieections. — A course of 234° (233° mag.) from a point about 
2 miles off Langoy Island carries a vessel well outside the numerous 
shoals along this part of the coast of Palawan to the entrance of 
Puerto Princesa. 

Vessels entering Green Island Bay, if bound for Taradungan, Tu- 
marbong, and Barbacan, should head for Bay Peak on a bearing of 
307° (306° mag.) and pass westward along the coast, keeping from 1 
to 2 miles off the shore, being careful to avoid a coral reef lying 1.4 
miles 142° (141° mag.) from Tumarbong Point. The reefs break the 
sea, and anchorage may be taken up anywhere along the coast, the 
best protected anchorage being in 3 to 4 fathoms, mud bottom, north- 
westward of Shell Island. If bound for Malcampo, bring Stanlake 
Island to bear 323° (322° mag.) and steer for the middle of the 
island, keeping the sand cay y 2 m il e to the southward inside the 
tangents. When the sand cay is clearly visible, steer to pass y 2 mile 
on either side and continue to pass ^4 mile off Stanlake Island, being 



GKEEH ISLAND BAY. 57 

careful to avoid a coral reef about 1 mile northward of the island ; 
anchor in 4 to 5 fathoms southeastward of the town. If bound for 
Rizal, steer for Reinard Island, bearing 270° (269° mag.) until the 
690- foot hill northward of the town bears 340° (339° mag.) ; steer 
for this hill to an anchorage southeastward of the town in 3 to 5 
fathoms, mud and sand. To enter Caramay Harbor from the east- 
ward, steer 270° (269° mag.) for the north end of Reinard Island, 
pass ^4 to % mile northward of the island, and anchor off the barrio 
in 3 to 6 fathoms, mud bottom, or if desiring more shelter anchor 
northwestward of Reinard Island. Coming from southward, most 
vessels enter by the South Channel between Reinard and Verde del 
Norte Islands, being careful to avoid Zabala Reef, lying about 1 mile 
southeastward of Reinard Island. 

It is possible for vessels to pass between the islands and reefs of 
Green Island Bay and the Palawan coast, but the channels are narrow 
and tortuous and should not be attempted by strangers. 

There is an excellent typhoon anchorage in Pascoe Channel (chart 
4319) behind Verde del Norte, but the channel for entering is very 
narrow and should not be attempted by a stranger unless marked. 
The best entrance is from northward. There is no channel between 
Verde del Sur and the coast of Palawan. 

Charybdis Shoal, with a least known depth of 1% fathoms of water, 
lies in latitude 10° 01' .8 N., longitude 119° 32' .4 E. ; a small 9- 
fathom bank lies iy 2 miles northwest of this shoal. A large bank 
with several shoal areas lies 8 miles southwest of Charybdis Shoal. 
Pasig Shoal, near the southeastern edge of the bank, has a least known 
depth of 1% fathoms and is step-to on the eastern side, dropping off 
to over 100 fathoms in less than a mile. A 3y 6 -fathom patch and a 
iy s -fathom patch lie 3 and 5 miles, respectively, northwestward of 
Pasig Shoal. These are probably the shoals formerly known as 
Charybdis and Constancia. West Pasig Shoal, with a least known 
depth of 2 fathoms, lies 4 miles westward of Constancia Shoal, with 
depths of 15 to 20 fathoms between them. These shoals seem to mark 
the southeastern edge of the submarine plateau making off from the 
northeast coast of Palawan and are the outer known dangers off this 
coast. With the sun in a suitable position they show plainly and 
may be readily avoided. 

HONDA BAY. 

From Bold Point the coast trends west by south for 25 miles, then 
south for 12 miles to the entrance to Puerto Princesa, forming Honda 
Bay (chart 4334). This large bay is similar to Green Island Bay, 
containing numerous islets, shoals, and banks, surrounded by a 
moderate depth of water. The head and east shore of the bay are 
fringed by a strip of mangrove about y± mile wide, but the north 
shore consists of sand and coral beaches with high hills rising almost 
from the water's edge. These hills are separated by deep conspicu- 
ous valleys and back of them rise the high mountain masses ot this 
part of Palawan. ,.. 

Bold Point is not conspicuous from seaward but may be readily 
recognized by the two peaks, Sharp and Dome, lying close together 
about 2 miles inland. These peaks are frequently seen when the 
higher mountains are in the clouds. 



58 PALAWAN - . 

Mangrove Point is a good landmark as it is the only prominent 
clump. of mangroves on this part of the coast. It may be easily 
picked up from about 5 miles offshore. Emmit Point is higher but 
inconspicuous. Coral reefs make off both points and between them 
form a sheltered cove locally known as Binduyan Cove, which affords 
protection for small boats and launches. 

Pasco Point has a few scattered mangroves but is not prominent 
unless close inshore. A shoal with a least known depth of % fathom 
lies midway between Mangrove Point and Pasco Point and about 
% mile offshore. It lies near the northern edge of an extensive bank 
with depths of 4 and 5 fathoms. It is the first of the numerous de- 
tached dangers met with along this coast, being separated from the 
shoal water off Emmit Point by depth of 30 fathoms. 

Tinabog is a small village, not visible from seaward, about 1% 
miles west of Pasco Point. Anchorage may be taken up about 1 mile 
offshore eastward of the village in 11 fathoms^mud bottom, with the 
southeast point of Fondeado Island bearing 240° (238° mag.) and 
Pasco Point bearing 12° (10° mag.). Small vessels may find better 
protection in 7 to 10 fathoms, south of the mouth of the Tinabog 
River, with the reef awash bearing 270° (268° mag.) distant y 2 mile. 

Castillo Point, 3 miles westward from Tinabog, probably derives its 
name from a rocky protuberance on the brow of the hill over it. 
This hill marks the western end of the bold range of hills which bor- 
ders the coast from Green Island Bay and lies about midway between 
Tinabog and Babuyan, the two most important settlements on the 
north shore of Honda Bay. The Babuyan Biver can be entered at 
high tide by small boats and launches drawing not over 6 feet, which 
can go as far as the town. Small boats and bancas can ascend the 
river to the rapids 5y 2 miles above the town, the channel having a 
depth of about 3 feet. To enter the river, steer a course 328° (326° 
mag.), keeping the east tangent of Fondeado Island directly astern. 
This course brings the launch into the channel, which is easily fol- 
lowed. 

Westward of Babuyan the immediate coast is low and swampy and 
is heavily wooded. The first 4 miles is a narrow sand beach, while 
the remainder is all fringed by mangroves. Addison Point, a rather 
indefinite landmark, forms the eastern side of Tapul Bay. Bush 
Island, lying in the entrance to Tapul Bay, is a low mangrove- 
covered island with a coral reef extending 380 yards from the south 
and east sides. The north and west sides are sandy. A rock, bare 
at high tide, lies 550 yards south of Addison Point. Between this 
rock and the Bush Island Reef is a good channel leading to a well- 
protected anchorage in Tapul Bay in 5 to 6 fathoms, mud bottom. 

Tapul Biver is a salt-water slough extending 2 miles northward 
from the head of the bay, where it ends abruptly. The channel up 
to a small dock 1% miles from the mouth of the slough is 20 to 30 
yards wide and carries 6 feet of water. From Tapul a good trail 
leads through a low pass across the island of Palawan to Ulugan Bay 
on the west coast. Here the island of Palawan is only about 4 miles 
wide. Westward of this pass rises Mount Peel, 3,600 feet high. 
This peak, with Mount Airy and Mount Herschel to the southwest 
and the Conical Peak, 1,190 feet high, to the eastward, form the 
prominent landmarks' for approaching Honda Bay from offshore. 



HONDA BAY. 59 

The western shore of Honda Bay is fringed with low hills with 
lower land behind them. Immediately northward of the entrance 
to the Bacungan River lies a conspicuous red ridge; southward of 
the river there is a jumble of hills, valley, and peaks leading west- 
ward to Mount Beauford and Thumb Peak. The Bacungan River 
can be entered by large launches, which, at flood tide, can ascend to 
the town of the same name about 6 miles from its mouth. This river 
was formerly noted for its nipa. 

Islands and shoals in Honda Bay.— Fondeado Island, 2% miles 
southwest of Castillo Point, is about 2 miles in circumference, low 
and wooded, about 110 feet to tops of trees. The island is surrounded 
by a coral reef about 250 yards wide. The eastern half of the islands 
is covered by mangroves, with a fringe of mangroves along the shore 
to the northwest point, where a sand spit projects about 50 yards. 
Numerous shoals, several of which bare at low water, lie in the area 
between Fondeado Island and the shore northward. Deep channels 
separate the shoals from each other, but they are narrow and wind- 
ing and no directions can be given. About % mile northward of the 
east end of Fondeado Island, anchorage may be had in 9 to 10 fath- 
oms, sandy bottom, protected from the southwest by the island while 
the reef to the northeast breaks the sea from that direction. 

Panglima Reef, with a least known depth of 3 fathoms, lies 8 miles 
east of Fondeado Island, and constitutes the outer danger of Honda 
Bay. An extensive bank lies 2% miles northwest of Panglima Eeef , 
with several shoal spots on it, the least water found being % fathom. 
A number of shoals, with depths of 3 to 5 fathoms of water over them, 
lie from 1 to 4 miles eastward and southeastward of Fondeado Island. 
Their position and character can best be understood by reference to 
the chart. The channel eastward and southward of Fondeado Island 
is the one recommended for vessels going from Tinabog to the anchor- 
age off Babuyan River mouth. 

Arrecife Island lies 2y 2 miles southwest of Fondeado Island on a 
large coral reef. The island is bordered by a white sand beach with 
some mangrove on its eastern and western sides. A clump of man- 
grove on the reef, about 480 yards southwest of the island, identifies 
it when approaching from seaward. A rock, with a least depth of 
% fathom, lies % mile 70° (68° mag.) from the northern point of 
the island, and 1 mile eastward of this rock there is a pinnacle shoal 
with a least depth of 4% fathoms. An extensive shoal, with a least 
depth of 1% fathoms, lies 2% miles southward of Arricife Island 
on the north side of the ehannel leading into Tapul Bay. 

Buguias, Pamnponqn, and Kalungpang are three small islands lying 
on the great barrier reef westward of Arrecife Island. The first two 
are covered with trees and mangroves,- the last is grass covered only 
a few feet above sea level, and with Addison Point forms the range 
for entering the channel northward and eastward of Makesi Island. 

A reef with a sand cay that bares lies % mile east-northeast of 
Buguias Island. A channel, Vi m il e wide, separates this reef and 
Buguias Island from the foul area extending southward of Mano- 
gan. Buguias Island lies close to the northern edge of the barrier 
reef and may be passed at a distance of 200 yards.- This constitutes 
the best channel leading from the Babuyan anchorage to Tapul Bay. 

Makesi Island is a small wooded island lying on the northwest end 
of a long coral reef bordering the south side of the main channel into 






60 PALAWAN. 

Tapul Bay. A long narrow sand spit, which bares at half tide, 
extends off the southeast end of the island. This sand spit with the 
light green color of the reef renders it easy to pick up this reef, 
and this channel is easily navigated by keeping y 3 to % mile off the 
edge of the reef. The channel which separates Makesi Island from 
the reef on which Meara and Frazer Islands lie is not recommended 
as it is narrow and the edges of the foul water are hard to pick up. 

Meara and Frazer Islands are both heavily wooded. They are al- 
most connected by a narrow sand spit just awash at hight water. A 
small rocky shoal lies 1 mile north of the east end of Frazer Island, 
A narrow deep channel separates this rock from a coral reef y 2 mile 
in diameter, on which there is a sand cay bare at all stages of the 
tide. The channel into Tapul Bay lies eastward of this reef and 
sand cay. 

Ramesamey Island is a small wooded island lying on an extensive 
reef in the western part of Honda Bay. It is steep-to on the west 
and is used by the natives as a resting place when traveling to and 
from Puerto Princesa. Cafion Island is merely a clump of man- 
groves. The channel between these islands and the coast is tortuous 
and foul and is used only by small boats and bancas. 

Directions for Honda Bat. — The course usually followed from 
Bold Point to Puerto Princesa passes close to Panglima Reef and 
over the bank in latitude 9° 51' N., longitude 119° 00' E. Vessels 
should not cross Panglima Beef for, though closely developed, there 
is always the possibility of a coral head with less water over it. 

To approach Tinabog, from a point 5 miles east of the south end of 
Fondeado Island steer 351° (349° mag.) for the 3,000-foot double 
peak on the eastern side of the Tinabog valley until about % mile off- 
shore, then steer 297° (295° mag.) for the middle of the anchorage 
and anchor in 4 fathoms with the bare reef bearing 223° and Pasco 
Point 72°. 

To approach Babuyan anchorage from southward, bring Liberty 
Cap, the high mountain just westward of Mount St. Pauls, to bear 
0° (358° mag.) and steer for it. This course leads clear of all dangers. 

To enter Tapul Bay from southward, set a course to give Makesi 
Island reef a berth of y s to % mile, and when the western end of 
Makesi Island bears 180° steer 342° (340° mag.) for a point midway 
between Addison Point and Bush Island, keeping Makesi Island di- 
rectly astern. Favor Bush Island as the reef extending out from it 
is more easily picked up than the Addison Point reef. 

To enter Tapul Bay from eastward, round Buguias Island, and 
when the southern edge of the island bears 90° steer 270° (268° 
mag.), heading for the center of Bush Island. In rounding up into 
the bay favor the Bush Island reef as above. 

Between Honda Bay and Puerto Princesa, a barrier reef, about 
200 yards wide, bare at low water, fringes the coast, lying about y 2 
mile offshore, and vessels should give this coast a berth of not less 
than iy 2 miles. 

PUERTO PRINCESA 

(chart 4343) is a large inlet extending about 7 miles in a northwest- 
erly direction. It is surrounded by a densely wooded plain, front- 



PUERTO PRINCESA. 61 

ing a high mountain chain on which Mount Beaufort and Thumb 
Peak are conspicuous peaks. The latter, -when seen from the south- 
east, appears as a steep conical mountain with a knob on the summit. 
Both peaks are prominent landmarks, but are frequently obscured by 
clouds. Table Head, though only 545 feet high, is a useful landmark 
for making Puerto Princesa. It is readily recognized, as it is only 
about 400 yards from the coast and is the lowest step of a gradually 
ascending range of hills extending to the southwest. 

The entrance to Puerto Princesa lies between Bancaobancaon Point 
northward and Panagtaran Point 2 miles southward. Beefs and 
shoal water extending out from the entrance points contract the 
navigable channel to a width of about 1 mile. The range, Tidepole 
Point on Thumb Peak, leads clear of the reef on the north side of the 
entrance and Tidepole Point on Mount Beaufort clears the shoal 
water on the south side. The depth in the entrance is 34 fathoms, 
deepening to over 100 fathoms 1 mile outside. 

Bancaobancaon Point, the northern entrance point, is low and 
fringed with mangroves, and a thin fringe of mangroves extends 
almost to Tidepole Point. The latter point is made conspicuous by 
the white lighthouse ; the point itself is a reddish cliff only about 20 
feet high. A fixed red light, visible 9 miles, is exhibited, 4? feet 
above high water, from an iron frame on the south side of the light- 
house. 

Princesa Point, 38 feet high, is made conspicuous by the govern- 
ment buildings back of it. A wooden wharf with concrete approach 
extends in a northwest direction. It has a depth of 18 feet alongside 
and deepens to 30 feet 5 yards off the face of the wharf. Gedeon 
Shoal marked by a black buoy, lies 650 yards west of the wharf. 

Extensive mud flats and numerous coral reefs fill the head of Puerto 
Princesa. An important shoal, with a least depth of iy 2 fathoms, 
lies 1,300 yards 312° (310° mag.) from the end of the wharf. North 
of a line passing through this shoal and Iwahig Kiver entrance the 
bottom is foul. A number of rivers empty through the mangroves 
into the head of the bay. The islands shown on the chart are little 
more than clumps of mangrove and are scarcely distinguishable from 
the shore near which they lie. 

The Iwahig River entrance is marked by a red light and distinctive 
beacons which must be left to port on entering. They are main- 
tained by the Iwahig Penal Colony, which is situated about 4 miles 
up the river, where there is a concrete boat landing. A depth of 6 
feet at half tide can be carried into the river. The channel, which 
has been cleared by blasting, lies south of Kiver Island and, after 
passing the beacons, launches should head for the fishing dock on that 
island. The river is subject to freshets and consequent changes in 
the channel which passes to southward of the small island about 3% 
miles from the entrance. 

Iwahig lies on the north side and about 150 yards back from the 
river, with which it is connected by a canal. It has a population of 
about 1,200. The colony has a sawmill, ice plant, and machine shop, 
where minor repairs may be made, and meat, rice, and vegetables may 
be obtained in case of emergency. - _ 

Vinagre Reef, with a rock awash near its center, lies in front of a 
large shoal bay, into which the Binuan and several smaller rivers 



62 PALAWAN. 

empty. It is almost midway between Biver Island and Nagplit 
Point. A shoal, with a least depth of 2% fathoms, lies % mile north- 
east of the rock awash. 

Abucayan and Saguit Inlets lie just inside the southern entrance 
point to Puerto Princesa. The shores of both bays are fringed with 
mangroves. Heron Point has been cleared and planted with coco- 
nuts. Abucayan Inlet is long and narrow, the entrance being con- 
tracted to about 200 yards by coral reefs, clearly visible under favor- 
able conditions. Beyond the entrance the inlet widens to about y s 
mile, but reefs, surrounded by deep water, lie off the shore reef, and 
local knowledge is necessary for its safe navigation. 

Village Rocks, so named on account of their resemblance to a group 
of native huts when first seen, are two groups of rocks lying 250 and 
450 yards from Eed Cliff. Between them and Tabuntabun Point 
there is a clear channel y% mile wide, which leads to an anchorage at 
the head of Saguit Inlet. This anchorage is usually used by vessels 
loading lumber in the vicinity. 

Puerto Princesa, the capital of the Province of Palawan, lies on the 
■eastern side of the harbor back of Princesa Point. Its white govern- 
ment buildings present an imposing appearance from the water. 
Fresh water may be obtained from a pipe line on the wharf and a 
limited amount of coal is stored here by the Province for the emer- 
gency use of vessels. Very few supplies are obtainable. A post office 
and radio station are maintained by the bureau of posts, and tele- 
phone communication may be had with Iwahig and Brooke Point. 
Good roads connect the town with Canigaran and Tagburos. 

Directions. — Vessels bound into Puerto Princesa should bring 
Tidepole Point to bear 304° (302° mag.) and pick up a range in 
the gap between Mount Beauford and Thumb Peak and steer in on 
this range. When in line between the entrance points, change to 
290° (288° mag.), and when the lighthouse bears 40° (38° mag.) 
change course to 349° (347° mag.), heading for Cafia Island. When 
the wharf comes abeam, change course to 35° (33° mag.) and anchor 
about 400 yards north of the end of the wharf in 9 to 10 fathoms, 
mud bottom. This anchorage is well protected and is recommended 
as a good typhoon anchorage. 

PUERTO PRINCESA TO ISLAND BAT. 

Binunsalian Bay lies between Bay Point and Table Head. Wide 
coral reefs fringe the shore, and it is open to southeast. A narrow 
channel leads from its head into an inner basin named Turtle Bay, 
which affords good shelter for launches and small boats. A sand 
and coral shoal, bare at low water and readily seen on entering, lies 
in the center of Turtle Bay. 

Table Head, 548 feet high, lies close to the shore and is the first 
step in a gradually ascending range of hills that, extends along the 
coast to the southwest. It is a conspicuous landmark and appears 
as the right tangent when Panagtaran Point sinks below the horizon. 
From offshore, Mount Central, a sharp peak 3,205 feet high, shows 
over the ctfastal range. It is the northern peak of a central range, 
which is separated from the still higher mountains near the west 
coast of Palawan by a deep valley. The Anepahan Peaks, twin peaks 



PUERTO PEINCESA TO ISLAND BAY. 63 

4,250 and 4,200 feet high, lie in this latter range. The northern peak 
is sharp, the southern one flat and ridgelike. Mount Aborlan, 2,505 
feet high, is the most conspicuous peak in the central range. A deep 
gorge separates the central range, with its higher peaks ,to the south- 
west of Mount Aborlan, from the Victoria Peaks to the southward. 
The latter, 5,500 feet high, is a massive mountain formation, with 
numerous peaks and deep gorges, which in the glare of the sun show 
up as big red scars in a dark background. The teeth are sharp twin 
peaks very steep on the south side. Another wide, fertile valley 
separates the Victoria Peaks from the Sultan range to the southward. 
Sultan Peak rises to a height of 3,835 feet, and the mountains in front 
of it terminate in a conspicuous headland near Calatugas. 

A wide, level plain, heavily wooden and having some good pasture 
land, slopes from the shore back to the mountains of this part of Pala- 
wan. The greater part of the shore is fringed with mangroves, and a 
coral reef extends off from 50 to 200 yards. The deep water which 
comes up close to the coast at Puerto Princesa gives way about 7 miles 
to the southward to a gradually widening bank with many dangerous 
shoals upon it. Table Head, bearing nothing eastward of 0°, clears 
this bank, which deepens from depths of 10 and 20 fathoms to over 
100 fathoms in less than half a mile. The edge of the bank is fre- 
quently marked by ripples, and a considerable current may be ex- 
perienced in the vicinity, which, however, will not be felt farther 
offshore or on the bank itself. The navigation of this area is fairly 
simple. The mountain peaks furnish good landmarks for fixing 
the position of the vessel, and the dangerous shoals offshore can be 
easily picked up. 

Tagbarunis Point, iy 2 miles northeast of Inagauan, is a gently 
rounding, mangrove-covered point, not very conspicuous from sea- 
ward. The river emptying to northward of the point has about 3 
feet of water on the bar at half tide, and small boats go up about 
y 2 mile. Inagauan is not visible from seaward but may be identi- 
fied by a high sand beach in front of the village. The 1,755-foot 
peak about 3 miles northwest of Inagauan is conspicuous on account 
of its perfect cone-shaped summit and the flat country immediately 
southward of it. The village consists of a single path running due 
west from the coast for about 1 mile. There is some cultivated land 
between the mangrove swamps north and south, and good pasture 
land extends back toward the high land. It is a station of the Iwahig 
colony locally known as Sugut. The Inagauan River, with 3 feet 
of water on the bar at half tide, empties into the sea 1 mile north of 
the village. Fresh water may be obtained about y 2 mile up the 
river. Small boats can ascend the main branch about 2 miles farther. 
Fair weather anchorage may be had off Inagauan in about 5 fathoms, 
mud bottom. In approaching this anchorage from eastward care 
must be taken to avoid the 3-fathom shoal lying 1% miles off Tag- 
barunis Point. _ . , , _ , . 

Village Bay, between Maasm Point and the Puntog Islands, is very 
foul with numerous coral reefs and patches, making it unsafe for 
navigation. The Isog River, which empties into the northern part 
of the bay, is a deep salt-water slough having about 6 feet of water 
on the bar at half tide. Small boats can go up the left branch about 
2 miles. The Puntog Islands, two small mangrove islands, lie on the 



64 PALAWAN. 

shore reef. Bancas and small boats can go up the Saub Eiver for 
about 1 mile to a plantation and cattle ranch. 

Malanao Island is a large flat mangrove-covered island, about 2 
miles long and 1 mile wide with trees about 65 feet high. A coral 
reef extends about 600 yards southwest of the island. The channel 
between the island and the mainland is foul and vessels should not 
attempt to pass through the intricate channels among the reefs, many 
of which bare at low water. Launches drawing 6 to 8 feet pass 
through the channel leading close to Malanao Island. Malanao 
Anchorage (chart 4334), southwest of Malanao Island, affords well- 
protected anchorage in &y 2 fathoms, mud bottom. The usual com- 
mercial anchorage is southward of Cutter Point off the Aborlan River 
in 4 to 5 fathoms. 

Cutter Point is a gently rounding mangrove point with a hard coral 
reef 100 yards wide on its southern side. The Aborlan Eiver empties 
into the sea through two mouths. The northern is the larger and 
deeper channel and boats that can cross the bar, about 3 feet at half 
tide, go as far as the wharf at Aborlan. The town of Aborlan, 2 
miles up the river, is on a government reservation and is the political 
and educational center for the several tribes of Central Palawan. 
The telephone line from Iwahig to Brooke Point passes through the 
town. The anchorage off the town is best made by bringing the 
mouth of the river to bear 270° (268° mag.), passing about % mile 
southward of Malanao Island. 

Calver Point is a double mangrove-covered point about 1 mile wide. 
The two points are separated by a small bay, Lolo Bay, with a light 
yellow sand beach which makes a useful leading mark for approach- 
ing the anchorage near the point. Good protection during the south- 
west monsoon may be obtained northward of Calver Point in 4 
fathoms, mud bottom. In making Calver Point from the vicinity 
of Malanao Island the following course is recommended: From a 
point y 3 mile south of the most southerly point of Malanao Island, 
steer 227° (225° mag.), heading for the southern point of Calver 
Point, keeping the eastern tangent of Malanao directly astern. To 
approach Calver Point from the eastward of Sombrero Island, bring 
the bright sand beach to bear 277° (275° mag.) and steer for it. 
This course will lead between the long reef off Sombrero Island and 
the %-fathom shoal lying 1 mile southwestward of it. The Maasin 
Eiver empties northward of the point and the Tigman Eiver south- 
ward. They both are small and unimportant, the former having only 
about 1 foot of water on the sand flat at the mouth and is little more 
than a salt-water slough. Fresh water was found y 2 mile up the Tig- 
man Eiver. 

Sombrero Island is a thickly wooded sand cay about 10 feet high 
and 119 feet to the top of the highest tree. The coral reef on which 
it lies is about 1 mile long northeast and southwest and y 2 m il e wide. 
The island is about 800 yards long by 450 yards wide and forms a 
useful landmark for clearing the many dangerous reefs that lie off 
this coast. 

Apoapuraguan Point and river lie 2 miles southwest of Calver Point. 
The point is low, mangrove-covered, with undercut coral cliffs about 
10 feet high on its southern side. Good lumber is being taken out of 
the river, which is little more than a salt-water slough with 3 feet of 



PUEBTO PRINCESA TO ISLAND BAY. 65 

water on the bar at half tide. Vessels can pass between Calver Point 
and Native Point by keeping from % to y% mile offshore following 
the 5-fathom curve. 

The Malasgao River empties into the sea about 1 mile north of 
Native Point through two channels. The southern and deeper one 
has about 3 feet of water on the bar at half tide. Inside the entrance 
points the channel is divided into three parts by two islands, the 
main channel passing between the islands. Small boats and bancas 
can ascend the river about 2 miles. 

Native Point is low and heavily wooded with a few clumps of man- 
grove breaking a narrow sand beach extending along the line of 
vegetation. A coral reef 100 yards wide surrounds the point. From 
the southern end of the point the shore trends due north for 650 
yards and then forms a long regular arc to Panacan Point, 3 miles 
southwestward. The latter point also points southward and the 
coast forms another arc to Casuarina Point. A shoal, with a least 
depth of 1% fathoms of water, lies % mile southward of Native 
Point. The course from Native Point to Panacan passes between 
the shoal and the point, heading for the western tangent to Rasa 
Island and favoring that island when heading in for the anchorage. 

Arena Island is % mile in extent, covered with trees 65 feet high, 
and lies on the western edge of an almost circular reef y 2 mile in 
diameter. A number of dangerous coral shoals exist in the vicinity, 
the position and character of which can be best understood by refer- 
ence to the chart. 

Rasa Island (chart 4334), lying eastward of Mantaquin Bay, is a 
large irregular mangrove swamp on a coral reef that extends about 
700 yards beyond the island at its northeast and southwest ends. 
It has only a very few deciduous trees and from offshore is hard to 
distinguish from the mainland. The channel between the island 
and the sand spit off Casuarina Point is only about 500 yards wide. 
Good anchorage protected from the northeast may be had in Manta- 
quin Bay in the lee of Rasa Island; and anchorage protected from 
all except the northeast may be had northward of Casuarina Point in 
about 4 fathoms, mud bottom. 

Panacan, at the mouth of the Panacan River, may be recognized by 
a bright tin roof on a substantial house. It is little more than a 
plantation, the native village lying along the coast to the south of 
Casuarina Point. This place is also a shipping point for lumber. 
Vessels going into Panacan must take care to avoid the shoais 
lying y z tol mile northward of Rasa Island. 

Casuarina Point is long and sharp, and is made conspicuous by the 
high coniferous trees upon it. A long sand spit, bare at low water, 
makes off the point. A reef, bare at low water, lies y 2 mile south- 
ward of the point, and a rock, almost awash at low water, lies x /4 
mile southeast of this reef. The channel into Mantaquin Bay from 
the north lies east of these reefs. 

From Casuarina Point the coast trends west and southwest for 6 
miles to Bivouac Point. It is a succession of sand beaches and 
mangrove points and islands not distinguishable as -islands from off- 
shore. The Malinao River has good fressh water. Small boats and 
launches can cross the : bar and ascend the river about y 2 mile. 



66 PALAWAN. 

Emelina Island is the last of the off-lying islands northward of Island 
Bay. It. is elliptical in form, low, covered with deciduous trees and 
has an outer fringe of mangrove; at the northern end there is a 
loose coral beach with grassy land back of it, and a narrow, .white, 
sand and coral spit extends out about 250 yards at this point. 

Bivouac Point is gently rounding and not conspicuous, being little 
more than a change of direction in the shore line. Batonbaton River, 
with only 1 foot of water at low tide, empties into the sea northward . 
of the point, and the Katabungan empties westward. The latter can 
be entered at half tide by small boats and launches having about 3 
feet of water at low tide in the channel between the sand spits, but 
is shoal inside. Both rivers have good fresh water. Batonbaton 
is an unimportant native settlement. 

ISLAND BAT. 

At Bivouac Point, the coast turns to the westward for 14 miles, 
then southward for 18 miles, to Nariz Point. The head of this 
indentation, between Relief Point and Crawford. Cove forms Island 
Bay. The coast between Bivouac Point and Relief Point is fairly 
regular, low and flat, practically free from mangroves, and is fronted 
by a fine sand beach. At Batobato Point, a coral ledge and some 
loose bowlders extend out about 100 yards ; the shore line turns north 
for about 200 yards to the Batobato River, a small fresh-water 
stream. 

The waters of Island Bay and vicinity have a number of dangerous 
shoals and close in it is hazardous for vessels to navigate. 

At 1 mile 202° (200° mag.) from Bivouac Point there is a shoal 
with 2y 2 fathoms of water over it. A shoal; with a least depth of 
1% fathoms, lies 4 miles 110° (108° mag.) from Relief Point and 
3^ miles offshore. Several shoals with varying depths of water are 
shown inshore of this latter shoal. From Relief Point, in the north- 
east part of the bay, coral bottom, on which there are patches of 
3 to 12 feet, extends 1% miles southwest. 

A patch of 2% fathoms lies midway between Relief Point . and 
Arrecife Island and 3 miles offshore, with the north extremity of 
Arrecife Island bearing 236° (234° mag.) and Relief Point 20° (18° 
mag.). 

Arrecife, Bessie, and Gardiner Islands are three low islands upward 
of a mile from each other, lying in a southwest and northeast direc- 
tion in the southern part of Island Bay. Arrecife Island, the north- 
easternmost, has its eastern side surrounded by coral, which bares % 
mile from it, with 14 fathoms near the edge. Temple Island and 
others and a number of sand banks lie inshore and northward of 
these, fronting the head of the bay. The depth of water between 
and around them is 6 to 7 fathoms. 

Puerto Separacion lies westward of Separation Point, which pro- 
jects from the middle of Island Bay. Directions for approaching 
the anchorage are as follows : From a point about 1 mile south of 
Arrecife Island, steer 300° for the south tangent of the unnamed 
island to the northwestward of Bessie Island, with the 1,630-foot 
peak (Malanut Range) on range. When the large sand cay to the 
northward comes on range with the west tangent of Temple Island, 



ISLAND BAY. 67 

steer for it, course 27°. Skirt the western edge of this sand cay, 
then steer 343°, and anchor in suitable depth, 2 to 5 fathoms, soft 
mud, about y 2 mile southwest of the blockhouse at Separation Point. 
Good shelter will be found here from all winds. 

The coast from Crawford Cove, which is 1 mile in leangth with 5 
fathoms of water at the entrance, trends, southwestward for about 11 
miles to Nariz Point, which is low and wooded with a small hill at 
the back of it. On the north side of Crawford Cove is the southern 
extremity of a coast range, and Davie Hill lies 2 miles south of it. 

Shoal. — A shoal patch, coA^ered with less than 3 fathoms of water, 
is reported to exist about 2 miles eastward of Eustasia Point and 
about 4 miles southward of Crawford Cove. 

Aitnacraig Shoal lies in latitude 9° 00' N., longitude 118° 20' E., 
and has a least known depth of 1% fathoms. It is a bank about 1 
mile in diameter with several coral heads on the northeastern part. 
The bottom is distinctly visible and discoloration of water may be 
seen at a disatnce of 1 mile. Irregular bottom extends to the south- 
westward, a depth of 11 fathoms being found about 5 miles distant 
in that direction. Heavy tide rips are frequently encountered and 
a strong current sets along the 100-fathom curve, and eddies seem 
to set in every direction across the shoal. 

Marabout Shoal, on which the ship Marabout, drawing 24 feet, 

f rounded in 1885, is composed of coral and considered to have a 
epth.of about 3 fathoms. From it Tagalinog Island bears 246° 
(244° mag.) distant about 8 miles. 

Tagalinog Island is a long, narrow, wooded island % by y 8 mile in 
extent and surrounded by a coral reef 200 to 500 yards wide. The 
height to top of trees is 80 feet. The southeastern end at first appears 
to be a small island by itself,, but on closer approach is seen to be 
connected with Tagalinog proper by a grass-covered sand spit. 
There is no anchorage near this island, the depths being upward of 
100 fathoms close to the reef. 

Caution. — It must be borne in mind that in a region which is so 
studded with isolated rocks and shoals not all dangers to navigation 
may be found during the survey, and extreme caution is necessary 
when navigating in this vicinity. 

ISLAND BAY TO CORAL BAT. 

Caramay Bay, 1 mile northeast of Nariz Point, is shoal but affords 
good protection for launches and small boats. The Caramay River 
empties into the head of the bay, is shallow, and does not afford good 
fresh water. 

Nariz Point is low with young mangrove bordering the shore. The 
bay to the westward is filled with coral. A shoal, with a least-known 
depth of 5% fathoms, lies 2 miles southeast of the point. A similar 
shoal lies 4 miles southwestward of this shoal on the outer side of a 
deep, clear channel over 1 mile wide, which parallels this coast. 

From Nariz Point the coast trends southwest, is low and heavily 
wooded. This lowland extends a distance of 2y 2 to 3 miles inland 
to the base of the mountain range of this part of Palawan. The 
shore is bordered by a 'coral reef, with several shoals and rocks close 
inshore. About midway between Nariz Point and Filantropia Point 
there is a small mangrove point. A rock with a depth of only 2 feet 



68 PALAWAN. 

of water over it lies almost 1 mile off this point, with a reef awash 
midway between it and the point. At Filantropia the coral reef 
■extends out about 700 yards, and launches and small vessels can find 
some protection from the monsoon behind it. The axis of the clear 
•channel mentioned above passes about 2 miles off Brooke Point and 
Filantropia Point and 1 mile off Nariz Point. 

Brooke Point, situated about midway between Nariz Point and the 
Segyam Islands, is low and not prominent from seaward. A small 
reef makes off the point, but there is no shelter except for small 
launches. The place is of little commercial importance but is the 
seat of government for the Moro settlement of Palawan. A fixed red 
light, visible 7 miles, is exhibited at a height of 35 feet above high 
water from the cupola of the blockhouse on the extremity of Brooke 
Point. 

Addison Peak, 3,110 feet high, is a good landmark. The peak is 
very steep on both east and west sides and usually clear of clouds 
except in the rainy season. The mountains in the interior are fre- 
quently cloud covered. 

Tami Point, 5 miles southwestward of Brooke Point, has a reef ex- 
tending out about 500 yards. Tacbolulii is a small settlement to the 
southward of the point. It is of no commercial importance. The 
Segyam Islands are two large clumps of mangroves growing on 
the shore reef about 3 miles eastward of Bonobono. The best passage 
along this part of Palawan is close to the shore reef inside the maze 
of shoals existing about 3 miles offshore. 

San Antonio Bay. — From the Segyam Islands the coast trends west- 
ward and then southward to Sarap Point, forming a deep bay with 
a large number of dangerous shoals. Discolored water from several 
fivers that empty into the western part of the bay makes these shoals 
hard to see. Bonobono, on the north shore of the bay, is the most 
important settlement, and it is connected with Brooke Point by a 
telephone line. The Iwahig Eiver has about 2% feet of water on 
the bar at low water, with deeper water inside. It is the largest river 
in southern Palawan and, rising in the foothills of Mount Escarpado, 
drains a fertile and populous valley. 

Huevo Bank is a series of small shoals lying eastward of San An- 
tonio Bay. Deep water exists in the channel between the shoals, but 
vessels should not attempt to pass through them. 

Egg Island is a small sand cay situated on a reef extending about 
y 2 mile in northeast and southwest direction. The position of the 
cay is continually shifting, due to storms. 

Gnll Bank is a large reef which bares at about half tide. On its 
southeast side the water deepens abruptly to 20 fathoms. 

Pirate. Island is a small, flat island with a number of high trees on 
its northeast point. Anchorage sheltered from southwest winds may 
be had behind Pirate Island in 16 fathoms, sticky mud. The reef 
extending to the northeastward of the island affords good protection 
from the sea. 

Caution. — Vessels having no object in coming into San Antonio 
Bay should not close this part of the coast nearer than 8 miles, as 
local knowledge is indispensable for safe navigation among the 
numerous coral. shoals of this region. 

Iglesia Point, about 6 miles southwestward of Sarap Point, is low 
and flat, consisting mostly of mangrove. A flat-topped hill just 



ISLAND BAY TO CORAL BAY. 69 

back of the point forms a good landmark for this vicinity. A fair 
anchorage in the northeast monsoon exists just westward of the 
point in 6 to 7 fathoms, mud bottom, being careful to avoid swinging 
on a 2-fathom shoal almost in the center of the anchorage space. 

Coral Bay is the name given to the area between Pandanan and 
Bugsuk Islands and the coast of Palawan. It contains many shoals 
and reefs, the latter frequently having sand cays near their western 
edges. The area between Arrecife and Bowen Islands is extremely 
foul. These reefs break the swell coming from the Sulu Sea during 
the northeast monsoon, but leave a choppy sea on the bay. To enter 
•Coral Bay, pass northward of Arrecife Island, using the sand cays 
for fixing the vessel's position. A good typhoon anchorage exists 
in Coral Bay, behind the larger of the Cabugan Islands, southwest- 
ward of Bawnsley Point, in 7 fathoms, sticky mud bottom. Coral 
Bay may also be entered from westward through a deep, narrow 
channel between Pandanan Island and the coast of Palawan. 

Outlying island and dangers. — Ursula Island is situated about 10 
miles southward of Iglesia Point. It is low, covered with trees, and 
surrounded by sand. The south side is steep-to, but a reef bares 
nearly 1 mile in a northeast direction from the north part of the 
island. Vessels bound along the Palawan coast should pass to the 
northwest of Ursula Island, as there are several dangerous shoals to 
the southeast of the island. 

At 2y 2 miles 306° (304° mag.) from the summit of Ursula Island 
is a 1%-f athom coral patch ; a 1%-f athom patch lies 2y 2 miles 346° 
(344° mag.) from Ursula Island; and a 3^4-f athom patch lies 5 miles 
10° (8° mag.) from Ursula Island. Those dangers lie in the middle 
of an otherwise clear channel, 4 miles wide, between Ursula Island 
and the foul ground extending northeastward of Bugsuk Island. 

Argyll Shoal, with a least known depth of 2 fathoms, lies 4 miles 
86° (84° mag.) from Ursula Island. A shoal with a least known 
depth of 4 fathoms lies 3 miles 183° (181° mag.) from Ursula Island 
and a shoal with 5 fathoms of water 1 mile eastward of the 4-f athom 
shoal. Between these shoals and Argyll Shoal there are several 
banks of 8 fathoms and possibly less water on them. 

Circe Shoal. — The Spanish Government schooner Circe, 1862, ob- 
tained a sounding of 4% fathoms on a bank of coral which is placed 
on the charts in latitude 8° 26' N., longitude 117° 56' E. 

Wakefield Shoal, on which the ship Wakefield struck in 1889, has a 
least depth of Zy 2 fathoms over coral and sand. It is almost 1% 
miles in length in an east-northeast and opposite direction by 400 

Sards in breadth, and lies with Iglesia Point 289° (287° mag.) and 
lantalingajan Mountain 331° (329° mag.) in about latitude 8° 21' 
N., longitude 117° 55' 30" E. The shoalest spot is on its southwest 
side, and close off it there was no bottom at 90 fathoms. It is not 
improbable that Wakefield and Circe Shoals are identical. 

A shoal about 1 mile long northeast and southwest by y 2 mile wide 
lies 4 miles southwest of Wakefield Shoal. The least water found 
was 2y 2 fathoms. 

Wright Shoal lies with Ursula Island bearing 276° (274° mag.) dis- 
tant 9 miles. It is 1% miles in length east and west, }/ 2 mile in 
breadth with 1% fathoms, on its shoalest part, and 47 to 70 fathoms 
close around it. 



70 PALAWAN. 

Ginn Shoal.— A shoal has been reported about 7y 2 miles 159° (157°' 
mag.) from Wright Shoal. This shoal was first seen from aloft,, 
bearing 170° (168° mag.) distant about 4 miles (Ursula Island being 
just visible from the deck) : soon afterwards Wright Shoal was seen 
from aloft bearing 339° (337° mag.) distant about 3y 2 miles. Wright 
Shoal appeared a light-green color without breakers; Ginn ShoaL 
was white in color with the sea breaking near its center (wind and 
sea moderate) and was therefore considered to have less water on it 
than Wright Shoal. The two shoals appeared to be of about the same 
extent. 

ISLANDS AND CHANNELS SOUTH OF PALAWAN. 

Dalagican Island lies on the southeast edge of a large coral reef. 
It is low and sandy and is now planted with coconuts. The channel 
between the reef and Cape Buliluyan is about y 2 mile wide with 6 to 
8 fathoms of water in it. 

Canimeran is a small islet lying 2y 2 miles westward from Dalagican 
Island, on a reef over y 2 mile wide and l 1 /^ miles long north and south.. 
Shoals with 3 and 4 fathoms of water extend over 2 miles northward 
of the islet. 

Patongong Islet, situated l 1 /^ miles southwest of Canimeran, lies on 
the southeastern edge of a coral reef over 2 miles long in an east and 
west direction. The channel between the two islets is about y 2 mite 
wide and appears to be the best approach to the channel leading along: 
the north side of Pandanan Island. 

Pandanan Island is roughly rectangular in shape, 5 miles long north- 
east and southwest and 2y 2 miles wide. It is low, flat, and densely 
wooded with a shore line varied between mangrove and rock about 10* 
feet high. The channel between Pandanan Island and Dalagican 
and the Palawan coast is about % mile wide and easily navigated.. 
An intricate mass of coral and deep channels extends northeastward 
of Pandanan Island into Coral Bay. 

Bugsuk Island, low, flat, rectangular in shape, with an area of about 
33 square miles, lies eastward of Pandanan Island. It is densely 
Avooded and a wide coral reef encircles the island. An estuary or 
river divides the island at high water, the northern entrance having 
a depth of over 3 feet but the western entrance being blocked by man- 
groves. The channel between Bugsuk and Pandanan is deep but nar- 
rowed to a width of about 400 yards by the shore reefs and leads into- 
a maze of shoals at its northern end in Coral Bay. 

Bowen is a small heavily wooded islet lying on a coral reef north- 
ward of Bugsuk Island. Apo, Gabung, and Byan Islands lie on the- 
northern edge of the wide coral reef extending southwestward o£ 
Bugsuk Island. 

Bancalan Island, lying 3y 4 miles southwesterly from Pandanan 
Island, is 3 miles in length by 1% miles in breadth. The island is 
half encircled by a reef usually discernible by the breakers and the- 
light-green color of the water inside, and which at the northwestern, 
extremity extends nearly 1% miles from shore. There are numerous, 
isolated coral patches from 1 to 3 fathoms in the channel between it. 
and Mantangule Island. 

Mantangule and Canabungan Islands. — Mantangule, lying 2 miles 
southeastward of Bancalan Island, is 4 miles in length and 1% miles; 



ISLANDS SOUTHWARD OF PALAWAN. 71 

in breadth. Canabungan Island, lying southwestward of Man- 
tangule, is 1% miles in length and about % mile in breadth. 
Malinsono Island is a small island joined to Mantangule by a coral 
reef. All these islands are low, densely wooded, and fringed by 
■coral and sand. There are no landmarks except the islands and their 
points. 

Anchorages. — Vessels may anchor anywhere within the area be- 
tween Pandanan, Bancalan, and Mantangule Islands, where the 
shoals do not interfere, in 7 to 15 fathoms of water, mud, and sand 
bottom. For very rough weather the southern entrance to the 
channel leading between Bugsuk and Pandanan Islands or the chan- 
nel itself is recommended. No sea can get into this latter anchor- 
age, though the place may be subject to heavy winds in typhoon 
weather. 

The channels leading to these anchorages are intricate. The best 
channel, if they admit of a choice, appears to be northward of 
Bancalan Island. Between its reef and that extending from Pa- 
tongong it is iy 2 miles wide, but a 3-fathom coral patch lying in 
the center, just within the entrance, contracts it to one-half that 
width. It should be attempted only when the reefs are distinctly 
visible from aloft. 

The following remarks may prove of value, but they must not be 
absolutely relied upon : 

To enter by this channel sight the edge of Bancalan Beef, which is 
always well-defined, and keep along it at y 2 mile distance until the 
western extremity of the island bears 199° (197° mag.) to clear a 
small 3-fathom knoll detached 600 yards from the reef; then close 
the reef immediately to avoid the central patch, and keep 400 to 600 
yards off, steering for Patawan Islet, off Bancalan, in line with the 
north end of Malinsono. Do not approach Bancalan within 600 
yards. 

During the southwest monsoon anchorage may be obtained be- 
tween Bancalan and Patawan in 8 or 9 fathoms, sandy bottom, with 
the latter island bearing 114° (112° mag.). In the northeast mon- 
soon the best anchorage is southeastward of Patawan in 9 to 10 
fathoms, taking care to pass between it and Bancalan, as the ground 
eastward is foul. 

The channel between Bancalan and Mantangule has a number of 
shoals of from 2 to 4 fathoms, and no direction can be given. The 
shoals are dark in color and hard to pick up even in the best of 
light. The channel between Mantangule and Byan was used many 
times by the steamer Pathfinder and is considered safe for vessels of 
15-foot draft, being careful to keep to the channel proper, between 
the dangerous reefs on either side. A course 12° (10° mag.) to 
pass midway between Mantangule and Byan Islands seems to be 
safe but leads midway betwen a reef with bowlders awash and a 
5-foot spot 750 yards eastward of it. To avoid this area, as soon as 
the south tangent of Gabung Island opens northward of Byan 
Island, haul eastward and follow the edge of the reef until the west 
end of Gabung Island bears south, when the course may be shaped 
for the anchorage. The passage between Malinsono Island and the 
reefs extending southward of Pandanan Island has several shoal 
.spots in it, and in the absence of aids to navigation a careful lookout 
must be kept. 



72 PALAWAN". 

BALABAC ISLAND, 

lying 17 miles southwesterly from Cape Buliluyan, is nearly 17 
miles in length north and south and 9 miles in breadth. On the 
southern half of the island are several ranges of high hills exhibit- 
ing great variety of outline. Only a few, however, are of sufficient 
importance to require description. Steepfall Range, about 2 miles 
from Cape Melville, the south point of the island, is composed of 
several hills in a semicircular form, and, being nearly of the same 
elevation, 850 feet, presents a table-topped appearance, whence the- 
sides fall in a precipitous manner ; hence the name. Northward of 
Steepfall, other ranges varying in height from 1,200 to 1,300 feet 
extend to Dalawan Bay. Balabae Peak, situated 2 miles northwest- 
ward of Dalawan Bay, has the greatest elevation on the island, 1,890, 
feet. Northward other ranges extend as far as Calandorang Bay. 
On the northern part of the island are several detached hills, the 
highest being 750 feet high. Ramos Island, lying northward of 
Balabae, is about 4 miles in extent and is separated from Balabae 
by Candaraman Inlet, which is nearly blocked by islets and shoals. 

Port Ciego or Blind Harbor lies in the opening nearly 2 miles wide 
between Ramos and Balabae Islands. Coral reefs almost block the 
entrances, leaving deep but narrow channels ; through which there 
flows a strong tidal current, the flood flowing eastward through 
Candaraman Inlet and ebb in the opposite direction. Bad whirls 
and eddies are formed during spring tides. The best anchorage is 
eastward or westward of Albay Island in Candaraman Inlet in 4 to 
7 fathoms, mud bottom. Good anchorage may be had in the heads 
of the bays out of the channel currents. In entering from westward 
follow the shore reef of Ramos Island and pass north of Sanz Island. 
The reefs are easily seen on rising tides and high water, but on 
a falling tide and low water they are often obscured by the mud 
from the numerous mangrove inlets. 

From Port Ciego to Cape Disaster, the northern extremity of 
Ramos Island, and round eastward the coast is low with two small 
cliffy hills a little inland. The coast reef bares nearly 1 mile off 
at low water. 

Northwest Shoal lies 2 to 3 miles westward of Ramos Island and 
has as little as 1% fathoms of water in places. 

EAST COAST 01" BALABAC. 

The east coast of Balabae is tolerably bold, with deep water close 
to it in many places. 

Calandorang Bay (chart 4347) , situated 5 miles southward of Can- 
daraman Inlet, is over y 2 mile wide between Sarmiento and Espina 
Points, with depths of from 5 to 20 fathoms. It is shallow for 1 
mile from its head and 800 yards seaward of the town, with isolated 
patches between the 3 and 5 fathom curves. Off the town are depths 
of 1% and 2 fathoms, according to the distance. The south point 
of the entrance is formed by Almirante Gil Hill, 105 feet in height. 
The north point is mangrove with hills a short distance inside. Coral 
reefs with shallow water beyond extend about 200 yards off both 
points and to a greater distance off the points within on the northern 
shore, which is all mangrove. 



BALABAC ISLAND. 73 

Balabac. — The Spanish Government in 1858 erected a military sta- 
tion here named Balabac, on the south shore, for the purpose of de- 
veloping the trade of Palawan and other neighboring islands. Bala- 
bac has been opened as a temporary port of entry. 

An occulting white light, visible 15 miles, is exhibited from a white- 
framed structure 33 feet high, on Espina Point. 

Climate. — The dry season is from November to April and the wet 
season from May to October, and the average temperature from one 
year's observation was 79°. 

Water can be obtained from a little stream near the coal pier, but 
no supplies can be had. There is a landing pier at the town. 

Tides. — It is high water, full and change, at Calandorang Bay 
at ll h ; springs rise 6 feet. 

Directions — Anchorage. — A steam vessel will find no difficulty in 
entering Calandorang Bay, guided by the plan. Steer in midway 
between the entrance points and, when Espina Point bears 159° (157° 
mag.), steer for the bluff westward of the town, bearing 233° (231° 
mag.), proceeding slowly, as the depths decrease quiekly inside the 
10-fathom curve. Anchor when Espina Point bears 109° (107° mag.) 
in about 8 fathoms. Small vessels can go farther in on the line of 
bearing of the bluff. The anchorage is good, with a bottom of mud, 
and perfectly secure in the southwest monsoon season. In the oppo- 
site season the monsoon sometimes blows into the bay with force, 
raising a choppy sea, so that vessels should anchor nearer the north 
shore in that season. 

The Caimanes Estero, which discharges into the western part of 
the bay, is reported to offer perfectly protected anchorage for small 
vessels, 90 or 100 feet long, drawing 7 to 9 feet. The channel is 
marked at present by stakes, and a vessel drawing 8 feet can enter at 
high water. 

A sailing vessel from southward should make for Dalawan Bay if 
the wind be likely to fail and await a more favorable opportunity 
for entering Calandorang Bay, for, on account of the deep water, 
which is unsuited for anchorage, if the wind should fail when within 
a mile or so of the port the vessel would be swept toward the numerous 
dangers northward, there being a current in that direction during the 
southwest monsoon. 

Dalawan Bay (chart 4347), situated 6 miles southward of Calan- 
dorang Bay, is convenient for wood and water and affords good 
shelter during the southwest monsoon. Dalawan Bay will be readily 
recognized by the lowland extending in a west-northwest direction 
from the beach across the island separating the highland about 
Balabac Peak from Transept Hill, a smooth, table-topped hill, 1,319 
feet in height, on the south side of the bay. 

The bay is about 1 mile wide between the entrance points , and 
extends about % mile westward, with anchorage in 7 to 12 fathoms, 
mud bottom, shoaling gradually to the sandy beach at the head. The 
shores of the bay are densely wooded, the entrance points on either 
side being fronted with mangroves. The best anchorage is nearly 
in the center of the bay in 9 fathoms, mud bottom, nearly y 2 mile 
from the beach. Eeefs, bare at low water, project from both points 
at the entrance, contracting the channel to about y 2 mile in width; 
that on the northern side has a rock at its extremity named Buoy 
Bock, lying 400 yards south from the shore, and which, being gen- 



74 PALAWAN. 

erally uncovered, forms a good mark for entering the bay. The spit 
on the south side bares 300 yards from the shore, but a rocky spit 
extends 700 yards beyond this in a northeasterly direction, having 
in some parts only 3 leet of water, with 5 and 7 fathoms close to the 
edge. A stream is situated in the southwest corner of the bay north- 
ward of White Eock. Its channel is continually shifting in conse- 
quence of freshets, but boats can enter near high water. 

Tides. — It is high water, full and change, at Dalawan Bay at ll h ; 
springs rises 5 feet. 

Watee. — About 14 mile southeastward of "White Eock is a rivulet 
of good water; in the dry season the water must be obtained some 
distance up to be good. It is navigable for boats on ordinary occa- 
sions about 1 mile, where there are a few houses and some cultivated 
ground. 

Clarendon Bay (chart 4347) , situated 5y 2 miles southwesterly from 
Dalawan Bay and % mile northeasterly from Cape Melville, is about 
% mile long in a northwesterly direction and has a greatest breadth 
of about y 2 mile, with depths of 4 to 6 fathoms, mud bottom. 

From West Point, the western entrance point, the reef extends off a 
very short distance, but from East Point, the eastern entrance point, 
it projects more than 400 yards, leaving a navigable channel of about 
150 yards wide between the 3-fathom curves. 

Clarendon Bay is of no commercial importance and is used only by 
the lighthouse tender when communicating with Cape Melville Light- 
house. 

Bttots. — The following buoys are established in Clarendon Bay: 
A second-class red nUn buoy, moored in 3 fathoms, sandy bottom, 
marks the edge of the spit south westward from East Point. 

A black third-class can buoy, moored in 3 fathoms, sandy bottom, 
marks the edge of the bank in the southwestern part of the bay. 

Directions. — Vessels entering Clarendon Bay should bring the 
middle of the entrance to bear 321° (319° mag.) and steer for it ; pass 
close to the red buoy, keeping a good lookout for the reefs on either 
side and anchor off the black buoy in 4% or 5 fathoms, muddy bot- 
tom. The head of the bay is reported to be foul. 

Cape Melville, the southern extremity of Balabac Island, is fronted 
by a reef £0 the distance of y 2 mile and, with the point westward, 
has detached patches extending off to a distance of 1*4 miles. A 
flashing white light, visible 24 miles, is exhibited from an octagonal 
stone tower 90 feet high, iy 2 miles northwestward from Cape Mel- 
ville and % mile from the sea. 

West coast of Balabac — Dangers. — The west coast of Balabac is 
fronted by numerous reefs which extends several miles off. The most 
important are Gnat Eeef, Balabac Great Reef, and Ada Reef, which bare 
and extend from 2 to 3% miles offshore, while seaward of them are 
the Southwestern Banks and the Western Shoals, with depths of 2 
to 4 fathoms and possibly less, from 4 to Qy 2 miles offshore. The 
chart will afford better information than a written description. 

Directions. — When standing toward the dangers off-lying the 
west coast of Balabac, in the afternoon when the sun will be astern, 
the outer shoals, and also the reefs, will generally be seen in suf- 
ficient time to avoid them ; but if the sun be ahead the outer shoals 
are difficult to make out until close to them. The soundings are so 
variable and uncertain under the depths of 30 fathoms as to afford 



BALABAC ISLAND. 75 

little assistance. A good lookout is therefore of the first importance. 
At night the soundings, coupled with bearings of the light, must be 
carefully attended to if near these dangers, and a vessel should not 
approach to a less depth than 40 fathoms off the southwest and west 
parts of the island nor 50 fathoms off the northwest part. 

Inshore Channel. — There is said to be a channel between Balabao 
Great Reef and the island, 200 yards wide in its narrowest part and 
with not less than 4^/ 2 fathoms of water. There are many isolated 
dangers in it, and there seems no reason for any stranger attempting 
it. West Point shows out very distinctly when viewed from north- 
eastward and southwestward and is a useful object for bearings when 
nearing the shoals. 

Secam Island is long and narrow, about 1 mile in length, and has 
trees about 100 feet high. It is situated on the west side of the en- 
trance of North Balabac Strait and separated from Cape Disaster, 
by Bate Channel, which is 1% miles wide, with depths of 25 to 50 
fathoms in the fairway, and with deep water close to the reef sur- 
rounding the island. This reef extends 1% miles northwestward 
from the western extremity of* the island, with patches of coral on it, 
which cover only at high water. 

Depths of 4 to 9 fathoms extend about 1 mile westward and north- 
ward of the west end of the reef. 

Anchorage tolerably sheltered from southwest winds may be ob- 
tained on the north side of Secam Island in 19 to 20 fathoms, bottom 
sand and coral, about % mile from shore, with the east end of the 
island bearing south, the reef westward affording protection from 
the swell. In bad weather a second anchor should be let go in time, 
as the squalls, which often succeed each other rapidly, are sometimes 
most violent, and, once off the bank in deep water, a sailing vessel 
would be awkwardly situated, as there is no other anchorage for 
which she could run. 

Tides and tidal currents. — It is high water at Secam Island, full 
and change, at 10" 40 m ; rise, 5 feet. , The flood stream sets eastward 
and the ebb westward ; maximum velocity observed, 2y 2 knots. 

Candaraman Island, situated on a reef very steep-to, 1% miles east- 
ward of the northern part of Balabac Island, is a low, flat island 
li/4 miles in length and % mile in breadth. It is separated from 
Balabac Island and from Caxisigan Island, lying off Candaraman 
Inlet, by a channel rather more than y 2 mile wide, with depths of 
30 to 44 fathoms. 

A reef extends y 2 mile northward of Caxisigan Island, and there 
are patches of l 1 /^ to 3 fathoms for the distance of 1 mile beyond it'. 

There is also a patch of 4 fathoms 400 yards southeasterly of its 
southern extremity. 

Shoal. — A shoal 50 to 80 feet in extent, with 5 fathoms over it,, has 
been reported to lie with Canabungan Island, bearing 339° (337° 
mag.) distant about 2y 2 miles. This shoal is charted where there 
are depths of 34 to ."94 fathoms and lies in, the fairway both of North 
Channel and North Balabac Strait. 

NORTH BALABAC STRAIT, 

formed on the north by Canabungan, Mantangule, and Bancalan 
Islands, and on the south by Candaraman, Ramos, and Secam Islands, 
is 11 miles in length and has a least navigable breadth of 2 miles, with 



76 PALAWAN. 

from 25 to 50 fathoms water throughout. There is generally a strong 
current in the narrow part of the strait, depending on the monsoon. 

Directions. — Vessels entering North Balabac Strait from east- 
ward should pass Canabungan Island within \y 2 miles from the south 
end, or if bound from southward, pass the same distance eastward of 
Candaraman Island, by which means the shoal charted 2y 2 to 3 
miles from these islands will be avoided; thence midway between 
Bancalan and Secam Islands into the China Sea, or they may pass 
between Ramos Island and Secam, keeping a little toward Secam 
Island to avoid the edge of the reef which extends about % mile 
from Cape Disaster, on which the sea generally breaks. 

If entering from northward, steer to pass midway between Secam 
and Bancalan Islands on about a 142° (140° mag.) course, avoiding 
the reef which extends northwestward from Secam Island and is 
usually visible. This course continued should carry a vessel midway 
between Canabungan and Candaraman Islands. If coming from 
southward or westward, do not approach Balabac Island nearer than 
12 miles until Balabac Peak bears southward of 120° (118° mag.) 
or until Martin Hill, on Ramos Island, bears 92° (90° mag.), when 
Secam Island may be steered for on a 70° (68° mag.) bearing. 

Nasubata Island is a cleft rock of sandstone formation 90 feet high, 
covered with trees. It lies on Nasubatta Reef, 400 to 600 yards from 
its northern edge. This reef is nearly 2 miles in extent, bare at low 
water, and steep-to. 

Roughton Island is a large, wooded sand cay, situated on the north- 
west part of a reef that is 2y 2 miles in length in a northeasterly and 
southwesterly direction by about 1 mile in breadth. This reef is 
steep-to, except on its northeast side, where shallow water extends 
from 400 to 600 yards, and % mile northward of the east point is a 
patch of 2% fathoms. The channel between Roughton Reef and 
Nasubata Reef is 1*4 miles wide and has depths of about 100 
fathoms in the center. 

BALABAC STRAIT. 

General remarks. — Balabac Strait, between the China and Sulu Seas, 
lies between Balabac Island on the north and Balambangan and Ban- 
guey Islands on the south. The greater part is occupied by numerous 
coral dangers, divided into groups, each group being distinguished 
by a special denomination, such as Great Danger Bank, Mangsee Dan- 
ger, etc. This arrangement distinctly defines the limits of the various 
channels, of which there are eight between the dangers. 

Balabac Peak and Banguey Peak lie nearly 356%° (3541/2° mag.) 
and 176^.° (174%° mag.) from each other, 38 miles apart; and as 
most of the dangers and channels are eastward of this line, these 
peaks are of the first importance for determining the position of a 
vessel when navigating the strait, especially for those bound east. 

Currents. — The velocity of the current through Balabac Strait 
depends on the prevailing winds. In the months of October and 
November, after a succession of westerly winds, it was found to set 
constantly eastward, slackening only on the ebb tide, while in July, 
after a continuance of unusually fine weather, with light east and 
southeast winds, it set with the same velocity, from % to 2y 2 knots, 
in the opposite direction. The mean velocity observed for 13 con- 
secutive hours was 1% knots. 



BALABAC STRAIT. 77 

North Channel is 4*/ 2 miles wide between Nasubata and Canabungan 
Island Eeef s and 6 miles wide between Roughton Reef and the reefs 
extending \y 2 miles off Gabung and Byan Islands. In the fairway 
there are depths of above 100. fathoms in places. 

Caution. — The only difficulty likely to arise in the navigation of 
this channel by a sailing vessel will be caused by the tidal stream 
when combined with the current which runs with considerable 
velocity during the strength of the monsoons, requiring a favorable 
breeze to enable vessels to make headway against it. But no danger 
is likely to occur if they keep northward of the deep water, where 
there is anchorage. 

Nasubata Channel is 5 miles wide between Roughton Reef and 
Comiran Danger Bank, with depths of above 100 fathoms in the fair- 
way. In navigating this channel it is only necessary to guard against 
the effects of the tidal stream, which when combined with the current 
sweeps through it in the direction of North Balabac Strait with 
considerable velocity at times. 

Comiran Danger Bank, 2y 2 miles in length east-northeast and west- 
southwest and 1 mile in breadth, includes within its limits Comiran 
Island and two shoals. 

Comiran Island lies 7 miles 153° (151° mag.) from Nasubata Island 
and 8 miles from the coast of Balabac. It is small, wooded, and sur- 
rounded by a reef extending 200 to 400 yards from the shore. 
Turtles in great numbers resort here at times. An automatic acety- 
lene light showing one red flash every 3 seconds, visible 12 miles, is 
exhibited at a height of 56 feet above high water, from a White steel 
frame tower in the center of Comiran Island, - ■ 

A shoal nearly y 2 mile in extent with 2 and 3 fathoms of water lies 
south westward of Comiran Island, its outer edge being distant nearly 
114 miles, and another shoal, about the same size, having 2% to 3 
fathoms, lies about the same distance in an easterly direction. Both 
are fairly steep-to. A shoal about 1 mile in extent, with general 
depths of 6 to 8 fathoms, has a patch of tyi fathoms on its south 
side midway between Comiran Island and the east end of Lumbucan 
Island. There is also a patch of 6 fathoms in the channel northward 

Coiniran Channel is over 3 miles wide between the dangers surround- 
ing Lumbucan and Comiran Danger Bank, with depths of 15 to 25 
fathoms in the fairway on either side of the bank mentioned above. 
It is not recommended, as there are other and better channels, though 
there seems to be no difficulty in navigating it. Cape Melville Light, 
bearing 252° (250° mag.), apparently leads through. 

Lumbucan Island, about 100 feet high, is about % mile in length 
and wooded. It is surrounded by a reef, and shallow water of a less, 
depth than 3 fathoms extends 1% miles southwestward and over 1 
mile northeastward of it. At 2 to 3y 2 miles 1 northeastward oi the 
island on the same bank are the Northeast Shoals with depths of 
1% to 3 fathoms. At 2 miles eastward of the island are patches of. 
vu in n fathoms and 1 mile southward is a shoal with 1% to 6 
fathoms SowTa's South Shoal. The island and all dangers stand 
on the £un?bucan Danger Bank. A sounding of W^f™*™ 
doubtful, is shown on the charts, 23,4 miles 190° (188 mag.) from the 
west end of Lumbucan Island. 



78 PALAWAN. 

Lumbucan Channel, lying between Lumbucan Island and Bank on 
the north and Ellis Shoal and Simanahan Eeef on the south, is from 
4 to 5 miles wide, with depths of 13 to 25 fathoms, and apparently- 
free from danger. Doorly Patches divide the channel at its eastern 
end, but the least known depth over them is 6 fathoms and they are 
steep-to. 

Ellis Shoal, situated about 6 miles 200° (198° mag.) from the west 
end of Lumbucan Island and in the western approach to Simanahan 
Channel, is composed of coral, nearly 3 miles in length east and west 
and 1 mile in breadth. It has a least depth of 2% fathoms near its 
center, from which Balabac Peak bears 330° (328° mag.) distant 14 
miles. 

Simanahan Eeef, situated 7y± miles 132° (130° mag.) from the east 
end of Lumbucan Island,' lies on the center of a coral bank 5 miles 
in length by 1 mile in breadth. The reef , bare at low water to about 
1 mile in extent, has a sand bank near its center which is just below 
the surface at high water. This serves, even when covered, from the 
light color of the water over it, to point out the position of the reef 
from some distance. The shallow part of the bank, under a depth 
of 3 fathoms, encompassing the reef, is about 3 miles in extent. 

Simanahan Channel, between Simanahan Reef and Great Danger 
Bank, is apparently free from danger with depths of 23 to 30 
fathoms. All that is necessary for its safe navigation is to pass 
about % mile southward of the reef on a 90° (88° mag.) or 270° 
(268° mag.) course, avoiding Ellis Shoal, but occasion can seldom 
arise to render this a convenient channel by which to proceed. 

Bank. — A bank on which the least depth obtained was 7 fathoms 
lies eastward of the approach to Simanahan Channel. This bank has 
not been examined and there may be less water over it; the bottom 
was plainly visible. Approximate position: Latitude 7° 40' N., 
longitude 117° 38' E. 

Great Danger Bank comprises many reefs among which no vessel 
should venture. It is 14 miles in length in a West-northwest and 
opposite direction and 7^ miles in breadth at the northwest end, 
gradually decreasing toward its southeast extremity. On the south- 
east reef is a sand cay. 

Southeast Shoals comprises several coral patches situated near the 
southeast extremity of the bank, extending over a space about 2^ 
miles in length, with depths of 1% to 4 fathoms, the shallowest being 
situated 100° (98° mag.) distant 3 miles from Sand Cay. 

Sand Cay, the only conspicuous object marking any part of the 
bank, stands at the southern side of it, about 4 miles westward of the 
southeast extremity. The cay is situated near the center of a coral 
reef, 3 miles in length, from each end of which shallow water (under 
3 fathoms) extends % mile, with patches of 3 to 5 fathoms beyond, 
and in a northerly direction, also, nearly as far as the Middle Shoals. 

Northwest Shoals, situated at the northwest extremity of the bank, 
occupy a space of about 5 miles in length, with depths of iy 2 to 3 
fathoms. 

North Patches, two in number, lie near the north edge of the bank, 
with Zy 2 fathoms least water. 

Middle Shoals are a cluster of coral patches forming the middle of 
Great Danger Bank. They cover a space of about 6 miles east and 
west, with as little as 2 fathoms in one or more places. 



BALABAC STRAIT. 79 

Middle Channel, separating Great Danger Bank from Mangsee 
Danger, is 1 mile wide at its narrowest part, with depths of 16 to 33 
fathoms in the fairway. 

Ray Bank, of sand and coral, is 1 mile in length, y 2 mile m breadth, 
and steep-to, with a least known depth of 4 fathoms near the center. 
It lies on the north side of the approach to Middle Channel and 6 
miles westward of Northwest Shoals on Great Danger Bank, with 
Balabac Peak bearing 341° (339° mag.) distant 16 miles from the 
4- fathom spot. 

Directions. — Middle Channel lies out of the usual track of vessels, 
but may be used if necessary. From a position about 2 miles south 
of Sand Cay stear 292° (290° mag.) ; when Salingsingan Island, 
on Mangsee Danger Bank, is abeam, distant about 1 mile, the course 
should be altered to 283° (281° mag.) ; when Balabac Peak bears 
351° (349° mag.) all dangers will be passed and the course may be 
shaped as desired. 

Mangsee Danger Bank, situated southward of Great Danger Bank, 
from which it is separated by Middle Channel, includes within its 
limits the Mangsee and Salingsingan Islands, with the dangers ad- 
jacent; also Loxdale, Jessie, and many smaller shoals. This bank 
is 10 miles in length in an east by south and opposite direction and 4 
miles in breadth at the eastern end, tapering to the western extremity. 

Loxdale Shoal, at the west end of the bank, is a coral shoal nearly 
1% miles in length and from 600 to 1,000 yards in breadth, with 2% 
to 3 fathoms of water, and fairly steep-to. From the west end; of 
this danger, Balabac Peak bears 336° (334° mag.) and Salingsingan 
Island 95° (93° mag.). 

Salingsingan Island, situated 253° (251° mag.) distant 5 miles from 
Sand Cay, on Great Danger Bank, is composed of sand and coral 
and covered with trees. It is rather more than y 2 mile east and west 
and 200 yards wide. A shoal nearly awash in places stretches off 
% mile eastward and 1% miles westward from the island, the breadth 
of the latter being nearly 1 mile. 

Jessie Shoal, with a least depth of 1 fathom, lying 2y 2 miles 115° 
(113° mag.) from Salingsingan Island, is 1% miles in length and y 2 
mile in breadth. This danger is situated on the eastern part of the 
bank, and shallow patches outlie its extremities. 

North Mangsee Island, situated about 2 miles southward from 
Salingsingan Island, is covered with trees which, rise to an apex 
near the center, 130 feet above high water. The island is % mile in 
length and from its east end reefs and shoals extend beyond those 
projecting from South Mangsee, for a distance of 2% miles, and some 
patches of 4 to 7 fathoms y 2 mile farther eastward. From the west 
end a line of reefs extends in a 290° (288° mag.) direction for 3y 2 
miles. 

South Mangsee Island, covered with trees, is round, about y 2 mile 
in diameter, and stands on a reef which extends from it 1 mile east- 
ward, 1,200 yards westward, and less distances in other directions. 

Mangsee Great Reef, situated southwestward from Great Danger 
Bank, from which it is separated by a channel more than 1 mile wide, 
is 5 miles in length in an east and west direction by 2% miles in 
breadth and steep-to on its southern sideL It is nearly everywhere 
covered at high water, but a sand cay upon the eastern part is gen- 



80 PALAWAN. 

erally visible from aloft when near the edge. At low water the reef 
presents a vast expanse of coral and sand, with lagoons here and there. 

From the west end of the reef, shallow water, under 10 fathoms, 
extends about 2 miles in a west-southwest direction, with irregular 
depths; the least known is 4 fathoms, but this locality should be 
avoided. Banguey Peak, bearing southward of 205° (203° mag.), 
leads westward of it. 

Kestrel Rock. — H. M. S. Kestrel passed over a patch with 5 fathoms 
water eastward of Mangsee Channel, with Banguey Peak bearing 
240° (238° mag.) and the southwest extremity of South Mangsee 
Island 297° (295° mag.). A late report states that there is a depth 
of only 3y 2 fathoms on Kestrel Eock. Soundings of 8 fathoms were 
obtained by H. M. S. Comus, in 1882, on a shoal about 1 mile south- 
ward of Kestrel Rock. Caution should be exercised while in this 
neighborhood. 

Rock. — A rock covered at high water and marked position doubtful 
is shown on some charts in approximately latitude 7° 28' 30" N., 
longitude 117° 32' E. No further information in regard to this rock 
is available. 

Mangsee Channel, separating Mangsee Great Reef from Mangsee 
Danger Bank, is 1 mile wide at the narrowest part, where the depths 
are irregular. It is <leep throughout, having from 18 to 33 fathoms 
in the fairway. The reefs on the north side are steep-to; Mangsee 
Great Reef, forming the south side, is less so. 

Directions. — Navigators will rarely have occasion to use this 
channel, but in case of necessity the following directions may be of 
assistance : With a proper lookout no difficulty will be found in pass- 
ing safely through. Coming from westward, having sighted the 
Mangsee Islands, bring the center of South Mangsee to bear 103° 
(101° mag.) and steer for it; when the west end of North Mangsee 
bears 69° (67° mag.), steer 137° (135° mag.), passing midway be- 
tween South Mangsee and the Great Reef. 

Main Channel, between Mangsee Great Reef, northward, and Ban- 
guey Island southward, is 5y 2 miles wide, but the navigable width is 
contracted to \y 2 miles by reefs extending northward from Banguey 
Island. Vessels coming from southwestward and bound through 
Balabac Strait during the northeast monsoon will find this channel 
the most convenient. 

Directions. — When approaching from westward do not bring the 
north hill on Banguey Island to bear eastward of 108° (106° mag.) 
until Siagut Point, the northern point of Balambangan Island, bears 
180° (178° mag.). From a position 2y 2 miles northward of Siagut 
Point a 79° (77° mag.) course should carry a vessel about % mile 
southward of Mangsee Great Reef. The light-green color of the 
water over this reef will, even at high tide, enable a good lookout 
aloft to make out the edge sufficiently far off to permit a vessel being 
guided past it at a safe distance. From about % mile off its south 
end steer to pass about 2 miles southward of South Mangsee Island 
and the same distance northward of Kestrel Rock ; thence a course 
about 92° (90° mag.) until the Muligi Islands bears 137° (135° 
mag.), when they may be steered for. This is the route usually 
adopted by vessels bound to Jolo and Sandakan, the channels south- 
ward being much encumbered with shoals. 



SHOALS IN PALAWAN PASSAGE. 81 



PALAWAN PASSAGE 



is a deep passage 35 to 40 miles wide, lying between the wide bank 
which fronts the western side of Palawan and an extensive area of 
dangerous ground in the China Sea. The western side of Palawan 
Passage is indicated on the charts by a dotted line which no vessel 
should attempt to cross as the area defined by it is unsurveyed and 
is known to abound with dangers. 

Dangers on the western side of the passage. — The principal dangers 
shown on the charts, lying close to the dotted line on the western side 
of the passage, are : Half Moon ; Investigator, N. E. ; Carnatic and 
Seahorse or South Shoals. 

Half Moon Shoal has a rock named Inclined Bock, situated in lati- 
tude 8° 51' N, longitude 116° 16' E., which always shows above 
water, on its southeastern side. The shoal, formed by a belt of coral 
even with the surface, of an average width of 200 yards, is of oblong 
shape, nearly 3 miles in a northeast and opposite direction, with a 
breadth of 1 mile. On the eastern side, at 400 and 1,000 yards south- 
ward from Inclined Rock, there are two channels into the lagoon, 
the southern of which has a depth of from 4 to 9 fathoms in it and is 
marked by a cluster of rocks on its north side awash at half tide 
and which generally show. Other half-tide rocks are interspersed 
over the belt. The average depth in the lagoon is 14 to 16 fathoms, 
with numerous patches of coral scattered about it. From the shoals, 
Balabac Peak (not in sight) bears 141° (139° mag.) distant 71 miles. 
The tide -rises and falls about 4 feet at Half Moon Shoal. 

Investigator NE Shoal, shown on the charts in latitude 9° 12' N., 
longitude 116° 23' E., is apparently awash. 

Carnatic Shoal, charted in latitude 10° 06' K, longitude 117° 21' 
E., is said to have as litle as &y% fathoms over it. The British sur- 
veying vessel Royalist, in 1853, could not discover this shoal in the 
position assigned it, or succeed in obtaining soundings with from 
100 to 200 fathoms of line when in the neighborhood. 

Seahorse or Bouth Shoal, forming the northernmost known danger 
on the western side of Palawan Passage, is a pear-shaped coral reef 
8 miles in length in a north-northeast and opposite direction and 
from 3 to 4% miles in breadth. The least known depth is iy 2 
fathoms in latitude 10° 50' N., longitude 117° 47' E., which was 
found on a patch about % mile in extent at the northern extremity 
of the shoal. Nothing less than 6 fathoms was obtained on any 
of the other patches surrounding the lagoon ; the depths in the lagoon 
vary from 17 to 20 fathoms at the edge to 35 fathoms in the center. 

Dangers in Palawan Passage. — The only charted dangers in the fair- 
way of Palawan Passage are the Eoyal Captain and Bombay Shoals 
and King Robert Eeef . 

Royal Captain Shoal lies about 24 miles 69° (67° mag.) from Half 
Moon Shoal, contracting the Palawan Passage, which is here the 
narrowest part, to about 30 miles between it and the shoal heads on 
Paragua Ridge and other 4 and 5 fathoms patches lying southwest- 
ward from it. Observation Bock, at its northern extremity, in lati- 
tude 9° 02' N., longitude 116° 39' E., shows at half tide and from 
it Bulanjao Eange bears 120° (118° mag.) distant 48 miles. In 
clear weather the high land of Mantalingajan is visible from this 



82 PALAWAN. 

distance. The shoal is elliptical, the length being 1% miles in a 
northwest and opposite direction with a breadth of 1 mile. The coral 
belt, on which a few rocks are visible at low water, is covered at high 
water and varies in width from 100 to 400 yards. There are depths 
of from 15 to 17 fathoms, sand and coral, with several coral patches 
in the lagoon. There is no entrance but at high water boats can cross 
the belt. The outer edge is steep-to having no bottom with upward 
of 100 fathoms within 100 yards of the reef. 

Bombay Shoal, lying 31° (29° mag.) 29 miles from Royal Captain 
Shoal, is circular in shape, about 1 mile in diameter and steep-to. 
From Madagascar Rock, on its northeastern extremity, in latitude 
9° 26' N., longitude 116° 56' E., which shows at half ebb, Mantalinga- 
jan Mountain bears 130° (128° mag.) distant 56% miles and is visible 
in clear weather. The lagoon, in which there are depths of 16 to 18 
fathoms, sandy bottom, is completely iarclosed by a coral belt on 
which three or four rocks show at half tide. There is a tidal range 
of about 4 feet here and the flood was observed setting northeastward. 

King Robert Reef is shown on some charts as existing about 51 miles 
58° (56° mag.) from Bombay Shoal and the same distance south- 
ward from Seahorse Bank in latitude 9° 52' 40" N., longitude 117° 
38' 30" E., but no further information in regard to it is available. 

WEST COAST OF PALAWAN. 

The west coast' of Palawan is fronted by a bank studded with' in- 
numerable shoals and reefs. The 100-fathom curve, marking the 
outer edge of this bank, is about 20 miles northwest of Cape Buli- 
luyan. From this position it trends in a general northeast by north 
direction and is about 26 miles off at the northern end of the island. 
This bank has not been thoroughly surveyed and new dangers are 
frequently reported. Navigators are advised to keep outside of the 
100-fathom curve unless they are possessed of local knowledge or 
are obliged to enter the ports of western Palawan. A brief descrip- 
tion, as they are known to exist at present, will be given. 

Cape Buliluyan,- the southern part of Palawan, is a low shelving 
point, fronted by mangroves, having on its south side depths of 4 to 
8 fathoms close-to, and on the eastern side, between it and the north 
end of Pandanan Island, where the channel is 1,600 yards wide, from 
28 to 30 fathoms. The western side is fronted by a reef, bare at low 
water, to the distance of 600 to 1,000 yards, with depths of 6 fathoms, 
mud bottom, close to the edge. 

Coral patches with depths of 4 to. 5 fathoms lie % mile off the 
southwestern part of Cape Buliluyan. The sea bottom of this region 
is composed largely of dark coral and is seldom visible in depths 
greater than 4 fathoms. 
' Off Welcome Point, 3% miles northward of Cape Buliluyan, rocky 
ground with 2 to 4. fathoms of water extends about 3 miles from the 
shore, 

Capyas, a small, low, wooded island lying 6 miles northward of 
Cape Buliluyan, has a reef extending 800 yards northward of it. The 
south side of the island is steep-to. Between it and the shore are 
depths of 4 to 7 fathoms. 



SOUTHWEST COAST OP PALAWAN. 83 

Rocky ground lies 2% miles westward of Capyas, with depths of 2 
fathoms only in places and 25 and 30 fathoms close to the western 
edge. 

At 1% miles northward of Capyas Island a spit projects from 
Reposo Point, having on it a dry sand bank 1^4 miles from the shore. 
Foul ground extends nearly 2 miles beyond this, with depths of ^4 
fathom, rocky bottom, to 2 fathoms in places. 

Alimudin Point, about 7 miles northward of Reposo Point, is a 
wooded promontory forming the southern entrance point of Canipan 
Bay. The intermediate coast is chiefly mangrove; indented with bays 
lined with reefs bare at low water and extending from 600 to 1,400 
yards, having 10 or 12 fathoms of water close to their edges. Rocky 
patches, with from 2 to 5 fathoms of water, lie 2% miles northwest- 
erly from Alimudin Point. 

Southwest or Triple Hill. — A low range of hills commencing abreast 
of Capyas Island lies parallel with the coast, about Vfa miles inshore, 
of which Southwest Hill, with a small triple summit 900 feet high, 
is the highest and most conspicuous. At the northern extremity of 
the range there is a hill named West Coast Hill. 

Murex Shoal. — The S. S. Murex is reported to have struck, in 1901, 
on a reef from which Balabac Peak bears 167° (165° mag.) distant 
34 miles. It is plotted in latitude 9° 28' 30' N., longitude 116° 56' 
E., position doubtful. No sounding was obtained on the reef, but 
the depth nearby was 7 fathoms. As far as known this is the south- 
ernmost of the outer dangers off the west coast of Palawan. 

Herefordshire Shoal. — The position of this shoal has hot been ac- 
curately determined and it is charted about 4 miles within the edge 
of the bank, in latitude 8° 35' N., longitude 117° 01' E. Shoal water 
has recently been reported about 1 mile westward from the above 
position. 

South Begent Shoal is a patch of sand and coral y z mile in extent 
with depths of 1% fathoms and 13 fathoms around. It lies with 
the southern extremity of Palawan bearing 155 6 (153° mag.) and 
the summit of Bulanjao in line with Alimudin Point. 

On the latter line, 2!/4 miles inshore of this shoal, are two other 
patches, each 600 yards in extent, 600 yards apart, with 2 fathoms 
of water. 

Kamonga Shoal, situated 110° (108° mag.) 3% miles from South 
Regent Shoal, is a 2-fathom patch, 600 yards in extent. Shallow 
Shoal is charted about 5 miles 238° (236° mag.) from Kamonga Shoal. 
The depths in the vicinity of these shoals vary from 30 to 35 fathoms, 
mud bottom, decreasing to 18 and 20 fathoms near the shore, with 
occasional patches of 4 and 5 fathoms, coral bottom. 

Canipan Bay. — Siacle Point, 2y 2 miles northward of Alimudin 
Point, is a wooded promontory, higher than that of Alimudin, and 
forms the northern extremity of Canipan Bay. In the center of a 
sandy beach southward of this the Canipan River discharges. It is 
navigable for boats for about 2 miles, where, on some rising ground 
on the left bank, is a Malay village. There is only 1 foot depth at 
low water over a reef at the entrance to the river. The shore of. the 
bay is lined with coral, which, in the southwest corner, bares. 1 mile 
otf. A patch of 3 fathoms lies 325° (323°- mag.), distant 1% miles 
from Siacle Point. 



84 PALAWAN. 

Simagup Bay, on the north side of Siacle Point, is small, with reefs 
baring nearly across the entrance and a rocky spit extending about 1 
mile from Koreti Point, its northern extremity. 

Canipan Hill, 976 feet in height, on the eastern shore of Simagup 
Bay, is steep and conical, with two peaks when seen from northwest- 
ward, the southern being the sharper of the two. Next to the Bulan- 
jao Range, Canipan Hill is the highest and most conspicuous object 
on this part of the coast. 

Bulanjao Range. — Eastward of Canipan Hill and nearly in the 
center of the island (here about 13 miles wide) is the high land of 
Bulanjao Range, which attains an elevation of about 3,500 feet. It 
is of reddish aspect, rising gradually on the south from a range of 
hills behind Canipan. It has a long, smooth summit, of which it is 
difficult to distinguish the highest part. The northern slope has 
several small, shaTp peaks with steep shoulders and ravines, among 
the most conspicuous of which is Low-hock, generally visible even 
when the adjacent hills are obscured. 

Sepangow Bay, situated 5y 2 miles northeasterly from Siacle Point, 
has apparently two deep inlets, with Cliff Point, a small red cliff, 
northward, and two green islets southward. These islets lie near each 
other, immediately under Steep Hill, the shoulder of a coast range. 
There are depths of 8 to 9 fathoms at the entrance of the bay, but 
when well within the points the mud bares across it. 

Water. — At 3% miles northeasterly from Cliff Point is Rock 
Point, a long bluff head with a small rock lying off it. Southward 
of this point is a sandy bay, the shore of which is lined with casua- 
rina trees, where, at the western extremity, near Pinos Point, there 
is a good flow of fresh water. Water can also be obtained from the 
Coloby Rivulet, 1 mile southward of Pinos Point, where there is a 
depth of 4 fathoms close to the beach. 

Off Pinos Point, and also between it and Rock Point, reefs dry 
nearly % mile from the shore, about 1,200 yards beyond which are 
two patches of 3 and 4 fathoms, coral bottom, with 12 and 15 fathoms 
between them and the reef. 

North Regent Shoal, about 5 miles east-northeastward of the as- 
signed position of Herefordshire Shoal, is a coral shoal with 1% 
fathoms of water, about 800 yards in extent and steep-to. It lies 
with Southwest Hill bearing 131° (129° mag.) and Pagoda Cliff 
78° (76° mag.). ' 

A patch of 2 fathoms lies 2 miles 69° (67° mag.) from North 
Regent Shoal. 

Breaker Reef, with a few rocks bare at low water, lies 55° (53° 
mag.), distant about 5 miles from North Regent Shoal. It is about 
€00 yards in extent, steep-to, and is situated with Southwest Hill 
bearing 153° (151° mag.) and Pagoda Cliff 83° (81° mag.) showing 
southward of a double peak on the Iwiig Range. 

Rock.— A rock covered by 2% fathoms lies 1% miles westward of 
Breaker Reef. This rock is called Breaker Reef on the charts, and 
the rocks which bare eastward are not named, but the above descrip- 
tion agrees with the Derrotero and is probably correct. 

Foul ground. — A patch of 4y 2 fathoms lies 356° (354° mag.) 3 
miles from Breaker Reef; a patch of 4% fathoms 322° (320° mag.) 
6 miles, only 2 miles within the 100-fathom curve; a patch of 1 



SOUTHWEST COAST OF PALAWAN. 85 

fathoms 289° (287° mag.) distant 5 miles; one of 5 fathoms 277° 
(275° mag.) distant 7 miles, and a shoal with 4 fathoms 120° (118° 
mag.) distant 2 miles from Breaker Reef. There are other patches, 
from 6 to 10 fathoms, coral bottom, near the edge of the bank, with 
depths of 30 to 70 fathoms around, generally mud bottom. These 
will be seen on the chart. 

Perigee Bank.— The coast between Siacle Point and Cliff Point is 
dangerous to approach, as rocky, uneven ground, with many shallow 
patches, extends in some places 2y 2 miles from the shore. The largest 
of these is Perigee Bank, about 1 mile in extent and steep-to, with 
from 1 to 214 fathoms over it, on which the sea breaks during strong 
winds. It lies westward of Sepangow Bay and 305° (303° mag.) 
2% miles from Providence Point. 

Coloby Patch, situated 24° (22° mag.), 33,4 miles from the south- 
western extremity of Perigee Bank, is 400 yards in extent, with a 
least depth of 2y 2 fathoms water and 22 to 25 fathoms close-to. It 
lies with Siacle Point bearing 196° (194° mag.) and Balansungain 
Island (showing as a small flat island with a peak in the center) 
showing clear of Bock Point. There are patches of 6 to 8 fathoms 
within 1 mile of it. 

Antelope Shoal, situated 277° (275° mag.), 3% miles from Coloboy 
Patch and 7 miles offshore,, is the largest of the Antelope cluster. It 
is a narrow strip of sand and coral, 1,400 yards in extent, with 2% 
fathoms of water and 30 and 35 fathoms on either side. From its 
center Balansungain Island bears 89° (87° mag.) and Canipan Hill 
153° (151° mag.). 

At 1% miles 246° (244° mag.) from this shoal is a 3-fathom patch. 
There is also another of the same depth 345° (343° mag.), about 1*4 
miles from it. 

At 1 mile 64° (62° mag.) from the shoal is a shoal of sand and 
coral with 2 fathoms of water and a smaller patch with the same 
depth % mile north of the latter. All these are steep-to. 

Northeast Antelope Shoal, situated 47° (45° mag.), 2% miles from 
Antelope Shoal, is 600 yards in extent and steep-to. Not less than 
3 fathoms depth has been found on it. From this shoal the summit 
of Pagoda Cliff is just seen over the shoulder of Iwiig Range, in 
line with the flat Balansungain Island bearing 106° (104° mag.) 
and Canipan Hill bearing 170° (168° mag.). 

The lead does not give the slightest indication when in the prox- 
imity of these shoals, but they can generally be discovered from the 
masthead. 

Large quantities of seaweed are frequently seen in this neighbor- 
hood. 

Marasi Bay. — From Bock Point the coast trends eastward 4 miles, 
forming Marasi Bay, off the north point of which and distant 1,200 
yards is the bush islet of Litalita, connected with the shore by a reef 
which also extends the same distance northward of it. 

Balansungain Peak. — From Bock Point a low ridge extends along 
the south shore of Marasi Bay, on which is Balansungain Peak, 947 
feet high, and which, when seen from southward, is conspicuous on 
account of being so sharp. 

Iwiig Bange. — At the back of the above ridge, fronting Bulanjao 
and lying parallel with the coast, is a higher range, named Iwiig, 



86 PALAWAN. 

with Double Hill in the center, 1,814 feet high, from which a flat 
shoulder extends; the range then gradually slopes toward some 
low hills on the plain northward, overlooking the eastern shore of 
Marasi Bay. 

Balansungain Islands. — In the southwestern part of Marasi Bay, at 
1 mile from Eock Point, are two islands of sandstone formation, 
named Balansungain, lying 600 to 1,000 yards from the shore. The 
westernmost is flat, and is nearly connected with the shore by a spit 
that bares at low water. Reefs, which always show, extend from 
both extremities of these islands parallel with the shore; and in the 
bay there are several coral patches, with small sand banks, bare at 
low water. 

Kocky ground extends iy 2 miles in a north-northwest direction 
from the Balansungain Islands, having in some places only 3 fathoms 
of water with 19 fathoms close-to. Also 1% miles northerly from 
the flat island and 274° (272° mag.) 2^4 miles from Litalita there is 
a patch of 4 fathoms with 18 fathoms, mud bottom, around it. Foul 
ground more or less extends from this 4-fathom patch to the head 
of the bay. 

There are also two other rocky patches lying, respectively, 319° (317° 
mag.) and 305° (303° mag.) 3 miles from the flat Balansungain Island 
and 27° (25° mag.) from Siacle Point. . They are each y 2 mile in 
extent, and have 4 and 5 fathoms water, with depths of 20 fathoms 
between, and 28 and 30 fathoms westward of them. 

Mountains ; aspect. — Pagoda Cliff, situated 6 miles inland of Marasi 
Bay, is a remarkable limestone cliff, 2,016 feet in height, having a 
table summit with two clefts which form pinnacles at either ex- 
tremity, the southern pinnacle being the sharper. There is a small 
rock in the gap, conspicuous on the southeast and opposite bearing. 
Pagoda Cliff rises immediately above a plain which extends across 
the island separating the Bulanjao and Mantalingajan Ranges, being 
connected with the latter by a high ridge with various peaks of 
similar character and formation, among the most conspicuous of 
which are the Hat or Panalingajan and the Fin, a very sharp pin- 
nacle, and three sharp hills under the fall of Mantalingajan. 

Mantalingajan Mountain, 6,843 feet high, is of reddish barren aspect, 
and when viewed from the westward has a table summit, the north 
end being the highest part, while a long, smooth shoulder, terminat- 
ing in three nipples, slopes gradually southward. It has several 
spurs and lower ranges fronting it, the most remarkable of which is 
Sharp Peak, 2,814 feet high, 5% miles northward. 

Landargun and Gantung Mountains. — From Mantalingajan Moun- 
tain a high central range extends in a northeasterly direction to the 
parallel of 9° 15' N., having on it several remarkable peaks, the two 
highest of which are Landargun, 5,397 feet; and Gantung, 5,868 
feet. Toward the termination of this range there is a table hill with 
a sharp nipple, Calibugon, 1,793 feet; and at the extremity, <2,y 2 
miles farther northeastward, is Corumi, a conical hill of less eleva- 
tion. 

The coast from Litalita Islet trends northeastward 13% miles to 
Pampandugang Point ; it is low and has small bays in some of which 
are rivulets of fresh water. 



SOUTHWEST COAST OF PALAWAN - . 87 

For 5 miles, as far as Washington Point, the coast is fronted by a 
a reef which extends from % to iy 2 miles offshore, having openings 
here and there with depths of 3 to 6 fathoms. Beyond; Washington^ 
■Point only the points of the bays have spits extending 600 to 1,000 
yards off with 5 and 6 fathoms close to the edge. The depths in the 
bays decrease gradually to 2 fathoms, mud bottom, near the beach. 

Culasian Bay (chart 4346) lies between Washington Point and Jer- 
vois Point. There was formerly a Spanish military post on the 
eastern shore of the bay. The settlement of Culasian is situated on 
the south shore of the bay. Anchorage may be found about y 2 mile 
northward of the town in 4 fathoms, care being taken to avoid the 
rocky spit making out westward from the mouth of the Candoaga 
River, which empties on the east side of the bay. 

Caution.- — Vessels should not approach this part of the coast 
within 3 miles unless bound into Culasian Bay. The land gives no 
warning when near a reef and the water is not sufficiently clear to 
see the danger. The depths from 3 to 5 miles offshore vary from 15 
to 17 and 25 fathoms, muddy bottom, with occasional shoaler patches 
of sand or coral. 

Shoals.— At 4 miles 342° (340° mag.) from Washington Point is 
a 5-fathom patch, 800 yards in extent, lying 3% miles from the shore. 
There is a patch of 8 fathoms about 1 mile southwestward of it. A 
shoal on which the least depth found was 4 fathoms is reported to 
«xist about 6 miles 267° (265° mag.) from Washington Point. 

Brechtel Shoal, about 1 mile in extent, the center of three shoals, 
lies in the approach to Culasian- Bay, with Washington Point 130° 
(128° mag.) distant about iy 2 miles and Litalita 200° (198° mag.). 
A patch on which the sea breaks lies 1% miles westward of Jervois 
Point. 

Ulan Hill, frequently a useful object on this part of the coast, when 
the high land is obscured, is a detached hill 600 feet high, covered with 
wood, lying 1 mile from the coast within Townsend Point. There is a 
low table hill 1% miles northeastward, and a conical hill the same dis- 
tance southwestward of it, the latter apparently being connected with 
it by ridges which extend along the coast close to Jervois Point. There 
are also several wooded hills on the plain, not, however, sufficiently 
■conspicuous to be of service to the navigator. 

Pampandugang Point; water. — At \y 2 miles southward of Pampan- 
dugang Point in the bight of a small bay eastward of Townsend 
Point is a rivulet from which in favorable weather a supply of good 
water may be obtained, the entrance being protected by a coral spit. 
•Care is required in approaching, as foul ground with shallow water 
extends 1% miles in a northerly and 1 mile in a westerly direction 
from Pampandugang Point, with 12 fathoms close-to. 

Merlin Shoal Patches. — The westernmost of these lies 14° (12° mag.) 
distant 9y 2 miles from Breaker Reef. Two small shoals bear 86° 
(84° mag.), distant, respectively, 3% and 4 miles from the first 
named. 

A shoal with 4 fathoms lies with Eran Quoin bearing 65° (63° 
mag.) and Low Hock Hill 162° (160° mag.) ; a shoal with depth ' 
of 5 fathoms lies 249° (247° mag.) from the 4- fathom shoal, distant 
nearly 2 miles; a shoal with 7 fathoms lies 249° (247° mag.), distant 
nearly 5 miles, and also a shoal o * 2 fathoms with Siacle Point 194° 
(192° mag.) and Litalita Island 122° (120° mag.). 



88 PALAWAN". 

A shoal with 7 fathoms over it has been reported with Washing- 
ton Point bearing 89° (87° mag.) , distant 4 miles, and Litalita Island 
170° (168 a mag.) . Shoal water has also been reported in a position 
from which Washington Point bears 92° (90° mag.) and Canipan 
Hill 166° (164° mag.). 

Paragua Ridge, the center of which is situated about 16 miles 7° 
(5° mag.) from Breaker Keef, parallel with and 1 mile inside the 
edge of the bank, is formed of coarse sand and shells, and is 8 miles 
in length, with a narrow ridge of coral having gaps through it. 
On the ridge the least water found was 5 fathoms, the average 
depth being 6 to 9 fathoms, with 20 to 30 fathoms close-to. The 
outer edge of this ridge is steep-to, having in many places 60 to 70 
fathoms within 400 or 600 yards from it. From the center of 
the ridge, where the least depth, 5 fathoms, was found Manta- 
lingajan Mountain bore 103° (101° mag.) and Canipan Hill 162° 
(160° mag.). 

Vanguard Shoal is a coral patch 400 yards in extent, with 1 foot of 
water, lying 12 miles offshore, with Canipan Hill bearing 176° (174° 
mag.) and Mantalingajan Mountain 104° (102° mag.). Between 
this shoal and Paragua Ridge the depths vary from 30 to 50 fathoms. 

Scalesby Castle Shoal is a coral patch 400 yards in extent, with a 
depth of 2% fathoms, and 30 fathoms close-to, lyingl% miles within 
the edge of the bank. From this shoal Bulanjao High Peak bears 
171° (169° mag.), Pagoda Cliff 151° (149° mag.), and Eran Quoin 
96° (94° mag.). 

There is a shoal with 3 fathoms on it lying 8 miles 86° (84° mag.) 
from Scalesby Castle Shoal, and another with 4% fathoms 12 miles 
91° (89° mag.) from the same. 

Collingwood Shoal, lying 61° (59° mag.), distant 15 miles from 
Scalesby Castle Shoal, and 6 miles within the edge of the bank, is % 
mile in extent and on it the least water found was 2%, fathoms, with 
26 to 28 fathoms close to its outer or western edge, the depths in the 
neighborhood being 40 to 45 fathoms, soft mud. From this shoal 
Eran Quoin, in the direction of the nearest land, bears 142° (140° 
mag.) distant 12 miles; and Pagoda Cliff (which is very conspicuous 
on this bearing over the lowland, and generally discernible when the 
elevated objects are obscured), 182° (180° mag.). 

Coral Patches. — From Scalesby Castle Shoal to the parallel of 9° 
35' N., a distance of over 40 miles, the coral patches on the edge of 
the bank of soundings are so numerous that to give a description or 
bearing for each separately would tend more to confuse than make 
clear the direction for this part of the passage. The least water that 
has been found on them is 4% fathoms, and they may generally be 
distinguished by an ordinary lookout from the masthead. Two 
patches of this depth are charted near the edge at 12 and 33 miles 
northeastward of Scalesby Castle Shoal. It is, however, recom- 
mended to avoid the neighborhood, as it is impossible to say whether 
there may or may not be shoaler spots that have escaped detection. 
The average depth upon the patches is from 6 to 7 and 9 fathoms, 
with 15 and 20 fathoms close to their edges. 

From Pampandugang Point the coast trends in a northeasterly 
direction 11% miles to Eran Point, which, as well as the inter- 
mediate land, is low, densely wooded, and fronted by reefs baring 
from V2 to % mile from shore. At iy 2 miles eastward of Pam- 



ERAN BAY. 89 

pandugang Point is a sandy bay, where there is a rivulet of good 
water. The shore of this bay for a distance of nearly V/ 2 miles ap- 
pears free from reefs. Patches of sand and coral, however, nearly 
bare, lie V 2 mile off its entrance with depths of 3 to 4 fathoms between. 

Eran Quoin, a wedge-shaped hill, 518 feet high, stands on the plain 
between Baja and Eran Points. 

The depths off this part of the coast are generally more regular 
than those southward, and with the exception of a few 6 or 8 fathoms 
patches gradually increase from 7 and 9 fathoms near the shore reef 
to 30 fathoms, mud bottom, at 6 miles off. There is a small 3-fathom 
patch lying V/ 2 miles westward of Eran Point and half that distance 
from Becher Point, with the latter in line with Eran Quoin. 

Eran Bay, eastward of Eran Point, may be readily recognized by 
Eran Quoin. It is the first bay on the coast from southward which 
affords anchorage in southwest winds, and where water, wood, and a 
few supplies may be obtained. 

Eran Bay is 4 miles wide at the entrance and open northward. At 
the head of the bay there is a projection named Truce Head, off which . 
and connected with it at low water is a sandy islet named Bivouac. 
From this islet the reef extends in a northerly direction % mile. In 
the southwest part of Eran Bay is Eran River, which boats can 
enter under ordinary circumstances and obtain a supply of good 
water without going very far up. There are rivulets of fresh water 
eastward of Truce Head, but in this part of the bay there is a good 
deal of coral and foul ground. 

Anchorage. — The best anchorage is eastward of Eran Point, 1 
mile from the shore, in 6% or 7 fathoms, stiff mud bottom, with Eran 
Quoin bearing 233° (231° mag.) , and Bivouac Islet 126° (124° mag.) 
midway between Eran Point and the reef off Bivouac Islet, or closer 
up if necessary, recollecting that as the beach is approached the bay 
becomes contracted by reefs, Which on the western shore gradually 
extend from 400 yards off at Eran Point to % mile westward of 
Bivouac Islet. Vessels should not anchor in any part of the bay east- 
ward of Bivouac Islet, as reefs with off-lying patches project some 
distance from the shore and a heavily rolling sea sometimes sets in. 

Tides. — It is high water, full and change, in Eran Bay at 10 h 10 m ; 
springs rise 6*4 feet. 

Gantung Mountain, which rises to an elevation of 5,868 feet, and 
False Sharp Peak (the latter liable to be mistaken when first seen for 
Sharp Peak, 2,814 feet in height and farther south) overlook this 
bay and have spurs which approach very near the coast. 

Between the two is Waterfall Peak (an abrupt rocky shoulder 
worn bare by the action of the water usually seen running down the 
side) , the commencement of another range lying parallel to that of 
Gantung, and which from the identity of the features near the north- 
ern extremity is designated False Corumi. 

From Eran Bay the coast trends north-northeastward about 4 
miles to Isabel Point, thence northeastward about 10 miles to Hum- 
mock Point. It is similar in character to the coast southward of 
Eran Point, having low, abrupt points, from which reefs, bare at low 
water, project 600 or 800 yards. The bights of the bays formed by 
these points, in some of which there are streams of fresh water, are 
usually free from coral and have from 2 to 3 fathoms close to the 
beach. 



90 PALAWAN. 

Aspect. — Pulute Range, which is about 7 miles inland, is 3,067 feet 
high, with a deep saddle southward and a high and a low sharp 
nipple, the former 2,930 feet in height, on the slope northward. Be- 
tween this and the coast range are hills of less elevation. 

Point Hill, on Hummock Point, is 560 feet in height. From it a low 
range extends along the coast 5 miles in a southwesterly direction, 
terminating in a triple-top hill. On the plain southWestward of this 
range is a high, wooded mound, between which and False Sharp 
Peak, over Eran Bay and fronting the Corumi Range, are other 
hills of nearly equal elevation. 

Rock. — A sunken pinnacle rock covered by 1% fathoms of water 
lies V/ 2 miles 339° (337° mag.) from Isabel' Point, with the south 
end of Malapackun touching the northern extremity of Marantao 
Island. 

Malapackun and Marantao Islands. — At 3 miles 261° (259° mag.) 
from Hummock Point and l 1 ^ miles offshore is Malapackun, a 
wooded island 340 feet high, with a double summit and a round islet 
400 yards southward of it. There is a channel inshore with 9 and 
10 fathoms, but it is not recommended, as fringing reefs project from 
800 to 1,600 yards from the coast, increasing in distance toward Hum- 
mock Point and inclosing Marantao Island, 247 feet in height, 1 mile 
westward of the point. 

Caution. — Vessels approaching the coast immediately northward 
of Eran Bay should keep Malapackun Island open of Isabel Point, 
as the ground is foul in that vicinity; nor should any part of the 
coast between Eran Bay and Malapackun be approached nearer than 
2 miles, as doubtless other patches exist besides those that have been 
charted. Beyond the distance of 2 miles from the shore the depths 
vary from 15 to 25 fathoms, mud bottom, with occasional patches of 
5 and 7 fathoms, coral botton. 

Nakoda Bay (chart 4346) is formed by Maricaban, Mariquit, and 
Nakoda Islands, which lie in the bight of the coast between Hum- 
mock Point and Albion Head on the reef which fronts the shore as 
far as the outer extremity of Nakoda. This reef is steep-to and may 
be avoided by keeping Sirinao Island open northward of Nakoda. 
Nakoda is described as a high island (probably about 200 feet), but 
the other two are mangrove islands. 

Anchorage for small vessels may be obtained here in 4 fathoms, 
tolerably sheltered in either monsoon. The best position during the 
northeast monsoon is under the southeast end of Sirinao and in the 
opposite season southeast of Nakoda Island, observing that the shore' 
reef extends 1 mile nearly northwestward of Albion Head and that a 
detached reef lies about % mile off the east side of Nakoda. 

The entrance between Nakoda and Sirinao is about 800 yards wide 
between the reefs encircling these islands, with depths of, 8 to 11 
fathoms. The eastern entrance between Albion Head and Sirinao 
is only about 200 yards wide between the reefs and is not recom- 
mended. 

Triple Cima Island is situated about 1 mile northward of Nakoda 
Island in the approach to Nakoda Bay. It is somewhat flat, with 
three peaks, the highest being 162 feet in height. A reef encircles 
the island to a distance of about 200 yards. 

Sirinao Island is about % mile southeastward of Triple Cima, and 
there are depths of 12 fathoms in the channel between them. Sirinao 



WEST COAST OF PALAWAN. 91 

Island is about % mile in length, the highest part (280 feet above 
the sea) being at the northwestern extremity. The southern ex- 
tremity is a sand tongue, 1 mile distant from the northern part of 
Albion Head, but the channel between is reduced to about 200 yards 
in width by the reefs on either side. The island is fronted by a reef 
which extends nearly y 2 mile eastward of it, but much less in other 
directions. 

Reefs.— Nearly % mile northeastward from the highest part of 
Triple Cima is a 5-fathom patch of coral, with 12 and 15 fathoms, 
mud bottom, around it. At 1% to 1% miles 72° (70° mag.) from the 
southeast end of the island are patches of 1 to 3 fathoms, apparently 
steep-to. 

Albion Head, forming the western entrance to Malanut Bay, is a 
bold, perpendicular limestone cliff, with stalactite caves, is luxuriantly 
wooded, and has several peaks of nearly equal elevation, the highest 
being 690 feet. 

Malanut Bay (chart 4346) affords shelter in all seasons for mod- 
erate-draft vessels, being protected on the west by Albion Head and 
on the north by Bajallanura Island and its surrounding reef. Baja- 
llanura is low and flat, and reefs extend from it from 1 to 1% miles 
in a northwest direction and to about half that distance from the other 
sides, with outlying patches in places. 

Fairway Reef. — A coral reef obstructs the fairway between Sirinao 
and Bajallanura. According to the original survey it was about 
Y 2 mile in length north and south, with a channel on the eastern side 
of it about 300 yards wide. From its northern extremity Albion 
Head east tangent bore 176° (174° mag.) and the northern extremity 
erf Bajallanura 81° (79° mag.) ; from the southern extremity Albion 
Head was on the same bearing, and Back Gap Peak, seen over the 
southern extremity of Bajallanura Island, bore 86° (84° mag.). 

The existing plan shows the reef to be of less extent, and in two 
portions, but it is advisable to pass northward of it, as formerly 
recommended, where the channel is about 300 yards wide. 

Tides. — It is high water, full and change, in Malanut Bay, at 
10 h 15 m ; springs rise 6 feet. The current is scarcely perceptible. 

Directions — Anchorage. — The plan should be used with caution. 
The reef off the west side of Bajallanura Island bares at low-water 
springs, which is the best time to enter. At high water the edge of 
the reef is not well defined. 

Approaching from westward or northward, steer to pass about 
400 yards northward and eastward of Triple Cima Island, and when 
abreast of it, bearing about 227° (225° mag.), steer 103° (101° mag.) 
until Albion Head bears 159° (157° mag.) ; then proceed as directed 
below : 

In making the entrance from northeastward, the northwest point 
of Triple'Cima should not be brought westward of 249° (247° mag.) 
until the eastern side of Albion Head bears 159° (157° mag.) in order 
to avoid the previously described reefs outlying the reefs extending 
northwestward from Bajallanura Island. 

With the eastern side of Albion Head bearing 159° (157° mag.), 
Malanut Mound, about 6 miles inland, will be seen just clear of it ; 
then steer so as to keep the summit of this hill about its own width 
open to Albion Head untilthe northern part of Sirinao Island bears 

33452°— 21 7 



92 PALAWAN. 

268° (266° mag.), when the edge of the reef surrounding Bajallanura 
Island will probably be discerned. Close this reef to a distance of 
100 yards, passing between it and the coral reef in the fairway, 
until the eastern side of Albion Head bears 185° (183° mag.), when 
a 170° (168° mag.) course heading for the town will lead to the 
anchorage clear of the reefs on either side. The best anchorage is 
about y 2 mile eastward of Albion Head in 4 fathoms, stiff mud 
bottom, about 2 miles distant from the, military post at the head of 
the bay. 

Settlement. — A military post named Alfonso XIII was estab- 
lished by the Spaniards at the mouth of a small stream at the head 
of Malanut Bay, but at present there are only one or two native 
houses on the beach, and the pier is in ruins. 

Malanut River discharges in the southeastern part of Malanut Bay, 
at the western extremity of a sandy beach, about ^ mile eastward 
of the settlement. Here fresh water may be procured with con- 
siderable facility when the river is swollen, but in the dry season it 
is difficult for boats to proceed any distance up, because of the rocky 
nature of the bed and because an extensive mud flat bares at low 
water off the entrance. 

Supplies are scarce, high priced, and difficult to obtain. 

Malanut Range, situated on the southern side of Malanut Bay, is 
1,630 feet in height and extends southeastward two-thirds of the way 
across the island, where it terminates in the conical mound, Malanut, 
1,290 feet in height. 

Viewing the range end on in a southeast or northwest direction, it 
assumes the form of a precipitous cliff, with slips on its south side. 

Treacherous Bay, situated about 6% miles northeastward of Albion 
Head, is overlooked by two remarkable peaked hills — Devils Cap and 
Back Cap. The foot of Devils Cap, 625 feet in height which is the 
one nearer the shore, breaks through the mangroves and forms a con- 
spicuous yellow-looking cliff on the shore. Three-fourths of a mile 
to the southwest of it is a stream of fresh water. Back Cap, the 
higher and inshore peak, is 720 feet in height and has a small table 
spur at the back. 

Palm Island, the outermost and smallest of a group of four islands 
lying between 3 and 4 miles northward of Treacherous Bay, is 100 
feet high and has some dark rocks on a sand bank 14 mile northeast- 
ward of it. 

The two islands, Tidepole and Patelan, immediately inshore of Palm 
Island are moderately elevated, the higher, Tidepole Island, being 
205 feet high, with a rock on its northwest side. Double Island, 
fronting an indentation in the coast, consists of two low, flat islands, 
connected by a small neck of sand. 

Beefs, partly bare at low water, extend 1,200 yards in .a south- 
westerly and 800 yards in a westerly direction from Double Island. 
The channel within it and also throughout the bay is encumbered 
with a reef with 5 and 6 fathoms close to the edge. The passages 
between Double Island and the islands-westward have from 8 to 12 
fathoms of water. 

Caution. — It is recommended not to stand into Treacherous Bay, 
as the reefs northward as well as northwestward of Bajallanura 
Island extend a long distance off and the water is usually so muddy 
that they can not be seen. 



WEST COAST OF PALAWAN. 93 

The depths vary from 10 to 14 fathoms, mud bottom, in the bay, 
The points of the coast are fronted by reefs projecting from % to 
upward of 1 mile, and in the center of the bay there is a 3-fathom 
patch with 13 fathoms close-to. From this patch Tidepole Island 
bears 36° (34° mag.) and Back Cap Peak 126° (124° mag.). 

The depths off the coast outside of Treacherous Bay are 25 to 30 
fathoms, the bottom consisting chiefly of broken coral with a thin 
stratum of mud in some places. There is a 414-fathom patch in the 
offing, 800 yards in extent, with 20 to 30 fathoms around, with Triple 
Cima Island bearing 164° (162° mag.), distant 83^ miles, and Palm 
Island 120° (118° mag.). 

The coast from Double Island to Bahia Honda Point, 3 miles 
northeastward, is low and thickly wooded, and should not be ap- 
proached nearer than 2 miles, as the edge of the reef bares y 2 mile 
from the points, with rocky ground in some places 1 mile beyond. 

From "Bahia Honda Point the coast trends northeastward for 
about 18 miles to Long Point. Near the latter apparently a third 
separation takes place in the high central range of hills. The low- 
land, however, at this part is considerably above the level of that 
which divides the range southward. 

Victoria Peak, a sharp double peak, the third highest on Palawan 
Island, attaining an elevation of 5,680 feet, occupies a central posi- 
tion in the intermediate range, from which several lower ranges of 
not less remarkable features extend on either side, forming ravines 
and gorges thickly wooded. On the south part of the range, End 
Peak, 4,512 feet high, is the most conspicuous, having a small double 
top with a shoulder at the back, from which the land falls rather 
abruptly. The southern face slopes gradually toward the plain be- 
hind Back Cap Peak, while a part of the same ridge, on which is 
Sultan Peak, 3,820 feet high, lies in a southeasterly direction and 
terminates in a long table spur overlooking Island Bay, on the oppo- 
site side of the island. 

Valley Cone. — From a range immediately in front of Victoria Peak 
a spur extends to Steep Point, iy 2 miles northeastward of Bahia 
Honda Point, forming on the north side a valley, at the head of which 
is Valley Cone, a remarkable conical hill lying beneath three sharp 
peaks on the ridge above. 

The plain in front of Valley Cone is densely wooded, and about 3 
miles from Steep Point, lying close to the coast, is Cuckold Hill, 280 
feet high. 

On the north side of the valley the hills again approach the coast 
near Bluff Point, 2 miles northeastward of Cockold Hill, and thence 
extend along the shore to Moorsom Point, a distance of 3 miles. 

Gap Range. — Immediately overlooking these hills is Brow Shoulder, 
3,840 feet above the sea, forming the extremity of a ridge which here 
takes a sudden trend to the eastward, attains an elevation of about 
5,000 feet at its highest part, and has two peaks on it. 

The northern face of this range is a steep slope, with deep ravines 
and some conical hills, at the foot of which Brow Cone, 1,180 feet 
high, over Bluff Point, is conspicuous. 

Water. — A copious stream of fresh water flows into the sea imme- 
diately northward of Cuckold Hill. 

The bay northward of Bahia Honda Point is bold to approach to 
i/ 2 mile, the depth at that distance from it being 10 to 12 fathoms;; 



94 PALAWAN. 

but from Steep Point to Bluff Point the coast is fronted by a reef 
extending from 600 to 1,000 yards off, the edge of which is bare in 
some places, and has a black rock on it at nearly 1 mile northward of 
Steep Point. 

In a small bay southward of Bluff Point is a high rock close to the 
shore. 

Peaked Island, 110 feet high, with a rock 23 feet high nearly % 
mile westward of it, lies off the entrance of the fresh-water stream 
before mentioned, and about 1 mile from the shore, to which the 
reefs bare halfway at low-water springs, leaving a channel between 
the reefs and the shore into the river. 

About 1 mile southwesterly from Peaked Island, and the same 
distance from the shore, there is a 3-foot patch, from which rocky 
ground extends 1 mile in a southwesterly direction, with 18 to 20 
fathoms, mud bottom, close-to ; and westward l 1 /^ miles from the rock 
23 feet high off Peaked Island there is a 4^-fathom coral patch with 
17 and 23 fathoms of water close-to. To avoid both these shoals keep 
Back Cap Peak (720 feet) open westward of the lowland about 
Bahia Honda Point. 

Moorsom Point, situated S 1 /^ miles northeastward of Bluff Point, is 
rather a prominent headland, moderately elevated, with a small rock 
above water y 2 m il e westward of it. A reef awash lies iy 2 miles 
northward of the point and 1 mile from shore, with a depth of 7 
fathoms inside it. 

Water. — There is a stream of fresh water in a sandy bay on the 
north side of Moorsom Point, and also at the extremity of the beach 
nearly 1 mile northeastward. 

Long Point, situated 5% miles northeasterly from Moorsom Point, 
is densely wooded, moderately elevated, and slopes gradually from 
the center, terminating in a rocky coast with several sandy bights. 
A reef extends 400 yards from the northernmost point. 

Apurauan Point lies close southward of Long Point. A vessel may 
obtain a few supplies, such as fowls and vegetables, from the- natives, 
who occupy small farms scattered over a considerable tract of country 
inland and which are approached by the river. 

The river is fresh, but is impracticable as a watering place, owing 
to a reef which extends y± m ^ e from the point and bares across the 
entrance. A low, wooded range, partially cleared, with some huts 
upon it, extends along the coast southward of the river. 

The natives cultivate rice, corn, sweet potatoes, tobacco, and cotton 
in small quantities, and manufacture from the fiber of the plantain 
the colored textile fabrics usually worn by them. Beeswax and tor- 
toise shell form articles of export. 

Anchorage. — The best anchorage is in 7 to 8 fathoms, bottom stiff 
mud and shells, about y 2 mile from shore, with Long Point bearing 
0° (358° mag.) and Peaked Island 225° (223° mag.). Small vessels 
may anchor closer in, depending on draft. There is good shelter 
from northward and eastward, but otherwise exposed. Rocky ground 
extends 1 mile westward of Apurauan Point. At % mile 261° (259° 
mag.) from the point there is a depth of only 3 feet, with 4 to 9 
fathoms close-to. 

Aspect. — Inland from Long Point are two peaks of nearly equal 
elevation, the northernmost, named Anepahan, being the sharper. 
They are connected with Long Point by a gradual slope in the range, 



WEST COAST OF PALAWAN. 95 

on which are some round-topped hills, usually visible when the more 
elevated land is hidden. 

There is a deep valley northward, overlooked by a sharp shoulder 
8,606 feet in height, which is the commencement of another central 
range extending to tJlugan Bay. 

Tiie most remarkable peaks of this range are Mount Stavely, 3,930 
feet high (a needle peak rising from the center of a table top imme- 
diately northward of the sharp shoulder) , and two dome-shaped 
mountains rather northward. The southernmost of these, named 
Thumb Peak, 4,260 feet high, is the highest part of the range. The 
other, Mount Beaufort, 3,680 feet in height, has a hollow in the high- 
est part. 

From Mount Beaufort the range gradually falls and is again almost 
separated between Mount Herschel and Mount Peel, a low ridge only 
connecting the two. Mount Herschel is 2,316 feet in height and slopes 
gradually southwestward. 

South and North Rocks are two rocks lying parallel with and 1 
mile offshore at 3 and 5 miles northeastward of Long Point. 

South Rock is 20 feet high and bold to approach, the depth around 
it being 18 to 20 fathoms. North Rock is nearly covered at high 
water. 

Water. — There are some streams of fresh water in the bay abreast 
of South Rockj but where the best stream flows the shore is fronted 
with coral, which extends 400 yards from it, with 3 and 4 fathoms 
close to the edge. 

Breakers have been reported in a position with South Rock bearing 
153° (151° mag.) distant 7 miles. 

Anepahan, about 10 miles northeasterly of Long Point, is a small 
settlement with some cleared ground on the spur of a hill that ap- 
proaches the coast from the high range and terminates in a small, 
rocky point. The coast, 2 miles on either side of this point, is fronted 
by coral, which extends about 400 yards off, with 3 to 5 fathoms close 
to the edge. 

Hen and Chickens. — Bluff Point, 12 miles northeasterly from Ane- 
pahan, is formed by a spur from Mount Herschel and has a bay north- 
ward of it. Halfway between this bay and Table Point, 6 miles 
beyond, is a small group of islets and rocks named Hen and Chickens, 
lying iy 2 miles from the shore, with 19 to 27 fathoms between them 
and Sprat Point. The outer group consists of three instead of two 
islands, as charted, the outer one being omitted from the charts. 
The northwest islet is about 80 feet high. One and one-half miles 
northward of it is a bare reef or rock, close to which the depth is 25 
fathoms. 

The depths in the bay vary from 20 to 30 fathoms, mud bottom ; 
but northwest from Sprat Point in the direction of the bare reef is a 
rocky ledge, nearly 1 mile from the point, on which the least water 
found was 4% fathoms. 

Water. — On the shore are numerous sandy bays, tree from coral, 
with streams of fresh water in some of them, the supply depending 
on the season. . 

Table Point, nearly 3 miles northeast of the Hen and Chickens, is 
a conical hill with a detached rock close off it. At 2 miles eastward, 
under a table range at the foot of Mount Peel, is a waterfall. 



96 PALAWAN. 

Offlying shoals. — York Breakers, on which the Countess of Lon- 
don is supposed to have been wrecked in November, 1816, in latitude 
9° 53' N., longitude 118° 08' E., is a coral shoal 800 yards in extent, 
with 1 foot of water, and except in fine weather generally breaks. It 
lies 6y 2 miles within the edge of the bank and is steep-to, having 45 
fathoms close to the edge. From York Breakers, Victoria Peak 
bears 163° (161° mag.) and Mount Peel 79° (77° mag.). 

Coral patches.— There is a coral patch of 3y 2 fathoms lying 223° 
(221° mag.), 4 miles from the center of York Breakers; and li/ 2 
miles westward of it is another, with 4 fathoms, the latter lying Zy 2 
miles within the edge of the bank, with a bank of coarse sand inter- 
vening, on which the least known depth is 11 fathoms. 

The depths in the neighborhood of these shoals are from 40 to 50 
fathoms, mud bottom. 

Middle Shoal, situated 12 miles offshore, is 400 yards in extent, 
with 3ty, fathoms water, and 16 to 20 fathoms close-to. From this 
shoal Mount Peel bears 86° (84° mag.) and Mount Stavely 151° 
(149° mag.). 

Albay Shoal. — The Spanish gunboat Albay (1888) reported the 
discovery of a shoal having 6 to 9 fathoms of water on it, bottom 
coral and rock, with Long Point Hill 204° (202° mag.), Aspera or 
Bluff Point 114° (112° mag.), and Table (Mesa) Point 71° (69° 
mag.). 

Duhme Shoal. — The German ship Minerva (1882) reported having 
sighted heavy breakers in approximately latitude 10° 06' N., longi- 
tude 118° 30' E., having an extent of about 2 miles, with the appear- 
ance of very shoal water. 

Gode Shoal, reported in 1860, is charted in latitude 10° 13' 30" N, 
longitude 118° 24' 30" E. No further information in regard to this 
shoal is available. 

Mount Airy, a double-topped summit at the front of Mount Peel, 
overlooks Fish Bay, to the southward of which, between it and Mount 
Herschel, the ridge is low. 

Mount Peel, 3,600 feet in height, has an abrupt fall in the spur ex- 
tending toward Mount Airy. The northern and western faces have 
sharp ridges with deep ravines extending to the coast, giving it a 
bold, rocky appearance; and on the eastern side a second peak, 
Baheli, precisely similar in appearance, rises to a height of 2,406 feet, 
from which a slope extends in a southeasterly direction nearly across 
the island. 

Karsoglan, a high, wedge-shaped hill as seen from westward, lying 
northward of and connected with Mount Peel by a low ridge, is 
close to the shore between Table Point and Northwest Head, and 
forms part of the range which overlooks Oyster Inlet in Ulugan Bay. 

On the peninsula northward of Karsoglan are hills of less eleva- 
tion, connected with each other by the low ridges which form the 
head of the inlets in Ulugan Bay. 

Northwest Head, 600 feet in height, the northern extremity of the 
peninsula which forms the western side of Ulugan Bay, terminates 
in a bold, precipitous cliff, with a detached rock about 40 feet high 
at the north foot of it. 

Ulugan Bay (chart 4346) , within Northwest Head, is 2 miles wide at 
the entrance between Cordelia Point and Broken Head and 6 miles 



ULUGAN BAY. 97 

in length in a southerly direction. Oyster Inlet, south westward of 
Eita Island, affords apparently snug anchorage in 10 to 14 fathoms, 
mud bottom. The other inlets are apparently all shallow, but the 
bay has not less than 14 fathoms in the fairway, as far as the reef 
which fronts its head to the distance of about 1 mile. 

The northern part of the eastern shore of the bay is bold, cliffy 
land, and of reddish-brown aspect. Sangbauen, the north peak, 1,816 
feet high, has a small table summit, when seen in a northeasterly 
direction, and two sharp nipples on the brow in front of it. 
Bentoan, 1,730 feet high, situated immediately southward of Sang- 
bauen, and separated from it by a wooded valley, which forms the 
back of Watering Bay ? is sharp when viewed as above, and has a 
lower range adjoining it southward, with four distinct peaks. The 
remainder of the eastern shore is a shelving mangrove coast, front- 
ing a low, wooded range on which Harbor Hill, 960 feet high, with 
a conical hill 1,120 feet high southeastward of it, are the most con- 
spicuous. This land is separated from the high land of Bentoan 
by a shallow inlet named Tagnipa, at the head of which is a wooded 
limestone cliff named Deans Head. 

Camungyan Island, 140 feet in height, lies l 1 /^ miles northward of 
Northwest Head, on the western side of the approach to Ulugan 
Bay from northward. At 250 yards 27° (26° mag.) from the summit 
of Camungyan Island is a rock which generally shows, with another 
rock, visible only at low water, 100 yards northward of it. 

A rocky ledge, consisting of sand and coral, extends 1 mile south- 
ward of Camungyan Island, almost across the passage, on which the 
average depth is 9 to 12 fathoms, with 20 to 25 fathoms on either 
side; but less water may exist. 

Eita Island. — The western shore of Ulugan Bay is undulating high- 
land, with three inlets, and is fronted by Eita Island, iy 2 miles in 
length north and south by about 200 yards in breadth. It has a 
detached rock at its northern extremity, 45 feet in height, named 
Observatory Eock, from which rocky ground, with 5 and 7 fathoms 
of water, extends in a northerly direction about 400 yards. The 
eastern shore of the island is steep-to, having about 20 fathoms 
within 200 yards of the coral which fringes it. A reef, dry at low 
water, extends nearly 200 yards off Tidepole Point, the southern ex- 
tremity of the island. The edge of the reef is generally well denned 
by the discoloration of the water. 

The channel westward of Eita Island is about 600 yards wide 
and has 13 to 17 fathoms in the southern portion, but abreast of 
South Inlet it is encumbered with coral patches having from 4 to 8 
fathoms between them. In heavy northerly gales this channel ap- 
pears to break right across. 

Position. — Observatory Eock, at the north end of Eita Island, is 
in latitude 10° 06' 11" N., longitude 118° 46' 26" E. 

Magsiapo Reef, with only 1% to 3 fathoms in places, extends about 
y 2 mile westward and northwestward of Reef Islet, which islet lies 
nearly 400 yards from Marabay Point, on the eastern shore of 
IJlugan Bay. Depths of 4 to 8 fathoms on a prong of the reef are 
charted some 1,200 yards northwestward of the islet, and there are 
patches of iy z to 2% fathoms at the same distance southwestward 
of the islet. 



98 PALAWAN. 

At iy 2 miles 206° (205° mag.) from Eeef Islet is the center of a 
rocky patch more than y 2 mile in extent, upon which the sea gen- 
erally breaks at low water. The high nipple, 1,254 feet, on the brow 
of Sangbauen well open of Broken Head, bearing eastward of 9° 
(8° mag.), leads westward of Magsiapo Eeef, and is a good guide 
for keeping vessels westward when working out of the bay until they 
are northward of the entrance to Tagnipa Inlet. 

Caiholo and Baheli are two small rivers which empty near the 
southwest corner of Ulugan Bay, and in the rainy season have fresh 
water near their entrance. Caiholo Biver breaks through the man- 
grove between the high ranges of Karsoglan and Caiholo. It is 
navigable for boats for about y 2 mile, where a good stream of water is 
generally running, but, owing to the extensive reefs which encumber 
the head of the bay, neither this river nor the Baheli Biver are good 
watering places. The Baheli has a small islet at the entrance and is 
navigable for boats about 1*4 miles. 

Tarakaiawan Islet lies between the two rivers. Nearly y 2 mile 
southward of it is a white rock Which, though small, generally forms 
a conspicuous object after entering the bay. 

Oyster Inlet, the southernmost inlet on the western shore, is 1% 
miles in length in a west-northwest direction, being separated from 
the coast outside by a low ridge nearly % m ^ e m breadth. Beefs 
which project from both points contract the channel at the entrance 
to % mile in width. They also fringe the shore within to the extent 
of 200 yards, gradually increasing toward the head of the inlet, 
where a bank of mud and rocks extends off y 2 mile. On this bank 
good oysters were found. There is a depth of 19 fathoms at the 
entrance, which depth gradually decreases over a stiff muddy bottom 
to 9 fathoms close to the reef at the head of the inlet. 

At 700 yards eastward of Coral Point, the southern entrance point 
to Oyster Inlet, there are some detached coral patches, nearly awash 
at low water. 

The two inlets northward of Oyster Inlet are shallow. 

Anchorage. — There is anchorage in Ulugan Bay off the south 
end of Bita Island, at the entrance of Oyster Inlet, in 20 fathoms, 
bottom stiff mud. No experience was had of this anchorage in the 
northeast monsoon. During westerly gales the swell sets home to 
the head of Ulugan Bay, breaking heavily on the reefs, especially on 
the eastern shore. In the month of November, during one of these 
which shifted northwest, H. M. S. Royalist, riding with a whole 
cable at this anchorage, was at times pitching forecastle under. 
Oyster Inlet would appear to afford sheltered anchorage, at any rate, 
for a steam vessel. 

Water. — Good water can be obtained in Watering Bay ; 1 mile 
southward of Mount Sangbauen. It is not, however, practicable to 
land there at all times, for, except in fine weather, a heavy swell 
usually sets in on the stony beach. The anchorage is open. Sailing 
vessels being compelled to water here should not anchor nearer than 
1 mile from shore, and they should be prepared to weigh on the 
slightest indication of a westerly wind, as the swell is liable to come 
in suddenly. The Royalist, while at anchor off this bay in the month 
of November, was caught in a strong, westerly wind, which brought 
in a heavy swell, and with difficulty escaped, being obliged to slip , 
her cable. 



TTLUGAN BAY. 99 

Winds.— During the fine season— that is, from April to July or 
August — fresh southeast winds usually blow over the lowlands at 
the head of the bay. 

Tides. — It is high water, full and change, in Ulugan Bay at 9 h 30 m ; 
springs rise 4% feet. 

No perceptible stream was observed in the bay, except after heavy 
rains or when westerly winds have prevailed, when there is a slight 
outset. 

Directions. — Vessels bound to Ulugan Bay or any of the harbors 
of Palawan northward should not, except under favorable circum- 
stances, come within the 100-fathom line of soundings, southward of 
the parallel of 10° N. 

In coming from southward it is recommended to be near the edge 
of the bank at daylight, with Mount Peel bearing about 102° (101° 
mag.), when Camungyan Island, at the entrance of Ulugan Bay, will 
bear 86° (85° mag.), distant about 35 miles. Approaching in this 
direction, the bay will be readily recognized when a considerable dis- 
tance off, by some high, rugged land and a remarkable dome-shaped 
hill named St. Paul, just seen over a lower range forming the north 
point of the bay. At the back of this will be seen Cleopatra Needle 
(sharp peak), the southernmost and highest of a range extending 
5y 2 miles in a northeasterly direction. Southward is Mount Peel, 
already noticed, comparatively an isolated mountain, sloping gradu- 
ally from the summit to the base. 

A patch of 6 fathoms and the charted position of Duhme Breakers 
should be given a wide berth and a good lookout kept for other dan- 
gers which might possibly exist. Approaching from northward the 
bay is more readily distinguished by an apparent complete separation 
between Mount Peel and the high land southwestward of Cleopatra 
Range, the low land at the head of Ulugan Range not being discern- 
ible until within a few miles of Piedras Point. 

The bay presents no difficulties to a steam vessel. In a sailing ves- 
sel, if with a southwesterly or westerly wind, pass southward of 
Camungyan Island, not borrowing too much on Northwest Head, 
where the -essel is liable to meet baffinp wind under the land. Pass 
at a convenient distance eastward of Rita Island, observing the clear- 
ing mark for Magsiapo Reef, and proceed to the anchorage off or in 
Oyster Inlet. 

St. Paul Bay. — Eastward of Piedras Point, the northeastern point 
of Ulugan Bay, and separated from it by a low, wooded valley, is 
Mount Bloomfield, a table land of upward of 2,000 feet in height, 
with several nipples on the summit, and steep water courses down 
the side, terminating in a bold, barren-looking coast, immediately 
eastward of which is St. Paul Bay. 

Overlooking the bay on the south are some dome-shaped hills and 
perpendicular cliffs of limestone formation, the most conspicuous of 
which is St. Paul Peak, 3,370 feet in height, from which the bay de- 
rives its name. Eastward of this is a range, named by the old navi- 
gators the Four Peaks, of which Cleopatra Needle, 5,200 feet in 
height, is the southernmost and highest. 

The northern termination of the range is abrupt, and there is a 
high, round-topped hill lying almost immediately under and between 
it and the coast. 



100 PALAWAN. 

Cliff Head, 10 miles northeastward of Piedras Point and forming 
the- northern extremity of St. Paul Bay, , is a long, wooded promon- 
tory terminating in a steep cliff 350 feet in height. , A smaller head, 
with a rocky islet on its north side, juts out into the bay immedi- 
ately southward of it, 1 mile southwestward of which is a rock 
awash, with 5 to 9 fathoms water close-to. 

The shore of St. Paul Bay is bold, to approach, having 7 fathoms 
near the points and from 12 to 16 fathoms, bottom fine sand and 
shells in the center. 

Jibboom Bay, the entrance of which lies between Cliff Head and 
Peaked Point, 4y 2 miles northward of it, has a group of islands 
and rock near the center. Bay Island, the largest, has a flat summit 
307 feet above the sea. Abreast of this group on the south side of the 
bay is Long Point, with deep, sandy bays on either side and a hill, 
2,015 feet high, with a nipple shoulder at the back. The depths in 
the center of Jibboom Bay are 12 to 15 fathoms and 5 fathoms at 
its head. The inlet on the southeast side of the upper part of the 
bay is shallow. 

Shelter from northeast winds will be found in 15 fathoms about 
% mile southeastward of Bay Island Group, with Zoe, the eastern- 
most islet, and Peaked Point, the northern extremity of the bay, 
in line. There would be more shelter for a steamer nearer the head 
of the bay. The channel northward of the group is 1 mile wide, 
with a depth of about 16 fathoms. 

From Peaked Point (which has a detached rock, about 100 feet 
high, close off it) the coast trends northward for 2% miles to a 
steep, bold point named Amalingat, at, the foot of which lies Nine- 
pin Bock, with a reef awash 100 yards westward of it. 

Off the next point eastward are the two islands, Catalat, and 
Cacbolo, which form the western side of Mayday Bay. 

Cacbolo Island lies 1% miles from shore and is separated from 
Catalat by a channel % mile wide. It has two peaks of nearly equal 
elevation (about 400 feet), and there is a sandy bay on the eastern 
side. The north and west faces are bold, steep cliffs, and close off 
the northeast extremity of the island is a reef awash. 

Catalat Island, the larger of the two, iy 2 miles in length, has a 
clump of trees near the summit, and is connected with the main by a 
ledge on which there are two pyramidal rocks. 

Mayday Bay, immediately eastward of Catalat and Cacbolo Islands, 
affords more convenient anchorage for wooding and watering than 
any of those described southward on this side of Palawan. 

It is 3y 2 miles wide at the entrance between Cacbolo and Cac- 
nipa Islands, 5y 2 miles in length, and is formed on the eastern side 
by a long, irregularly shaped promontory, the continuation of the 
high range jutting out in a northerly direction from the island. 

Cacnipa Island lies off the extremity of the promontory, and is 
separated from it by a channel 800 yards wide, in which is Passage 
Beef, with rocks about 6 feet high on it. The. island is steep and 
bold, 1,050 feet high and 1% miles in diameter, with two peaks, the 
southern being higher. Thumb Bock lies off the southwestern point 
and Peaked Bock 600 yards from the northern shore of the island. 

In the southeastern part of Mayday Bay is Conical Head, with 
deep, sandy bays on either side of it. 'The bay on the north side has 
from 14 to 20 fathoms, while that on the south side has from 17 to 



WEST COAST OF PALAWAH. 101 

20 fathoms at the entrance. Some fresh-water streams discharge 
through the beach. The depths at the entrance of Mayday Bay are 
25 to 27 fathoms, bottom sand and mud, gradually decreasing to 19 
fathoms close to Conical Head. The pomts : in the bay appear to 
be steep-to, and there is no known danger in it but what shows. 

Water. — The watering place is at the head of a cove named Water- 
ing Bay, in the southwest corner. There is good anchorage in 19 
fathoms off the entrance, midway between it and Conical Head, with 
the eastern sides of Catalet and Cacbolo in line. The stream falls 
from the rocks on the south side of the cove, where at half tide a 
boat can go almost under it. 

Boayan Island, lying 3 miles northeastward of Cacnipa Island, is an 
irregular-shaped island 910 feet in height, nearly 5 miles east and 
west and Sy 2 miles in breadth in one place, but in some parts less 
than x / 2 mile. Its northwestern extremity terminates in a bold head, 
with a double peak 725 feet in height, and the shore all around, ex- 
cept on the south side, partakes of somewhat similar features. 

Shelter from southwest winds will be found on the northeast side 
of Boayan, in about 14 fathoms, at % mile northward of Broughton 
Point, the eastern extremity of the island. Two islands lie from 
700 to 800 yards off Bluff Point, the southwest extremity of Boayan 
Island. Saddle Island, the southernmost, 170 feet high, has a reef 
awash between it and the point, and also some peaked rocks extend- 
ing 400 yards from its southeastern side. Lump Island, the north- 
ernmost, is abrupt and has two islets inshore of it. 

Royalist Shoal, composed of coral with 2% fathoms over it, lies 
120° (119° mag.), distant 1 mile from Saddle Island, with the sum- 
mit of Catalat open of the southeastern side of Cacnipa Island, 
bearing 227° (226° mag.). 

Boayan Reef, awash, lies y 2 mile from the southern coast of Boayan 
and 75° (74° mag.), nearly 3 miles from Saddle Island. There is 
a depth of 24 fathoms at 400 yards south of this reef. 

Aibaguen Island, lying 2 l / 2 miles southward of Boayan, is 570 feet 
in height and nearly 1% miles in length, with a conspicuous red 
stripe (land slip) on the northwest side, close to which and connected 
to the island by a small isthmus is a conical head named Isthmus 
Cone. 

Port Barton. — Aibaguen Island is the outer and largest of a group 
of .islands stretching in a northwesterly direction from the eastern 
shore across the mouth of a deep bay, and which, together with the 
promontory forming the eastern side of Mayday Bay, incloses a 
spacious sheet of water to which the name of Port Barton has been 
given. It affords shelter at all seasons of the year. 

The entrance to Port Barton is between Riddle and Bubon Points, 
the latter being approximately in latitude 10° 29' N., longitude 119° 
07' E. 

From the entrance the harbor extends 5y 2 miles in a southerly direc- 
tion, and near its head is Endeavor Island, having Wedge Islet 
lying off its southeastern face, half way to the shore. There is, 
however, nothing to induce vessels to go beyond Middle Reef, nearly 
3 miles within the entrance, the harbor affording no good watering 
place, although there are several streams in the mangroves bordering 
the shore, which is apparently rocky in that direction. The depths 
in the entrance of the harbor are about 25 fathoms, decreasing gradu- 



102 PALAWAN. 

ally to 5 and 6 fathoms close to the edges of the reefs which fringe 
the shore at the head of it. A v 

Queens Bay.— South, 13^ miles from Bubon Point, the western en- 
trance point, is Oyster Point, and between is Queens Bay, overlooked 
by Queens Peak, 1,030 feet in height. Its shore is fringed with' 
coral, extending from 200 to 400 yards off, with deep water close to' 
the edge. 

Capsalay, Double, and Regatta Islands. — Capsalay, the inner and 
next island in point of size to Albaguen of the group forming the 
northeastern side of Port Barton, is connected with Caramatan 
Point, on the mainland, by a reef almost bare at low water. At 800 
yards southward from the eastern extremity of the island are two 
rocks awash, with 6 fathoms close-to. 

At less than 200 yards from the western extremity of Capsalay is 
Double Island, nearly y 2 mile in length, the south side of which is 
foul to a distance of 200 yards. Northwesterly from Double Island, 
and separated by a channel 300 yards wide, with 6 feet of water in 
it, is Regatta Island, about % mile in length. 

Savage, Cone, Dean, Bush, and Morison, small islets forming a chain 
between Albaguen and Capsalay, are out of the usual track and do 
not require any special description. 

Capsalay Beef, a coral patch 200 yards in extent and nearly awash, 
lies Y2 mile southward of the western extremity of Double Island, 
with Riddle Point in line with the southwest extremity of Regatta 
Island, and Oyster Point in line with Queens Peak. 

Middle Reef, 400 yards in extent and awash at low water, lies 221° 
(220° mag.), nearly 1% miles from Capsalay Reef, and 131° 
(130° mag.) from Oyster Point. From this reef the bottom appears 
more or less rocky in an east-southeast direction to the shore. 

Anchorage. — If requiring only shelter in Port Barton, and in 
the southwest monsoon, vessels may anchor in the northern part of 
the bay in 20 fathoms, bottom stiff mud, with Queens Peak bearing 
about 227° (226° mag.) and Bubon Point 0° (358° mag.), with Bluff 
Point, the western extremity of Boayan Island, just shut in. Here 
a vessel would be landlocked. In northeast winds, vessels wishing 
to seek close shelter for repairs, etc., will find good anchorage in 12 
fathoms, mud bottom, farther eastward, south of Capsalay Island, 
care being taken in approaching it to avoid Capsalay Reef. 

Tides. — It is high water, full and change, at Port Barton at 9 h 25 m . 
Springs rise 4 feet. 

About 2 miles northeastward of Caramatan Point is Betbet Point, 
with a conical hill near and an islet of the same name north of it, 
from which a coral spit projects nearly % mile in a west-northwest 
direction. 

The coral reef extends nearly l / 3 mile in a northeasterly direction 
from the shore on the north side of Capsalay Island and nearly % 
mile in a northerly direction from Caramatan Point on the main- 
land abreast, with 9 to 13 fathoms close to the edge. 

Pagdanan Bay. — At % mile northeasterly from Betbet Point is 
Reef Point, between which and Pagdanan Peninsula is Pagdanan 
Bay, 2% miles wide at the entrance and about the same in depth. 
The Pagdanan Range rises to a height of about 2,000 feet at the 
back of the bay. 

Reefs lie off the points of the bay, some to the extent of y 2 mile. 



PAGDANAN BAY. 103 

Water.— A fresh-water stream discharges at the foot of Green 
Head, in Pagdanan Bay, and there are also others in the south part, 
near Squall Point. r 

Directions— Anchorage.— The depths in the western approach to 
the- bay southward of Boayan Island average about 24 fathoms, mud 
bottom. In the bay there are 10 to 12 fathoms. Vessels not wishing 
to go into Port Barton will find good shelter from southwest Winds, 
northward of Capsalay Island, and from northeast winds, in Pag- 
danan Bay. Approaching either anchorage from westward, care 
must be taken not to bring the southern peak of Saddle Island west- 
ward of 315° (314° mag.) till the highest part of Catalat is seen in 
the center of the passage southward of Cacnipa Island bearing 231° 
(230° mag.) to avoid Royalist Shoal. 

Pagdanan Point, the northern extremity of the bay, is a peninsula 
head of reddish aspect, 445 feet in height. Confusion Rock, white, 
and about 40 feet high, lies 600 yards northwestward from it. Im- 
mediately southward of this point is an extensive landslip and a 
double island almost connected with the shore at low water. 
^ Niaporay Island and Rock. — Niaporay Island, 354 feet in height, 
lies in the channel between Pagdanan Point and Boayan Island; at 
% mile from the latter and 125° (124° mag.) y 2 mile from the nearest 
point of Niaporay Island is Niaporay Rock, the southernmost of two 
rocks which lie nearly in the center of the channel. There is a depth 
of iy 2 fathoms over Niaporay Rock at low water, the soundings in 
the immediate neighborhood varying from 4 to 12 fathoms on either 
side. From this rock Queens Peak is in line with the southeast 
extremity of Albaguen Island, bearing 227° (226° mag.). 

There is also a 2%-fathom patch lying 69° (68° mag.) y 2 mile from 
the summit of Niaporay Island, with 4 to 5 fathoms of water close-to. 

Pagdanan Rock, the northernmost of two rocks in the northern 
channel, has 2% fathoms of water on it, with 7 and 10 fathoms close- 
to, and lies 35° (34° mag.) 1 mile from Niaporay Rock, with Confu- 
sion Rock in line with the western extremity of Pagdanan Peninsula 
and the eastern extremity of Niaporay Island nearly in line with 
Isthmus Cone joining Albaguen Island. 

Imurnan Bay, between Boayan Island and Emergency Point, is 
about 12 miles wide at the entrance. Its eastern shore is backed by 
a high range of hills, of which Bay Peak, abreast of Imuruan Island, 
is the most conspicuous. 

From the low neck of Pagdanan Peninsula the shore of the bay for 
Sy 2 miles is almost one continuous sand beach, with small, rocky 
heads here and there, the two southernmost having each a rock above 
water off them. The coast hence is bold and rocky for 2y 2 miles, 
beyond which is a sand beach for 3 miles. Thence to Emergency 
Point the shore is rocky. The shore throughout the bay is bold to 
approach, having 3 to 5 fathoms close to the beach. At the entrance 
the depths vary from 20 to 30 fathoms, mud bottom. 

Anchorage. — Shelter from northeast winds will be found in the 
bay, eastward of Emergency Point, in 7 to 10 fathoms, mud bottom. 

A group of rocks above water lies 96° (95° mag.) about l 1 /^ miles 
from Emergency Point, and there is a rock awash 400 yards north- 
eastward of the group. 



104 PALAWAN. 

Wedge Island, in the entrance to Imuruan Bay, 4% miles south- 
westward of Emergency Point, is small, wedge-shaped, 180 feet in 
height, and thickly wooded. 

Bay Islands. — Imuruan, the larger of the two, is situated 155° (154° 
mag.) 414 miles from Emergency Point, and is separated from the 
coast by a channel l 1 /^ miles wide, with 4 to 7 fathoms of water in 
it. The island is 500 feet high and 1 mile long, with a reef extend- 
ing 600 yards from the eastern side. Lampinigan is a small island 
situated about 400 yards westward of Imuruan. 

Mount Capoas, situated 2V2 miles northeastward of Emergency 
Point and about 2 miles from the sea, is a table-land 3,350 feet in 
height, with a high and a low sharp nipple at the western shoulder 
and a conspicuous landslip extending two-thirds of the way from 
the summit to the base immediately under it. The table part is a 
sharp, uneven ridge extending 1 mile in an east and west direction, 
from which the land falls suddenly on all sides. 

The mount rises near the southwestern extremity of an extensive 
peninsula, which, on the north, forms part of the secure and capa- 
cious sound of Malampaya, and on the south Imuruan Bay. 

Cape Capoas, situated 7 miles northwestward of Emergency Point, 
is a bold, projecting headland with two peaks, and is the extreme 
western point of the peninsula on which Mount Capoas is situated. 

Conflagration Hill Island is situated 2 miles southeastward of Cape 
Capoas, near one of the points of the several bays with which the 
coast is indented. It is a steep, conical island, connected with the 
shore at low water with a small head similar in feature but of whitish 
aspect forming its southern extremity. 

Shelter from northeast winds may be found in the first bay east- 
ward of the island, westward of Low Capoas, a peak 1,560 feet in 
height. A rocky cliff in the center of the bay divides the sand beach. 
From this head a reef awash extends nearly 800 yards in a south- 
westerly direction, with 4 fathoms close to the edge. 

There are three smaller bays between this island and Enterprise 
Point, southward of Cape Capoas. 

Northward of Cape Capoas for 6 miles to Diente Point, the south- 
western entrance of Malampaya 'Sound, the coast is deeply indented, 
the heads of some of the bays being separated from those correspond- 
ing to them on the opposite side of the peninsula in Malampaya 
Sound by very narrow isthmuses. 

Inlulutoc Bay, the largest of these bays, is 1% miles wide at the 
entrance and 2y 2 miles in length. It lies nearly midway between 
Capoas and Diente Points and affords good shelter in the northeast 
monsoon. On the north side of the bay is Saddle Hill, 1,000 feet in 
height, which, together with Chinongab Peak (1,216 feet), 2 miles 
74° (73° mag.) from it, form conspicuous objects to identify the 
locality. There are no dangers known in any of these bays but what 
are visible. The bights and some of the points are fringed with 
coral, the edges of which can be discerned by keeping an ordinary 
lookout. The outer coast is bold, rocky, and precipitous in some 
places, with deep water close-to. Wreck Head, a bold, rocky cliff, 
forms the north point of Inlulutoc Bay. 

Anchorage and water. — There is good anchorage in Inlulutoc 
Bay, on the north side, with offshore winds, between Teodore Point 



WEST COAST OF PALAWAN. 105 

and Anchorage Island (the only reliable bay for vessels to enter), 
with Saddle Hill bearing 350° (349° mag.), in 15 or 16 fathoms, mud 
bottom. 

In the bay, north of the anchorage and at the foot of Saddle Hill, 
are two streams of fresh water. The shore, however, is difficult of 
access, owing to the coral fringing the bay, which off Teodore Point 
extends out 100 yards. 

Cape Ross. — In the bay northward of Wreck Head, between it and 
Cape Boss, under Saddle HiU, is a conspicuous landslip. Cape 
Ross is the western extremity of the ridge extending from Diente 

Offlying dangers. — Crescent Reef, with 4 fathoms of water, in lati- 
tude 10° 40' N., longitude 118° 42' E., is a narrow strip of coral, % 
mile in length in an east-northeast and opposite direction, lying 
iy% miles within the edge of the bank and 22 miles from the nearest 
shore. There are depths of 40 to 44 fathoms within y 2 mile from 
its edge. 

From the center of Crescent Beef, Sangbauen, the north peak of 
Ulugan Bay, bears 168° (167° mag.) ; summit of Cacnipa Island 
115° (114° mag.) and the highest part of Boayan Island 103° (102° 
mag.). 

At 2y 2 miles southward of Crescent Beef there is a 7-f athom patch 
with depths of 24 and 50 fathoms close-to, and 69° (68° mag.) 2y 2 
miles from the same is another, 600 yards in extent, having only 
414 fathoms of water on it, with 40 fathoms close-to. 

Capoas Cluster. — Near the outer edge of the bank, at 9 to 15 miles 
northeastward of Crescent Beef, is a cluster of coral patches cov- 
ered by from 4 to 6 fathoms of water. They are too closely grouped 
and too far offshore for bearings to be of any advantage to navigate 
between them. 

The Bank. — From the northernmost of the Capoas Cluster, from 
which Diente Hill bears 86° (85° mag.), distant 20 miles, the 100- 
fathom curve at the edge of the bank trends northerly to the parallel 
of 11° 12' N., where it gradually takes a northeasterly direction and 
does not approach the north point of Palawan nearer than 23 miles. 
The bank is steep-to. Here and there it has comparatively shallow 
ridges (15 to 20 fathoms) of coarse sand and broken coral, on which 
there are some 7 and 9 fathoms patches lying close to the edge. The 
northernmost and shoalest of these that has been discovered, and on 
which the depth is 7 fathoms, lies iy 2 miles within the edge of the 
bank in latitude 11° 29' N., longitude 11° 01' E., 26 miles from the 
nearest part of Palawan. The depths in this vicinity vary from 
20 to 40 fathoms. The nature of the bottom near the patches is 
usually fine sand, but when fairly on the bank, especially off the north 
part of Palawan, stiff green mud predominates. The bank farther 
northward does not appear to be as steep as that abreast of the island. 

Directions. — Northward of the parallel of 10° N. the depths on 
the bank are more regular, and the coral patches lying near the edges 
have generally more water on them than those southward, seldom 
having less than 7 and 9 fathoms to the parallel of 10° 40' N., where 
they have as little as 4 fathoms in some places. Sailing vessels, there- 
fore, bound to Ulugan Bay or wishing to close the land for the pur- 
pose of working up inshore should approach the bank about the 



106 PALAWAN. 

parallel 10° 07', with Mount Peel on about a 103° (102° mag.) bear- 
ing. The bank on this parallel extends 30 miles from the coast. 

The first soundings obtained on the edge will generally be 18 or 
20 fathoms, coarse sand and broken coral, or, perhaps, if a little 
northward of the bearing given, 9 to 12 fathoms, coral, when the 
bottom will be visible, after which the depths will be more regular, 
the 40 and 50 fathoms soundings being chiefly on a stiff muddy 
bottom, while in less water, sand and mud or sand and broken coral 
will predominate. If when soundings are first struck in the position 
stated the vessel can head for Camungyan Island at the entrance of 
TJlugan Bay the reported position of Duhme Breakers will be avoided. 

MALAMPAYA SOUND 

(chart 4349) formed on the northeast of Capoas Peninsula is about 
19 miles in length in a southeasterly direction, varying in breadth 
from 2 to 4^4 miles. It is one of the finest harbors that can be desired, 
being almost free from sunken dangers and containing along its 
shores, bays, and inlets capable of affording shelter to a large number 
of vessels of deep draft. The entrance is nearly closed by Tuluran 
Island, with a channel named Blockade Strait, 1,200 yards wide, 
southward of it. Endeavor Strait, the channel eastward of the 
island, is only 200 yards wide in places and is shallow. At about 
4 miles within Blockade Strait the sound is contracted by long, pro- 
jecting headlands from either shore, forming a second strait (con- 
taining several islands) , which opens into an expanse of water 9 miles 
in length and 4 miles in width, named the Inner Sound, with depths 
of 9 fathoms, mud bottom, in the deeper portion. Here are the 
settlements of Pancol and Guinlo. 

Blockade Strait, the channel southward of Tuluran Island, is about 
1,200 yards wide in its narrowest part, with depths of 20 to 30 fath- 
oms in the fairway. Within this part the strait is about 1 mile wide 
for I14 miles, with depths of 14 to 20 fathoms, whence it opens into 
the outer portion of Malampaya Sound, where there are depths of 14 
to 15 fathoms. Besides Entrance Rock and White Bound Islet there 
are other small rocks and islets above water in the entrance and on 
the south side of the narroAv part of the strait. 

Islands and dangers. — Biente Point, the northwestern extremity of 
Capoas Peninsula, is the western limit of the principal channel lead- 
ing to Malampaya Sound. Notch Islet, 176 feet in height, lies off 
its northeastern extremity, and at 300 yards northward of the islet is 
a reef of rocks awash, with a rock 15 feet high on it. 

Tuluran Island, on the eastern side of the entrance of Malampaya 
Sound, is about 4% miles in length north and south and iy 2 miles in 
breadth. Two sharp peaks, attaining heights of 1,272 and 1,267 feet, 
lie near the center of the island, and there are several other peaks of 
considerable elevation on it. Tuluran Table, the southernmost, is 
1,033 feet above the sea and not unlike Mount Capoas. The northern 
and western sides are bold, rocky, and precipitous in some parts, with 
conspicuous watercourses here and there. 

At the northwestern point of the island is Peaked Islet, a re- 
markable peaked islet, with two rocks awash, 200 yards northwest- 
ward. 



MALAMPAYA SOUND. 107 

Entrance and Pillar Rocks.— Nearly % mile north-northeastward 
from Notch Islet, off Diente Point, is a cluster of small rocks nearly 
400 yards in length, with depths of 16 to 20 fathoms close-to. Pillar 
Rock, 30 feet high, is the westernmost, and Entrance Rock the east- 
ernmost. 

White Round Islet is small, 80 feet high, and lies 286° (285° mag.) 
nearly 1^4 miles from Bold Head, the western extremity of Tuluran 
Island. 

Pyramid Rocks are 50 feet high and y± mile in extent. The highest 
rock lies 21° (20° mag.) nearly 2 miles from White Round Islet. 

The passage between White Round Islet and Pyramid Rocks is 
safe, but between the latter and Peaked Islet there is a coral patch 
with 1 fathom water, 41° (40° mag.), % mile from the highest Pyra- 
mid Rock. 

Com Islet is a conical islet 237 feet high, lying in the approach to 
Bolalo Bay, on the south side of Blockade Strait. 

Largon Islet, situated 600 yards 345° (344° mag.) from Cone Islet, 
is 130 feet high and has rocks above water which extend 800 yards 
northward. Largon Rock, the northernmost, is 13 feet high. 

Bolalo Bay, on the south side of Blockade Strait, is a deep inlet 
affording good shelter from southwest winds. It is 2 1 / 4: miles deep 
in a southerly direction and about y 2 mile wide, the head being sep- 
arated from the north part of Inlulutoc Bay by a narrow isthmus. 

Chinongab, a sharp peak 1,216 feet high, with a small table ridge, 
lies within the eastern shore of Bolalo Bay. 

The southern shore of Blockade Strait, within Parmidiaran Point, 
forms a bay, the southeasternmost point of which has a reef awash 
extending nearly 200 yards off, and steep-to. White Rock lies about 
midway between the points of the bay, with 16 fathoms water close 
outside it. 

Endeavor Strait, eastward of Tuluran Island, has its southern en- 
trance between Pilar Rock Point and Endeavor Point and is rather 
more than % mile wide. The strait runs nearly north and south and 
is (including the passage inside a chain of islets and needle rocks, 
with numerous reefs awash, extending nearly 2 miles in a north direc- 
tion from the northeast point of Tuluran) 6 miles in length and 
barely 200 yards wide in the narrowest part. 

Endeavor Strait should not be used by sailing vessels, as the winds 
are baffling, especially in the narrows, from the high land on either 
side. 

Coral fringes the shore on both sides of the strait, and nearly in the 
center of a bay 700 yards northward of Exertion Point, on the west 
shore, is a rock awash at low water, with 10 to 12 fathoms around. 

The depths at the southern entrance of the strait are 19 and 20 
fathoms, decreasing gradually to 9 and 10 fathoms toward the nar- 
rows, where 4 and 5 fathoms, mud bottom, are found. 

There is a snug cove at the head of an inlet, y 2 mile deep, close 
northward of Endeavor Point. 

Between Blockade Strait and the second, or inner, entrance the 
western shore of Malampaya Sound has three deep bays, in each of 
which the ground is quite clear, and shelter may be found from all 
winds, but the two southern bays have no watering places. The 
shore on the opposite side, except in fine weather, has a little swell 

33452°— 21 8 



108 PALAWAN. 

breaking on it, setting directly in through Blockade Strait, and in 
the bay under the highland in the northeast corner are some islands 
and white rocks. 

Pirate Bay, the northernmost of the three bays just mentioned, 
will be found the most convenient for vessels merely requiring 
shelter, wood, or water. . It is about % mile in extent, and its shores 
are clear all around at 100 yards off. The depths are about 14 fath- 
oms in the middle, bottom stiff mud, and 7 to 9 fathoms, close to the 
head of the bay. 

Water. — The watering place, affording a good supply, is at the 
southwest head of the bay. 

Tenabian Island, forming the south side of Pirate Bay, is triangular 
in shape, about % mile in length, and 325 feet high. The passage 
westward of this island is 400 yards wide, but is reduced to half that 
width by the reef which extends from the island. Bay Rock,' above 
water, lies 300 yards off the south side of the island. 

Malapina Island, 156 feet high, lies 1 mile eastward of Tenabian, 
near the fairway. 

Boat Rock lies just in the entrance of Northeast Bay, 1^4 miles 
eastward of Malapina Island. The ground is somewhat foul for 300 
yards southwestward of this rock. 

Northeast Bay Island, Crane, Janet, and other islands lie in North- 
east Bay. 

Inner Strait, Tacbolo Island. — In the inner strait, which is 3% miles 
long in a southeasterly direction and about 2i/ 2 miles wide, are sev- 
eral islands, the northwesternmost of which is Tacbolo, 300 feet in 
height and nearly 1 mile in length. Southwestward of it and off 
Passage Island is the principal passage leading into the inner sound. 

Calabuctung Islets. — Between the north point of Tacbolo and the 
headland on the east side of the strait is the large Calabuctung Islet, 
and at y 3 mile westward of it is the smaller islet of the same name. 

Passage, Eniaran, and Durangan Islands. — Passage Island, the larg- 
est in the strait, is 1 mile in extent and is separated from the south- 
east point of Tacbolo by a channel 200 yards wide, with 5 fathoms 
water, and from Tuluan Hill, the middle point on the eastern shore, 
by a boat channel 150 yards wide. Eniaran Islet, with a flat rock 
on its western side, lies close off the western point of Passage 
Island, and off the western point of a bay on the south side of the 
latter island is Balolo Rock. Rocks extend % mile westward of 
Balolo Rock, terminating in Cansea Rock, awash at low water and 
steep-to. 

Durangan Island is oval, 386 feet high, and y 2 mile in length, with 
two small, black rocks at the eastern extremity, and occupies the 
center of the channel between the southwest side of Passage Island 
and Balulu Point on the western shore. 

The channel between Passage Island and Durangan is 600 yards 
wide. Cansea Rock is the only danger known that is not visible. 

Southward of Durangan Island the channel is about the same 
width and has depths of 9 to 12 fathoms, mud bottom. Nearly in 
the center is Calonhogon, the westernmost of two small islands 800 
yards apart. Bartoc, the easternmost, has a reef extending 100 yards 
from both extremities. 

Malaoton and Ibelbel Islands. — Nearly 1 mile southeastward of 
Durangan Island is Malaoton Island, nearly y 2 mile in length, with 



MALAMPAYA SOUND. 109 

an average breadth of about 200 yards. A white pillar rock lies 
nearly 200 yards off its southwest point. 

Ibelbel Island, about 400 yards in diameter, lies southeastward of 
Passage Island, with a clear passage between them. 

Vinalo Island, eastward of Ibelbel Island and near Balauan Point 
on the eastern shore, is about 300 yards in length. 

Mallarois Island, less than 200 yards in extent, is 93 feet in height 
and has a precipitous cliff on the south side, with some rocks de- 
tached from the east end. It lies southward from Vinalo. The chan- 
nel between them is 400 yards wide and is said to be safe. 

Damao Island, the southern limit of the inner strait, is 226 feet 
high, nearly % mile in length (including a partly detached islet), 
and lies 600 yards from the southern shore. Peaked Islet, 83 feet 
high, lies off its northern extremity. In the channel separating 
Damao Island from the shore are islets and rocks awash. 

Alligator Bay is the northernmost of two large bays on the south- 
ern side of the inner strait, and, next to Pirate Bay, is the most 
convenient place in the sound for watering. 

Palcocotan Island lies near the northern entrance. Alligator Island 
lies toward the head of the bay, south of the watering place, and 
southeastward of it is a double cone island. The depths at the en- 
trance of the bay are 10 to 12 fathoms, mud bottom, decreasing 
gradually to 3 and 4 fathoms near the shore. 

"Water. — In the southeast corner of the bay the main stream from 
Mount Capoas discharges through some low ground, but the water- 
ing place is on the north shore of the bay, in the first small indenta- 
tion southwestward of Green Head. 

Malipu Bay is separated from Alligator Bay by the chain of hills 
of which Balulu Point is the northern extremity, and has its eastern 
limit at Damao Island. Hunch Hill, 454 feet high, lies on the south- 
eastern side of the bay, and near the western shore is Chinicaran 
Island, with an isthmus head on the north face. The passage be- 
tween the island and the shore is shallow. 

The depth in Malipu Bay range from 6 to 8 fathoms, decreasing 
gradually to 2 fathoms toward the shores of the bay. 

Inner Sound; Pancol. — The inner sound of Malampaya opens imme- 
diately southeastward of Damao and Mallarois Islands, and in a 
bay on the northern side is the village of Pancol. It is reported 
that the present location of this village is about % mile eastward of 
that shown on some charts. 

Vessels can anchor as close in to the village as the draft will allow, 
this anchorage being safe at all seasons. 

The average depth in the center of the inner sound is &y 2 fathoms, 
mud bottom, from which it shoals gradually on all sides, except 
toward the entrance, where it deepens. 

Malampaya River discharges into a shallow bay on the eastern side 
of the sound, about 3 miles from Pancol. A high, round island, 
named Malutone, with an island on either side, lies across the 
entrance of this bay, leaving a channel into it of little more than 
400 yards width, with 1% fathoms of water. At low water the mud 
at the entrance of the river bares to nearly abreast of the two islets 
on the south side of the bay. 

The river, which is navigable for boats about 2 miles, trends in a 
southeasterly direction. Near its head is a good footpath, leading 



110 PALAWAN. 

to the village of Taytay on the east coast, a distance of 2 to 3 miles 
only. 

Guinlo, a village similar to Pancol, lies on the eastern shore near 
the head of the sound, about 5 miles from Pancol. It can not, how- 
ever, be approached within 1 mile by a vessel of over 12 feet draft, 
as the water shoals gradually from 3 fathoms at 4 miles southward 
of Pancol toward the head, where at low water the mud bares nearly 
to Bay Islet, or 1 mile from the mangroves. 

Immediately southward of Guinlo the hills at the head of the sound 
on either side recede and are separated by a large plain, which extends 
through the island almost to the opposite coast. Some of the water 
of this plain is discharged into Malampaya Sound by a river having 
its outlet through the mangroves close to Bush Head, nearly 3 miles 
south of Guinlo. 

The western shore of the bay southward of Damao Island is in- 
dented by bays, all of which are shallow. 

Doubtful danger. — In an old manuscript chart which was seen at 
Taytay there is a rock named Coloma laid down nearly in the center 
of the bay. It was searched for unsuccessfully, and the people of 
Pancol and Guinlo denied having any knowledge of its existence. 
The Spanish chart shows this rock in a position 3% miles 109° (108° 
mag.) from the north end of Damao Island. The northern extrem- 
ities of Malaoton and Durangan Islands in line will keep a vessel 
northward of this position. 

Tides. — It is high water, full and change, at Pancol, at 9 h 40 m . 
Springs rise 5 feet. 

Directions. — There is no difficulty in a steam vessel proceeding to 
the head of Malampaya Sound. In making the entrance from west- 
ward, Notch Islet, off Diente Point, shows conspicuously. White 
Round Islet will be seen, and on closer approach Entrance and Lar- 
gon Eocks become visible. The best course is between these rocks and 
White Round Islet, the depths in the neighborhood of which average 
about 30 fathoms. In a sailing vessel with a southerly wind, Largon 
Bocks should be kept aboard to fetch through Blockade Strait and 
to prevent being set over upon the northern shore by shifts of wind 
from the high land about Chinongab. Having passed Parmidiaran 
Point, proceed northward of White Bock in the next bay. The reef 
awash off the point under Lookout Hill having 13 fathoms close-to 
may be passed at a convenient distance, then steer for the anchorage 
in Pirate Bay, unless intending to proceed farther in. 

A sailing vessel entering the strait with a northeast wind should 
pass on either side of White Bound Islet and conform to the same 
directions, only keeping on the Tuluran side, but not too close, or the 
vessel may get becalmed under the high land. 

The passage through the second strait into the inner sound is west- 
ward of Tacbolo and Passage Islands, keeping toward Durangan 
Island to avoid Cansea Bock, which does not always show. 

At 5 miles northward of Tuluran Island is Custodio Point, the ex- 
tremity of a promontory which forms the western shore of Bacuit 
(Bakit) Bay. At Pagauanen Point, just southward of it, is a wedge- 
shaped hill 466 feet in height. The coast between these points and 
Tuluran is of bold, rocky aspect, with several landslips appearing as 
vertical, reddish-looking stripes down the face. The southern part is 
indented by two bays adjoining each other, the southernmost of 



NORTHWEST COAST OF PALAWAN. Ill 

which, Port Cataaba, y 2 mile wide at the entrance, extends 2% miles 
in a southeast direction and is shallow, but affords good anchorage 
for small vessels in 6 to 7 fathoms. Rocks front Signal Head, the 
western entrance point, to a distance of 300 yards. The northern- 
most bay is about 1 mile in length in a northeast direction, with 4 
fathoms near its head and rocks projecting 400 yards from the south 
shore. 

Water. — At 1 mile northward of the bay in Calver Cove a good 
supply of fresh water may be found. 

Saddle and Camago Islands front the above bays and are the north- 
ernmost of the chain of islets and rocks in the northern entrance of 
Endeavor Strait. Saddle Island, the outermost, is in appearance 
what the name implies. A reef with one rock bare lies 81° (80° mag.) 
300 yards from the north end, and rocks lie off its west face. Almost 
adjoining southward is Camago, a precipitous, rocky island with 
several rocks awash and shoal water extending % mile southward 
toward Needle Rocks and Anato Island. 

Tolerable shelter from southwest winds will be found eastward of 
Camago and Saddle Islands in 16 to 17 fathoms, stiff mud bottom, 
care being taken to avoid the reef northeastward of the latter. 

Tent Islet, surrounded by rocks awash, with a reef 600 yards north- 
ward of it, lies 1% miles from the coast at the same distance north-, 
ward of Saddle Island, with 15 to 23 fathoms between. 

It is recommended not to pass inside of Tent Islet as the ground 
is evidently foul and broken water has been reported. 

Rugged limestone group. — From Custodio Point a remarkable 
group of rugged islands of limestone formation extends 8 miles in a 
north-northwest direction. The sides of these islands present bare, 
perpendicular cliffs of every variety of tint, with numerous stalactitic 
caves in which edible birds nests are sought. The summits terminate 
in small clusters of needle peaks, and wherever it is possible for 
vegetation to take root they are luxuriantly clothed with foilage, of 
which the pandanus predominates. These, contrasting strongly with 
the dark-colored rock and white sandy bays in some of the secluded 
nooks, impart to the group scenery of a peculiarly picturesque nature. 
The bases of all the islands are worn by the action of the sea water, 
undermining in some parts the perpendicular upward of 15 and 20 
feet, thus rendering it almost impossible, except here and there where 
a slip or disruption occurs, to land on any part of them. 

All the islands are safe to approach, having generally upward of 
20 to 30 fathoms close to the cliffs. In their vicinity the depths vary 
from 20 to 30 and 40 fathoms, stiff mud bottom. 

Guntao Islands. — North and South Guntao Islands, the southwest- 
ernmost of the group, situated about 4 miles westward of Custodio 
Point, are 400 yards apart, and the passage between is blocked by coral. 
North Guntao is of reddish-brown aspect, 1 mile in length and 300 
yards wide, with a conical summit. Rocks above water extend 200 
yards from the northwest point, and off the southern point of the 
island there are some high rocks. 

South. Guntao, the broader and higher of the two, has a sloping 
summit, the south point of the island terminating in a narrow, rocky 
cliff. 

Destacado Rocks, showing like two boats, lie 252° (251° mag.), 1% 
miles from the opening between the Guntao Islands, and on this 



112 PALAWAN. 

bearing Bold Point, the south point of Matinloc Island, appears in 
the passage. The depths near these rocks are 18 to 20 fathoms. 

Guintungauan Island, situated rather more than 1 mile westward 
of Custodio Point, is narrow, appearing like a square block when 
seen in a north and south direction. 

Jip Rocks, lying y 2 mile northeastward of Guintungauan Island, 
are of limestone, 95 feet high, and cleft in two. 

Tapiutan, the outer island of the Rugged Group, is 7 miles from 
the shore. It is over 2% miles in length, north and south, the highest 
part, which is round-topped, being 1,415 feet in height A low neck 
separates this from another round hill to the northward, 670 feet 
high, the northwestern extremity of which terminates in an isthmus 
head, with a precipitous fall to seaward. The shore of the island is 
bold all around. 

Matinloc Island, eastward of Tapiutan, and separated from it by 
a channel 400 yards wide with 20 fathoms of water, is an island 
formed by a very narrow ridge of limestone. This island is about 
4% miles in length, in a north and south direction, and almost sepa- 
rated in three places by deep gaps. The Horn, 1,250 feet in height, 
rises nearly in the center of the island, and when viewed in a north- 
erly or southerly direction assumes the appearance of its name, 
forming a conspicuous and readily recognizable feature on making 
the coast. There is a sandy bay immediately under the Horn on the 
east side of the island. 

Inambuyod Island, lying on the northeast side of and parallel to 
Matinloc, is separated from it by a deep channel 1 mile wide. This 
island is similar in feature to Matinloc, but smaller. Two islets, 
Cliff and Crown, lie, respectively, 300 and 1,800 yards from its north- 
ern extremity, with 17 to 20 fathoms between them. There is also a 
remarkable rock lying ^ mile off its southeastern face, named the 
Mushroom, from its shape. 

Tambalanan is a small islet shown about 1 mile northward of the 
north end of Inambuyod Island, and may be identical with Crown 
Islet. 

Miniloc Island lies eastward of the southern end of Matinloc, the 
channel between them having a width of 1*4 miles and a depth of 
upward of 25 fathoms. Miniloc is a remarkably high, rugged island, 
Sy 2 miles in circumference, with several precipitous crags, the coast 
nearly all around being broken up into cliffy heads and on the south 
side picturesque bays. On the northwest face are two high, rocky 
islets. 

Paglugaban, Entalula, and Pangulasian Islands. — On the southern 
side of Miniloc Island, nearly connected with it by a smaller island 
which occupies the passage, is Paglugaban, also of limestone forma- 
tion and precipitous. Between the latter island and Custodio Point 
are two islands — Entalula, similar in character to the above, and 
Pangulasian, of entirely different feature. 

Pangulasian Island has a double peak, and slopes gradually toward 
the southeast point, where there is a sandy tongue from which a reef 
projects in a southwesterly direction, contracting the channel be- 
tween the island and the Custodio shore, off which latter is Flat 
Rock, to 600 yards in width, with depths of 14 to 16 fathoms. 

On the eastern face, 600 yards from Pangulasian Island, is Popol- 
can, a limestone islet 310 feet in height. 



BACUIT BAY. 113 

Bacuit Bay, formed partly on the west by the islands just de- 
scribed, is 9 miles in length and 3*4 miles wide between the mainland 
and Miniloc Island and a limestone peninsula southward, the highest 
part of which, Coast Hill, attains an elevation of 1,000 feet. The 
eastern shore trends nearly north and south and is overlooked by a 
high range. This range, on which there are some curiously shaped 
peaks, traverses the island, commencing on the west side of Palawan 
at Cauayan Island, embracing both shores of Bacuit Bay and 
terminating on the east coast at Negra Point and the islands fronting 
Taytay Bay. 

Bacuit Bay has general depths of 17 to 20 fathoms, mud bottom, to 
abreast of Lagen Island, 2 miles from its head, from whence it 
shoals gradually to about 2 fathoms close to the shore reef. 

It affords shelter from southerly winds, and under Lagen there 
is probably shelter from northerly winds, but that portion has not 
been closely sounded. 

There are several islands in the bay, all of which are similar in 
feature and character to the group outside. Its shores are generally 
fringed with coral, extending from 200 to 800 yards. With one ex- 
ception there appear to be no dangers in the bay but what are visible. 

Inabuyatan Island, the northernmost island on the eastern shore 
of the bay, is a conspicuous object on entering, being 1,130 feet in 
height and somewhat resembling an elephant on his haunches. It 
lies off a bay almost blocked up by reefs. 

Malpacao Island, a remarkable ridge of limestone, with a high 
bowlder detached from it, assuming the form of a double island, lies 
nearly 1 mile southeastward of Inabuyatan. 

Lagen Island, the southernmost and largest of the three islands on 
the eastern side, is 1,140 feet in height, of irregular form, 1% miles 
in length, and present a bold, cliffy shore, in places upward of 400 
feet in height, with several sandy bays. _ 

Midway between the southern extremity of Lagen Island and Long 
Point, at the head of the bay, is a coral patch nearly awash, lying 
% mile from the shore. There is another midway between it and 
the shore northeastward. 

Comoeutuan and Dibuluan Islands lie on the western side of the 
bay. The former is a small, precipitous island, 298 feet in height, 
and between it and the shore abreast, distant upward of 1 mile, a spit 
projects 600 yards from an islet with a white rock close- to. Dibuluan 
Island lies southwestward of Lagen. About midway between are 
three rocky islets, the easternmost of which shows like a ninepin on 
entering the bay. The other two are almost connected by reefs. 

Manlalec is a small settlement situated a short distance up a rivu- 
let in the bay abreast of Malpacao Island on the eastern shore. 

Tides. — It is high water, full and change, in Bacuit Bay at 10 h . 
Springs rise about 6 feet. Little or no current has been observed in 
the bay. 

Directions. — The best known channel for vessels proceeding to 
Bacuit Bay, if coming from southward, is between Entalula and Pag- 
lugaban Islands. It is 1,200 yards wide and has a depth of 25 
fathoms in the fairway. , # 

The best anchorage in the southwest monsoon for a sailing vessel is 
in 17 or 18 fathoms, stiff mud bottom, about 1 mile southeastward of 



114 PALAWAN. 

Comocutuan Island, off the first limestone head westward, but as 
neither fresh water nor supplies are to be had readily, there is little 
inducement, except it be shoaler water, for vessels to go farther up ; 
and should the wind, blowing strong, veer westward, they would 
probably experience some difficulty in getting out of the bay against 
the heavy swell which invariably accompanies it. 

Cadlao Island, about 2,000 feet in height, lies about 6 miles north- 
ward of Custodio Point, the western extremity of Bacuit Bay, and is 
separated from the coast by a channel barely 600 yards wide, in which 
there are 17 to 19 fathoms close to the points. 

Cadlao is 3% miles in length in a north-northwest and opposite 
direction, with an average breadth of about y 2 mile. Its features are 
remarkable, and it forms the most conspicuous object when making 
the northern end of Palawan from westward. 

The table-land rises in the center of the island, eastward of which, 
and separated from it by a deep gorge, are two peaks of nearly equal 
elevation named the East and West Loggerheads. Some of the coast 
cliffs overhang to a considerable extent. 

There is a bay on the north side of the island close under the table 
top, with an island in it named Mitre, and on the southwest face 800 
yards from the shore is Imbalaba Island, the channel between having 
11 fathoms of water. 

The chart shows a 2%-fathom patch nearly 1 mile southward of 
Cadlao Island, and also a patch of the same depth iy 2 miles easterly 
from Miniloc Island. 

Anchorage. — Shelter in northeast winds may be found eastward 
of Imbalaba Island, south of the table top, in 16 to 20 fathoms, stiff 
blue-mud bottom. Good shelter from southwest winds is to be had 
on the north side of Cadlao, off Mitre Islet, in 17 fathoms, stiff mud 
bottom; or, if desirable, in from 9 to 12 fathoms either abreast of 
Abrupt Head, the northeasternmost point of Cadlao, or at Santiago 
Islet, 1 mile farther southward and close off the east face of that 
island. 

Cauayan and Cavern Islands. — North of Cadlao and separated from 
it by a channel about y 2 mile wide, in which is a peaked islet, iff 
Cauayan Island, 827 feet in height and l 1 ^ miles in length. It is of 
similar formation to the neighboring islands, but has a more even 
summit. 

On the northwest face of Cauayan Island, and distant % mile from 
it, is Cavern Island, the outer one of the group. It is 350 feet high, 
and when viewed in an east or west direction has a tall pillar rock 
rent from the north end. A reef awash extends 200 yards from the 
south point, and there is also a detached rock about 30 feet in height 
off the east side. 

Tides. — It is high water, full and change, at Cavern Island at 9 h 
30 m - Springs rise (one observation only) 5y 2 feet. 

Bacuit (chart 4346). — Cadlao and the islands just described form 
the western side of a deep bay, at the head of which is the village of 
Bacuit. This bay is about y 2 mile in extent, but the depths are less 
than 3 fathoms nearly out to the western headland. Within the 3- 
fathom curve are several reefs nearly awash. Craft of about 7 feet 
draft will probably be able to reach the head of the bay, where there 
is shelter from southerly winds off the town in about 2 fathoms. 



NORTHWEST COAST OF PALAWAN. 115 

Suppiies. — Goats, pigs, fowls, and vegetables are obtainable in 
small quantities and water from a stream at the eastern end of the 
beach but not with any degree of facility. 

From Bacuit the coast trends in a northerly direction for 8 miles to 
Crawford Point. A central range, the continuation of that 
over Bacuit Bay, overlooks both coasts of Palawan, and in the 
parallel of Cadlao Island, where it attains its greatest elevation, is 
a high table top, the northwestern and southeastern shoulders of 
which are 1% miles apart and are, respectively, 2,055 and 2,230 feet 
in height. There is a sharp peak, 1,630 feet in height, southward, 
and several hills of less elevation bordering the coast, the features of 
which are entirely different from those of the limestone formation, 
and this nowhere is so evident as at the back of Bacuit village, where 
a sudden transition occurs. 

East Peak, attaining a height of 1,890 feet, lies 4% miles north- 
eastward of the high table top, but is not generally visible from the 
west side until some distance offshore. It, however, forms a con- 
spicuous object when northward and eastward of Palawan. 

Emmit Island, small and wooded, 170 feet high, with two pillar 
rocks at the north extremity, lies 400 yards from a point midway 
between Bacuit and Crawford Point. 

The coast northward, on which there is a sugar-loaf hill, is bold to 
approach, having 6 fathoms close to the shore, but that southward is 
fronted with coral. 

Two rocky islets lie close northward of Crawford Point from which 
a sandy beach extends 1% miles in a northerly direction to a headland, 
1 mile eastward of which is Pasco Inlet, with depths of 2 and 3 
fathoms. 

Gemelos Islets. — Nearly 1 mile northward of Crawford Point are 
the Gemelos or Twins, two rock islets. They both lie on the same 
reef, which surrounds them to a distance of ^4 mile. 

Lalutaya Island lies 3 miles northward of Crawford Point and is 
separated from the shore by a channel l^ miles wide with depths 
of 9 fathoms, sand bottom. The island is 1% miles in length, and 
407 feet high, and, except on the eastern side, where fronting two 
small sand bays, some coral extends 400 yards, is bold to approach. 

Diapila Island is on the north side of Base Bay, which lies close 
northward of Pasco Inlet. It is 1 mile from the shore, with a safe 
channel between. 

Calitan Island, 256 feet high, lies 2 miles northward of Diapila and 
y 2 mile westward of the northern extremity of Palawan. There is 
a sharp double rock between it and the shore. 

On the south side of an indentation on the coast between these 
islands is North Hill, 965 feet high. 

SULU SEA. 

The space included between the Sulu Archipelago to the south 
and Mindoro to the north and having Panay, Negros, and Mindanao 
on the east and Palawan on the west is known by the name of the 
Sulu Sea. Although of great depth, over 2,000 fathoms in places, 
this sea, which is connected with the China and Celebes Seas and 
also with the Pacific by San Bernardino and Surigao Straits, has 



116 SULU SEA. 

a minimum deep-sea temperature of 50.5° F., reached invariably 
at 400 fathoms. As this temperature in the China Sea is at the depth 
of 200 fathoms, in the Celebes Sea at 180 fathoms, and in the Pacific 
at 230 fathoms, it may be inferred that the Sulu Sea is prevented 
from freely interchanging its waters with those seas by ridges which 
do not exceed those depths. 

Winds. — In the Sulu Sea easterly winds with fine weather prevail 
in October and the northeast monsoon is not established before No- 
vember. In January and February it blows hardest, but not with 
the force of the China Sea, and it is felt strongest before the open- 
ings between Panay and Negros, and Negros and Mindanao. At the 
end of May southwest winds begin to blow, and in a- month become 
established, to terminate in October, bringing with them a season 
made up of rain squalls and tempests, which take place principally 
in July and August. In September a heavy mist hangs about the 
coast of Mindanao. 

Typhoons occasionally pass across the northern part of the Sulu 
Sea, but are usually of small diameter. The Philippine Weather 
Bureau has an observer at Cuyo ? who is notified of typhoons ap- 
proaching these waters. Ships with radio stations may get in com- 
munication with him through the radio station at Cuyo. 

During July and August, squalls and southwest winds of the outer 
zones of typhoons affect this area. During these months there are 
frequently periods of fine, clear weather with southerly and south- 
easterly breezes. The bad spells are frequently preceded by fine 
weather with shifts of wind to the north and northwest, with a 
gradual drop of the barometer. Northwest winds have generally 
been followed within a few days by bad weather. This does not ap- 
ply to Mindoro Straits, where northwest winds are frequent. Dur- 
ing September and October, considerable fine weather prevails. The 
northeast monsoon makes itself manifest during November and 
gradually increases in strength. It lasts until about the end of April. 
Its force has not been seen to exceed that of fresh breezes. During 
May and June, the winds are irregular, fine, clear weather prevailing. 
The foregoing applies particularly to the onshore area. Near Panay, 
the Calamianes, and Palawan, during what is termed the southwest 
monsoon, considerable rain falls. 

In the Sulu Sea the east or northeast monsoon is not a fresh, steady 
breeze but is often variable. Near Mindanao the northerly winds 
never blow fresh, and light changeable winds frequently displace 
them for several days. This often occurs at the end of January, and 
it is considered that the same winds prevail from the Sulu Archi- 
pelago to Manila. 

Currents.— During the northeast monsoon the surface drift is 
with the wind, about % mile per hour. In the southern part of the 
sea there is generally a northwest or westerly current in the neaps 
between Jolo and Basilan and in the tracks thence to Balabac Strait. 
In March and April the current sets mostly eastward among the 
Sulu Islands, but it sets westward at the same time in the openings 
of the Philippine Islands to the north of Mindanao. Alonw the 
Panay coast there is a constant northerly current which varies but 
little in strength with the change of tide. In the vicinity of Seco 
Island and Batbatan, this current changes its direction to westward 



WINDS AND CURRENTS. 117 

and then southwestward through the Cuyo Islands, thus forming a 
great eddy. Observations of currents during the southwest monsoon 
are too scanty to afford reliable information. In general, however, 
the current is much weaker and changes with the ebb and flow of the 
tides. 

Tidal ouerents. — Two tidal streams enter the Sulu Sea and pass- 
ages between the Philippines from opposite directions — one from the 
China Sea through the western opening, the other from the Pacific 
through the eastern straits, San Bernardino, Surigao, and Basilan. 
These streams meet in the many channels between the southern 
islands. 

The stream from the China Sea enters that sea from the Pacific 
by the wide opening between Formosa and Luzon, and passes from 
north to south along the western shores of Luzon and Palawn and 
through the Verde Island Passage, Mindoro Strait, Linapacan, and 
Balabac Straits. 

The Verde Island stream after passing south along the coast of 
Luzon, and, deflecting some of its waters into Manila Bay, continues 
along the coast as far as Punas Point, where it branches. One 
stream runs northeast around Tayabas Bay and north and east of 
Marinduque through Mompog Pass, reunites with the other branch 
which passes southeast along the Mindoro coast as far as Dumali 
Point, and then eastward, south of Marinduque as far as the Bondoc 
Peninsula, where it meets the flood stream from the Pacific, which 
has passed through San Bernardino Strait. The northern part of 
the Verde Island stream, which follows round Balayan and Batangas 
Bays, reunites with the principal current near Verde Island, produc- 
ing violent tide rips and eddies in that part of the channel between 
Malabrigo and Escarceo Points. 

The flood that enters Mindoro Straits follows the coast of Mindoro, 
setting southeast as far as Nasog Point, Panay, part of it continu- 
ing round the coast of Mindoro northward of Dumali Point, where 
it meets the stream through Verde Island Passage. The rest of the 
stream divides at the northwest point of Panay Island. One branch 
flows along the north coast of Panay past Bulacaue Point and the 
Gigantes Islands to Bulalaqui Point, the north point of Cebu, where 
it turns southward and meets the stream from the Pacific through 
Surigao Strait, about 6 miles south of the Camotes Islands ; it also 
flows through Iloilo and Tanon Straits, in both of them meeting the 
flow which has entered from southward on the parallels of the north 
end of Negros and of Tajao Point, Cebu, respectively. 

The other branch turning to the south from the northwest point 
of Panay, and being joined midway by the stream setting eastward 
from the Cuyo Islands or Linapacan Strait, continues coasting 
Panay and Gruimaras Island into Iloilo Strait until it meets the other 
branch described above. 

Between the Calamianes and the north end of Talawan the flood 
stream sets southeast and the ebb northwest. 

The flood stream entering by Balabac Strait turning north-north- 
east along the coast of Palawan spreads itself like a fan over the 
Sulu and Mindoro Seas from northeast to east, forming the current 
from west to east felt between the Cuyo Islands and Panay, and 
also that which sets to the south of the Cagayanes, where it is said 



118 SULU SEA. 

to meet the stream from Surigao Point approximately in the merid- 
ian of the Cagayanes. 

In the Sibutu Passage the flood stream sets northward and west- 
ward ; and also in the Sulu Archipelago the flood stream sets gener- 
ally in the same direction, but takes many local directions among the 
islands, where it also appears to be influenced by the monsoon cur- 
rents. 

Through Basilan Strait the flood stream makes westward and 
passes up the west coast of Mindanao northward until it meets the 
flood stream from Surigao Strait about midway on the coast. 

The time of high water of the wave that enters from the China 
Sea seems to be from 10 to 12 hours and that which comes from the 
Pacific through the eastern and northern straits from 6 to 7 hours. 

CAGAYAN ISLANDS. 

The Cagayan Islands are situated on the southern part of an 
extensive reef, very steep-to, the depth of water at 200 yards dis^ 
tance being over 100 fathoms. The islands consist mostly of low,, 
even hills, the highest point, 205 feet near the western shore of Ca- 
gayan, being only 10 or 15 feet higher than the surrounding area. 
They are all wooded with low trees and brush ; cultivation is carried 
on in the open spaces where the rocky nature of the surface gives 
way to a few inches of soil, maize being the principal crop, but 
nothing is being raised for export. 

Cagayan Island, the largest of the group, is long and narrow with 
a smooth ridge extending nearly its entire length. The western shore 
is a rocky bluff from 150 to 200 feet high with a short stretch of 
sand beach near the middle of the island, where the bluff recedes 
about 100 yards to the eastward. At the southern end of this beach 
is the only place on the west shore where an ascent to the top of the 
ridge is feasible. The bulff is undercut to a depth of about 4 feet 
at the water line, and a similar scar is noticed 40 or 50 feet higher 
up the face of the rocks, indicating a sudden uplifting of the island 
at some past period; a coral reef, bare in spots, extends the entire 
length of the island. The slope on the eastern side of the island is 
more gradual, and the shore is very irregular with a number of small 
islands and rocks on the reefs close inshore. Cagayancillo has a 
population of about 3,000. It has a church and school, and the ruins 
of an old fort are located on the bluff eastward of the town. 

Calalong Island is composed of a group of low, rounded hills with 
a steep, rocky bluff on the southern shore. It is separated from 
Cagayan Island by a narrow channel that dries at low water. The 
best anchorage, only partly protected by the barrier reef, is south- 
ward of this island. The best approach is from the eastward, and 
the following ranges were used by the surveying party: Bring the 
south tangent of Calalong Island on the north tangent of the islet 
just east of Cabuaya Island (which appears to be a part of Cabuaya 
from that direction) on a course 276° (275° mag.). Almost imme- 
diately after the bottom becomes visible, or when the southwest 
point of Dondonay Island is abeam, the south tangent of Cabuaya 
Island will be in range with a peculiar round tuft on the skyline of 
Cagayan Island bearing 272%° (271° mag.), hold this range until a 
group of prominent white-barked trees on the southeast side of 



CAGAYAN ISLANDS. 119 

Calalong Island are abeam, head for the south point of Cagayan 
and anchor 50 yards farther on in 5 to 6 fathoms, sand bottom. A 
vessel drawing not over 12 feet can enter or leave this anchorage at 
any stage of the tide ; the ranges are easy to pick up, and the white- 
ness of the bottom exaggerates the dangers. It is, however, exposed 
to the southeast, and southeast storms set home with great force; 
especial care should be taken not to be caught there by a southeast 
storm at night, when it would be almost impossible to get to sea or 
to move farther westward for more protection. The approach to 
this anchorage from southward was seldom used on account of fre- 
quent rain squalls obscuring the ranges. 

Dondonay Island is long and narrow with a low ridge running its 
entire length; nearly the entire shore line is bluff and rocky with 
only a few small stretches of beach. The island is covered with 
brush and scrub trees with only a few small cleared places. A coral 
reef runs along the entire eastern shore. The channel between Don- 
donay and Calalong is possible for a vessel drawing 12 feet, but the 
area inside is so filled with coral heads that it is of no practical use. 

Tanusa and Volata Islands are separated from the north end of 
Cagayan Island and each other by narrow, foul channels impassable 
for anything but small boats. Tanusa has the same general appear- 
ance as Cagayan, but Volata is rather flat. Anuling and Langisan 
Islands are bare rocks, the latter 80 feet high. These and the 
many smaller rocks are undercut by the sea. 

Manucan Island is flat and sandy, covered with a thin brush and 
some coconut trees. It is completely surrounded by a coral reef, 
which bares at low water. An automatic acetylene light showing 
one white flash every 5 seconds, visible from a distance of 14 miles, 
is exhibited from a black steel frame tower erected in the center of 
the island. Boombong Island the northeasterly one of the Cagayan 
Islands, is low and sandy. 

Calusa Island lies 10 miles westward of the south end of Cagayan 
Island. The water between the two is very deep. The island is 
flat, sandy, and covered with brush and coconut trees. A group of 
nipa houses, situated on the south side of the island, are occupied 
by natives from Cagayancillo during the farming season, but there 
are no permanent residents. A coral reef surrounds the entire island. 

Nicholson Banks. — The southern end of these banks is about 3 miles 
eastward from Boombong. They extend northerly for 8 miles, with 
a maximum breadth of 2 miles. The soundings on them are 3 to 7 
fathoms, Avith frequent intervals of 30 to 50 fathoms. 

Sultana Banks. — The southern end of these banks is 12 miles 8° 
(7° mag.) from Boombong and they extend northerly for 6 miles. 
The northern end is in latitude 10° 02' N., and longitude 121° 23' E. ; 
the greatest width is less than 1 mile and the soundings on the ridge 
vary from 2% to 11 fathoms. Both Nicholson and "Sultana Banks 
are very steep on their western sides, having no bottom at 100 
fathoms at less than y 2 mile distance, but sloping gradually east- 
ward the 100-fathom curve being at a distance of 6 miles from the 

shallow ridge. ,»•„.,, -r. i 

Between the shallow part at the north end of Nicholson Banks and 
the south end of Sultana Banks, a distance of 3 miles, the soundings 
are 16 to 25 fathoms. The tops of the trees of Cagayan Island just 
dip below the horizon at this position. 



120 SXJLU SEA. 

Cavili and Arena Islands are two coral islands situated about 30 
miles southwesterly from Cagayan Island. They extend, with their 
outlying reefs, 8y 2 miles in a northeast by east and opposite direc- 
tion, with a deep channel 2 miles wide between them. They are low, 
the elevation of the ground being only about 5 feet, and to the tops 
of the trees 100 and 60 feet, respectively. The reef on which Arena 
is situated has several detached sand cays southward and westward 
of the island. Both reefs are steep-to on all sides and navigators 
should be cautious when in their vicinity. 

TUBBATAHA KEEFS 

are two dangerous reefs separated by a deep channel about 5 miles 
wide. The northeastern reef is about 10 miles long in a northeast 
and opposite direction. North Islet, Central Islet, and a number 
of small black rocks are the only objects that appear above high 
water. At low water a large number of detached sand cays or 
ridges, each about 100 yards long and 10 to 20 yards wide, can be 
seen along the entire length of the reef. North Islet is covered with 
grass and some guano. 

The southwestern of the Tubbataha Reefs is about 4% miles long 
north and south, with several black rocks and sand cays visible at 
high water. South Islet is made up of loose white sand about 5 
feet above high water. The Tubbataha light, an unwatched lighted 
beacon, is located on this Islet.- Both reefs are steep-to. An auto- 
matic acetylene light, showing one white flash every 10 seconds, 
visible within a radius of 14 miles, is exhibited, 65 feet above high 
water, from a black steel-framed tower on South Islet, Tubbataha 
Reefs. 

Rubi Reef. — The British S. S. Rubi reported passing on December 
29, 1901, a small reef, on which the sea was breaking, situated ap- 
proximately in latitude 9° 27' N., longitude 120° 04' E. This reef 
was looked for in vain by the Coast Survey steamer Pathfinder in 
1919. 

Jessie Beazley Reef, lying in latitude 9° 02' 11" N., longitude 119° 
48' 40" E., is a small hill of broken coral about 6 feet high, devoid 
of vegetation, on a reef extending about 700 yards in northwest and 
opposite direction and about 150 yards wide. At low water the reef 
bares over a considerable area. A few birds were seen. The reef 
is readily picked up by day at a distance of 3 to 5 miles, but can not 
be seen at night. The original position assigned to this reef by the 
master of the Jessie Beazley is still retained on the chart. It is 
shown in latitude 9° 06' N., longitude 120° 04' E., and marked 
doubtful. 

Nicholson Shoal is shown on the charts as being in latitude 8° 51' 
N., longitude 119° 29' 30" E. ; position doubtful. This vicinity has 
been passed over several times and it is doubtful if any danger exists 
in this place. 

Rosalia Reef. — The Spanish schooner Rosalia was reported in 1867 
to have been lost on an unknown reef for which theposition assigned 
was in latitude 8° 53' N., longitude 119° 06' E. This reef was un- 
successfully searched for in 1891, the area sounded over extending 
from latitude 8° 48' to 9° 00' N. and from longitude 118° 54' to 119° 



TUBBATAHA REEFS. 121 

11' E. Ten positive soundings, varying from 1,115 to 1,154 fathoms, 
were obtained within these limits. The search was made under 
favorable conditions of weather and there was sufficient swell to 
make a danger apparent, but there was no indication of shoal water 
in the area examined. As this sea has been very imperfectly ex- 
amined this danger may, however, yet be found elsewhere. The 
Spanish charts formerly showed also an islet, Cumi Cumian, in lati- 
tude 8° 50' N., longitude 119° 00' E.; position doubtful. This islet 
does not appear on recent charts. 

Antibeg Shoal. — The British S. S. Cafe Antibeg reported passing 
on August 5, 1907, an uncharted shoal, on which the sea was break- 
ing, situated approximately in latitude 8° 28' N., longitude 120° 
20' E. 

Qnesada or South Tubbataha. — This reef was supposed to exist in 
latitude 8° 04' N. and longitude 119° 50' E. H. M. S. Nassau tried 
for soundings there, finding no bottom with 180 fathoms ; 6 miles 283° 
(282° mag.) of this position at noon, with good observations, bottom 
was obtained in 1,878 fathoms, pale yellow sand. As the observations 
were made on a clear day and a good lookout kept from the mast- 
head there is no doubt this shoal has been misplaced on the charts. * 

Basterra or Maeander Reef lies in latitude 8° 06' 30" N., longitude 
119° 17' 35" E. It is a low sand cay surrounded by a coral reef 
nearly 900 meters in diameter and is apparently steep-to. 

Bancoran Island, lying in latitude 7° 57' 30" N., longitude 118° 
40' 13" E., is nearly y± mile in diameter, flat, and heavily wooded. 
The center tree of the island is about 100 feet high and stands up clear 
of the surrounding trees. A reef extends off its north side for a dis- 
tance of about ^4 mile. The reef and island are steep-to. The island 
can be picked up on a clear day at a distance of 15 miles. The island 
is a good landmark for vessels crossing the Sulu Sea from Jolo or 
Zamboanga for Clarendon Bay, Balabac, or from Puerto Princesa 
for Cagayan Sulu, and Sandakan. 

San Miguel Islands consist of four islets lying about 40 miles 
northward from Cagayan Sulu. 

Bancauan Islet is the largest, being about % mile long; about 400 
yards from the northeast point it is nearly divided by the sea. The 
northern point rises to a peak 123 feet high. Bancauan is connected 
with a small coral islet lying % mile northward by a reef extending 
from the north and west sides, with sand cays and large bowlders on 
it. The islet is steep-to southeast. 

Manuc Manucan, the larger of the two southwest islets of the 
group, is thinly wooded and the tops of the trees are 32 feet above 
the sea. It is situated about 5 miles 248° (247° mag.) from Bancauan 
and is connected by a reef with a small coral islet lying y 2 mile 
southward. From this small islet, which is 20 feet high, the reef 
extends to the north and north-northwest for nearly iy 2 miles, with 
large lumps of coral showing at low water. There is no safe anchor- 
age round any of these islands. In the progress of the survey anchor- 
age was taken up southward of Manuc Manucan in 6 fathoms, with 
70 fathoms over the stern. 

Coral Beef. — There is a patch of 214 fathoms situated 2^4 miles 
315° (314° mag.) from Manuc Manucan, which is considered to be 
connected with it by shoal ground, and therefore to be avoided. 



122 SULU SEA. 

West Bank is 4 miles westward of Manuc Manucan and extends 
about north-northwest and in the opposite direction for 3% miles. 
The least water found was 6y 2 fathoms, near the south end. 

Southwest Bank. — The eastern extremity of the extensive bank lies 
220° (219° mag.), distant 6 miles from Manuc Manucan; from this 
position the bank extends westward 3*4 miles and thence northwest 5 
miles, the general direction being east-southeast and west-northwest, 
about 8 miles. The least water, 9 fathoms, was found on its south 
and east extremities. The bottom is even, generally coral and sand, 
and may be clearly seen in 13 to 17 fathoms. Anchorage with good 
holding ground may be had on this bank. From the eastern edge of 
the bank the summit of Cagayan Sulu can be seen in clear weather, 
bearing 167° (166° mag.) distant 28 miles. 

Java Beef. — This dangerous reef, with only 2y 2 fathoms over it, 
lies about 5 miles 26° (25° mag.) from the peak of Bancauan. The 
5-fathom limit around this reef extends 1% miles in a north-north- 
east and south-southwest direction. In daylight it may be passed 
fairly close, as the discolored water is marked and there are strong 
tide rips around the shoal ground. A good channel exists on either 
aide of this reef. A good clearing mark, if working on its parallel 
to the north and east, is not to open the small islet north of Bancauan 
westward of that island. 

Valparaiso Shoal is stated to be about 2 miles in extent with ap- 
parently shoaler water south westward. Soundings of 6 and 7 fathoms 
were obtained, the bottom of coral being plainly seen at the time. 
Its approximate position is 7 or 8 miles northwest of Bancauan 
Islet, in latitude 7° 52' N., longitude 118° 27' E. 

The British S. S. Shantung, drawing 19 feet, reported touching 
on or in the vicinity of Valparaiso Shoal. The depth on this shoal 
is therefore assumed to be about 3 fathoms instead of 6 fathoms, as 
formerly shown on the charts. 

Memnon Shoal is reported as lying about 25 miles northward of 
Cagayan Sulu. It consists of coral with patches of sand and has an 
estimated width of about 1 mile. The least depth found was 6 
fathoms, but it appeared shoaler in other places. The approximate 
position is in latitude 7° 28' N., longitude 118° 25' E. In a further 
examination of this shoal the least depth found was 8 fathoms, and 
it is considered probable that no danger exists in the locality. Heavy 
tide rips marked the northeastern edge of the shoal and rendered it 
apparent ; otherwise it did not show distinctly. 

Viola Beef, a coral patch having only 4 feet at low-water spring 
tides, and on which the Spanish vessel Viola struck and remained 
several hours, is reported as lying in latitude 7° 50' ,N. and longitude 
117° 40' 50" E. This reef has been searched for without success. A 
danger, position doubtful, is now shown on the chart 4 miles north 
of it. 

Moyune Shoal is 1*4 miles in extent east and west and % mile 
wide. The shoalest area is in the southeastern part with a least known 
depth of 31^ fathoms lying in latitude 8° 02' 18" N., longitude 118° 
07' 30" E. 

Uncharted shoals have been reported by the U. S. S. Don Juan de 
Austria, as follows: 

A small shoal, probably 2 or 3 fathoms, in latitude 7° 36' N., longi- 
tude 118° 08' E. 



CAGAYAN SULU ISLANDS. 123 

A small shoal, probably 2 or 3 fathoms, in latitude 7° 39' N., 
longitude 118° 11' E. 

These shoals lie in a northeast and southwest direction, apparently 
about 4 miles apart. They were sighted from the masthead and the 
ship was slowed and ran about midway between them, heading 135° 
(134° mag.). No bottom was found at 25 fathoms. 

A shoal, apparently about 1 mile in diameter, in latitude 7° 34' N., 
longitude 118° 22' E. This shoal could not be seen from the mast- 
head until the ship was almost on it. The engine was stopped and 
backed full speed and the vessel ran into 4 fathoms before headway 
was stopped. Shoal water was seen ahead near the middle of the 
shoal. Seven fathoms were obtained near the edge, which was ab- 
rupt. No bottom at 25 fathoms was found just oft it. This shoal is 
covered with very large bowlders, some or which appear to come 
almost to the surface. 

The positions of these shoals were obtained by longitude sights, 
meridian altitude, and bearings of Bancauan, Manuc Manucan, and 
Cagayan Sulu Islands. 

Along the line indicated by soundings 1,285 and 1,326 fathoms in 
about longitude 118° 50' E. the water appeared to be welling up from 
the bottom, or like an overfall, and a peculiar effect of refraction was 
very noticeable just above the surface. This may have been a very 
strong tide rip, though the dead reckoning showed no strong currents 
encountered. It probably marked the edge of the deep. 

CAGAYAN SULU ISLANDS 

are situated in the southwestern part of the Sulu Sea and include 
the island of Cagayan Sulu, the two Muligi Islands southwestward 
of it, with Keenapusan, Pomelikan, Bintut, Bisu Bohan, Bohan, 
Mandah, and Lapunlapun northward. Cagayan Sulu alone is in- 
habited, the smaller islands being only resorted to for temporary pur- 
pose, such as turtle catching. 

Cagayan Sulu, the largest of the group, extends about 8 miles in 
an east and west direction and about 5 miles north and south, and 
(with the exception of the northwest and southeast points, which are 
steep-to) is fringed by a coral reef extending in some places nearly 
% mile from shore. This reef bares in patches at low water, with 
channels for canoes or rafts between the edges of the reefs and the 
coast of the island. In the interior of the island are ranges of hills 
attaining a height of 1,105 feet, on the east part of the island sloping 
gradually to the sea. It is thinly populated. The soil and climate 
are favorable to vegetation, but the natives are indolent and depend 
chiefly for their subsistence on fish and rice imported from Palawan 
and Borneo, for which they exchange coconuts, oil, and mats. 

Jurata is a small village on the south coast, of the island on the 
eastern side of the entrance to Lake Jurata. There are small horses 
and bullocks on the island, and the latter, with a few fowl, constitute 
the live stock, for which exorbitant prices are demanded. 

Water may be obtained at half tide from a spring at the landing 
place near the southwest anchorage and at the watering place inside 
the crater lake on the south side of the island. 

Anchorage. — The best anchorage during the northeast monsoon is 
off the west end of the island with Tavotavo Point bearing 353° 

33452°— 21 9 



124 STJLU SEA. 

(352° mag.), distant about 1% miles, and a remarkable tree on the 
southwest point, bearing 117° (116° mag.), distant about iy 3 miles, 
in 9 to 12 fathoms, sand and coral bottom. During this monsoon a 
swell occasionally sets round Tavotavo Point, causing a rolling mo- 
tion and interrupting communication with the shore, the sea breaking 
along the entire edge of the reef. At this season there is also anchor- 
age on the south side of the island off the middle remarkable crater 
lake in 10 fathoms. 

Anchorage (chart 4348) may also be found on the north side of the 
island in 18 fathoms, with Lapunlapun Island bearing 58° (57° 
mag.) and Kamutayan Point 193° (192° mag.). Bulingis Point, on 
line with the center of summit of a 926-foot peak, east side of the 
island bearing 111° (110° mag.), is the range for this anchorage. 
Temporary anchorage for communicating with the north side of the 
island may be taken up east of Lapunlapun Island, but it is not good. 

Keenapusan Island, the northernmost of the Cagayan Sulu Group, 
is a little more than y 2 mile in extent and 311 feet high. It is sur- 
rounded by a coral reef which, on the south side, extends about 600 
yards. To the north and east the water is deep, but on the south and 
west sides the 20-fathoru line of soundings extends nearly 2 miles. 

Fair anchorage may be found on the southwest side of the island 
in from 7 to 10 fathoms, coral and sand bottom, with Keenapusan 
summit 41° (40° mag.) and Pomelikan summit 153° (152° mag.). 

Northeast Bank, the 10-fathom limit of which includes a circular 
space of about 1 mile in diameter, with 4 fathoms on its shoalest part, 
lies 58° (57° mag.) about Sy 2 miles from Keenapusan. The shoal is 
not steep-to, the soundings decreasing regularly from 20 fathoms 
to 5, forming a fair anchorage or stopping place on either edge of 
the shoal. Tavotavo Point, in line with the west point of Bohan 
203° (202° mag.), clears it eastward, and Pomelikan, kept just open 
of Tavotavo Point, clears it westward. 

Northwest Bank, the southern 4-fathom patch of which is 311° 
(310° mag.) Sy 2 miles from Keenapusan, runs in a northwest and 
southeast direction and is 1 mile long and about y s mile broad. It is 
of the same character as Northeast Bank, but is more steep-to and 
vessels should not anchor on it. The west point of Bohan, in line 
with the west point Pomelikan 162° (161° mag.), clears it eastward, 
and the west point of Pomelikan, in line with the west end of Mandah 
145° (144° mag.) clears it westward. 

Pomelikan is a small islet, about %, mile in extent and 180 feet 
high, situated 2% miles southward of Keenapusan Island. It is 
surrounded by a reef which extends % mile southwestward and about 
the same distance eastward, inclosing a large rock on the eastern edge 
of the reef. 

Bintut is an islet lying 1 mile 304° (303° mag.) from Bohan and 
appears to be a vast block of dark sandstone. Bisu Bintut is a rock on 
the east side of Bintut. The channel between Bisu Bintut and Bisu 
Bohan is clear. There is also a good channel between Pomelikan 
and Bintut, but the latter island should be kept aboard, as the reef 
off Pomelikan extends some 600 yards southward and westward. 

Bohan and Mandah are two small islands, connected by a reef 
which dries at low water, lying 2y 2 miles northward from Cagayan 
Sulu. They are both thickly wooded, and Mandah, the eastern one, 



SHOALS AND REEFS. 125 

has a sharp peak rising to a height of 283 feet. Mandah is steep-to 
except where the reef which connects it with Bohan joins it on the 
western side. Bohan is surrounded by a reef which extends nearly 
y 2 mile from the western side and terminates in a rock, Bisu Bohan y 
66 feet high. 

Bank. — A bank about y 2 mile in diameter with a least depth of 9 
fathoms on it and 22 fathoms close around has been reported to be 
situated with the highest peak of Cagayan Sulu, bearing 120° (119° 
mag.) distant about 30 miles. 

Muligi Islands. — These two islands are 410 and 232 feet above the 
sea, the southern, higher, and larger island being about y 2 mile long 
north and south and y$ mile broad. They lie 8 miles southward from 
Tavotavo Point, with a clear channel 5 miles wide between them and 
Cagayan Sulu. A reef extends 400 yards northeast of the southern 
Muligi Island, narrowing the channel considerably. The channel 
between the islands, though clear, should not be attempted. These 
islands are uninhabited, but the natives resort to them to fish. 

Shoals southwestward from Muligi Islands. — A shoal about 1 mile 
long in a northeast and opposite direction and about 600 yards wide,, 
covered by a least known depth of 5 fathoms, exists in latitude 6° 50' 
45" N., longitude 118° 10' 15" E. About iy 2 miles southwest- 
ward of this shoal, and separated from it by deep water, is another 
5-f athom shoal of similar size and shape. 

A shoal, extending about l 1 /^ miles in a northeast and opposite 
direction and 600 yards wide, with a least known depth of 4y 2 
fathoms, exists in latitude 6° 44' N., longitude 118° 11' E. 

A shoal, covered by a least known depth of 2^4 fathoms, exists 
in approximate latitude 6° 43' N., longitude 118° 08i/ 2 ' E. Another 
shoal, covered with a least known depth of 2y 2 fathoms, lies l 1 /^ 
miles southwestward from the 2y 4 -fathom shoal. 

Muligi Patches consist of a number of coral shoals and banks ex- 
tending about 7 miles east and west, upon which the depths ascer- 
tained were 5 to 10 fathoms. The easternmost of these patches, 
with a depth of 8 fathoms, lies 20 miles 275° (274° mag.) from the 
southern Muligi Island. There may be less water on some of these 
patches, and numerous reefs are reported to lie westward. 

Willcox Bank is a small coral bank situated near the middle of the 
channel between the Muligi Islands and the southeast point of Caga- 
yan Sulu. The least water obtained was 6% fathoms, although the bot- 
tom was plainly visible at the time. There are 23 fathoms a short 
distance northward and 55 fathoms within iy 2 miles southward of 
the bank. From the shoal the southern Muligi Island bears 239° 
(238° mag.) and Tavotavo Point 331° (330° mag.) distant 7 miles. 

Mambahenauhan Islet, lying in latiture 6° 33' 30" N., longitude 
118° 31' 30" E., is 145 feet high, of brown rock with brushwood and 
small trees on the summit. 

Coral Shoal. — A coral patch of 3 fathoms has been reported as 
lying 31 miles southeastward of Cagayan Sulu, in latitude 6° 38' N.. 
longitude 118° 57' 30" E. 



MINDANAO. 

Mindanao is the second island in point of size in the Philippines, 
having an area of about 36,904 square statute miles and a length of 
general shore line of about 1,383 miles. It has a very irregular 
shape, the coast line being indented with deep bays and inlets. The 
large bays, Iligan on the north and Illana on the south, nearly sever 
the island in two, the isthmus between them being only about 7y 2 
miles wide at the narrowest part, at the head of Panguil Bay. The 
island is mountainous and drained principally by two large rivers, 
the Agusan, which rises not far from Davao Gulf and flows north- 
erly into Butuan Bay on the north coast, and the Mindanao River, 
which drains an extensive plain with several large lakes and rivers 
and enters Illana Bay through an extensive delta near Bongo Island. 
The volcano of Mount Apo, situated westward from Davao Gulf, 
rises to a height of 9,610 feet and is probably the highest point on 
the island and in the archipelago. The whole island, being less than 
10° from the Equator, has a hot and humid climate, more equable 
than Luzon. It is under the influence of the monsoons of the north- 
ern hemisphere, but is largely below the typhoon region. It has all 
the products of the other islands of the archipelago. About half the 
population is classed as nori- Christian. 

The island is divided into eight Provinces, two of which, Misamis 
and Surigao, have the usual provincial form of government; the 
others, Agusan, Bukidnon, Lanao, Zamboanga, Cotabato, and Davao, 
have a special form of government, with the principal officials ap- 
pointed by the Governor General. 

Mindanao is connected with the general telegraph system of the 
islands by cable and radio. Zamboanga is the largest commercial 
port, but only small quantities of general supplies are available. It 
is connected with Manila and other ports of the Philippine Islands 
by several lines of steamers, while the north and east coasts of the 
island are served by steamers out of Iloilo and Cebu. 

NORTH COAST OF MINDANAO. 

Winds and Ctjkrents.— Both monsoons blow with strength on this 
part of the coast, and, together with the tidal currents from the 
strait of Surigao, raise a chopping sea. During the southwest mon- 
soon the land breezes are regular ; they blow from sunset to morning 
and shift sometimes to southeast and east-southeast, but during collas 
the wind remains steady at southwest. Colla is the name given in the 
Philippines to a southwest gale that blows occasionally during the 
months from July to October, with violent squalls and much rain. 

During the northeast monsoon the land breezes are not regular, 
but still they are experienced when the monsoon is established, and 
the winds vary from north to northeast and east-northeast. The 
coast is very exposed at that season. 
126 



BUTUAN BAY. 127 

In navigating under sail, in either monsoon, the coast of Mindanao 
should be approached in order to profit by the land breezes; but care 
must be taken to guard against the violent squalls that come off the 
mountains. 

Between Surigao Strait and Camiguin Island there is a constant 
current to the west in both monsoons, varying in strength according 
to wind and tide. The flood stream entering through Surigao Strait 
passes southwest on both sides of Camiguin Island with considerable 
velocity, but loses its strength as it enters Macajalar Bay ; with spring 
tides it flows with an estimated velocity of 2 to 3 knots. South of 
Bohol the currents follow the direction of the prevailing monsoon. 
Near the coast and in the great bays the currents are influenced by 
the discharge from the rivers. 

Bilaa Point, the northern extremity of Mindanao, is the termina- 
tion of the range of mountains that traverses the east coast from north 
to south ; the point itself is of dark rock, clean and fringed by a nar- 
row steep-to reef. 

Bilaa Shoal, composed of sand and dark coral heads and covered 
by a least depth of 2 fathoms, lies % mile northward from Bilaa 
Point, from which it is separated by a deep channel over y 2 mile wide ; 
vessels using this channel should pass between 14 and y 2 mile from the 
shore. The position of the shoal is usually indicated by tide rips. 
During the southwest monsoon, anchorage can be found on the slope 
of this shoal, sheltered from the tide streams. 

Madilao Point, about 4 miles southwestward from Bilaa Point, is 
270 feet high, clean and steep-to, and composed of dark rock. It 
forms withTBilaa Point a deep bay which extends about 1 mile south- 
eastward and affords anchorage sheltered from northeast to south- 
west through east but necessarily close in because of the great depth 
of water. 

From Madilao Point the coast trends southward for 46 miles to the 
mouth of the Agusan Biver. From Madilao Point to Mount Tubay 
it consists of the western slope of two mountain ranges and is high, 
bold, clean, and steep-to, and there are no off -lying dangers. Mount 
Tubay, at the southern end of this section of the coast is a prominent 
hill which rises to a height of 1,468 feet. 

Butuan Bay, about 20 miles wide at the entrance between Tubay 
and Diuata Points, extends 10 miles southward and is deep and clear. 
The eastern shore from Mount Tubay to the mouth of the Agusan 
Biver, in the southeast angle of the bay, is low, densely wooded, and 
fringed by a sandy beach, off which shoal water with very deep water 
at its edge extends to a distance of % to % mile. The southern shore 
of the bay, between the Agusan Biver and the town of Nasipit, 
10 miles westward, is low and wooded to the sandy beach. Scat- 
tered houses and clearings exist on this stretch of coast, and the shore 
line is intersected by small, unimportant streams. Shoal water does 
not extend more than y 2 mile from the shore between these two points. 
From Nasipit to Diuata Point, about 10 miles northwestward, the 
shore is fringed by a reef which varies in width from less than 14 to 

y 2 mile. 

Tubay and Cabadbaran, lying about 1 and 3% miles, respectively, 
southward from Mount Tubay, are the only towns on the east shore 
of the bay. They are small and of little commercial importance and 



128 MINDANAO. 

are only occasionally visited by coasting vessels. The Tubay is a 
swift-running stream with very little water on its bar at low water. 
It is understood that natives pole canoes up it to Lake Mainit, and 
also that there is an inland passage for canoes between the Tubay and 
Agusan Rivers. There is no anchorage off the river mouth, but ves- 
sels occasionally anchor in from 12 to 15 fathoms about % mile 347° 
(345° mag.) from the town and % mile from shore. The bar of the 
Cabadbaran River bares at low water, and there is no anchorage off 
it. Anchorage can be found southward of a sand spit which extends 
westward from the south bank of the river. From abreast of this 
anchorage there is a good road leading to the town of Cabadbaran. 
There is a fair road between Cabadbaran and the mouth of the 
Agusan River. 

AGUSAN EIVEE 

(chart 4647), which discharges into the southeast angle of Butuan 
Bay, is the second largest river in the island of Mindanao. Its mouth 
is divided into two channels by Pontod Island, a small sandy cay 
with a settlement and a coconut grove on its southern end. The bar 
of the northern entrance, blocked by stones sunk there for the purpose, 
has a depth of only 3 feet and is not used for navigation. The west- 
ern entrance has a width of about 150 yards at the narrowest part, 
and 9 or 10 feet may usually be carried over the bar at low water 
and 12 to 14 feet at ordinary high water. There is no good anchor- 
age outside of the entrance, the water being very deep and the bar 
steep-to. Good anchorage for small vessels which do not intend to 
ascend the river may be found at the mouth of the Baug River, which 
enters the Agusan just inside the bar. The rainy season begins in 
December and lasts about four months. The river during these 
months is very high and filled with floating debris, most of which 
can be avoided by anchoring under the lee of a point. 

A white monument at the village of Baug, situated at the conflu- 
ence of the Agusan and Baug Rivers, is said to mark the spot where 
Magellan celebrated the first mass in the Philippines. This monu- 
ment forms a good landmark. 

Range Lights.— -Two fixed red lights, which should be visible from 
a distance of 7 miles, are exhibited from concrete beacons erected one 
on the southern end of Baug Island and the other on the eastern bank 
of the Baug River. The lights in range bearing 94° (92° mag.) 
mark the best water across the bar. The beacons are surmounted by 
white triangular daymarks with black vertical stripes through their 
centers. 

The channel is also generally marked by stakes maintained by the 
pilots, who move them in case the bar shifts during heavy freshets. 

Pilots. — The pilot station is at the south end of Pontod Island, 
and strangers are advised to employ them. 

Directions. — Vessels entering the Agusan should bring the range 
marks on and steer for them, keeping a good lookout for shoal water 
on either side. There is a hard gravel shoal extending about % mile 
southward from the south side of Pontod Island When within about 
% mile of the front range mark the vessel should be hauled south- 
ward and the eastern side of the qhannel favored until the mouth 
of the Baug River is passed, after which the usual rules for river 
navigation should be followed. 



AGUSAN RIVER TO GINGOOG BAY. 129 

Butuan, the capital of Agusan Province, lies on the west bank of 
the Agusan River, about 5 miles from the sea. From the bar to the 
town, depths of from 2^ to 5 fathoms may be carried. The current 
in the river is strong and the water off the town is fresh at all stages 
of the tide. Butuan carries on a considerable trade in hemp and 
copra, principally with Cebu. There is a small bamboo wharf along- 
side of which vessels may lie by using offshore moorings. Vessels 
should anchor below the wharf, as the river higher up is contracted 
by a shoal making off from the west bank. 

Nasipit Harbor (chart 4647) is formed by an opening between bluff 
rock headlands about % mile apart and extends about 1 mile south- 
ward. The village of Nasipit lies on the bluff forming the eastern 
entrance point. A large quantity of copra is produced here, and 
the coconut groves with the bluffs forming the entrance are good 
landmarks for making the harbor. The outer harbor is an excellent 
one for moderate-sized vessels, having depths of from 6 to 9 fathoms 
over an anchorage area about % mile lon£ by about 300 yards wide. 
The inner harbor is contracted by shoal water and is practicable 
only for small craft. Both entrance points to the outer harbor are 
fringed by reefs which show plainly on a clear day. The reef on 
the eastern side continues much farther in than that on the western 
side. A light showing one white flash every 5 seconds, visible 15 
miles, is exhibited from a concrete beacon erected on the bluff on 
the western shore of the harbor about % mile from the entrance. 

Directions. — Steer a 215° (213° mag.) course for the light, when 
the northwest point at the entrance bears 325° (323° mag.), change 
course to 180° (178° mag.) and continue to an anchorage in mid- 
channel southward of the light. 

The reef on the western side of the entrance to Nasipit Harbor 
extends about % m il e northeastward from the western entrance 
point, then curves around to the westward, with a point extending 
northward for about % mile, and then follows the coast about y 2 
mile out for about 3 miles, when it narrows to less than y± mile and 
extends to and around Diuata Point into Gingoog Bay. 

Diuata Point, the western entrance point to Butuan Bay, is low, 
densely wooded, and rises gradually to a height of 1,165 feet at a 
distance of about 3 miles inland. The coast is formed of coral with 
coral sand beaches and is fringed by a very narrow, steep-to reef, 
which widens to 150 yards westward of the point. 

Gingoog Bay, between Diuata and Sipaca Points, is 20 miles wide 
at the entrance and extends about 13 miles southward. The shores of 
the bay are fringed with very narrow, steep-to coral reefs, the center 
of the bay is deep and clear, and there are no off-lying dangers 
with the exception of a small 1%-fathom shoal off the town of 
Gingoog and a 4-fathom shoal off Talisayan, which will be described 
in their proper order. 

About 5 miles southward from Diuata Point is situated the village 
of Linugos, directly in front of which there is a break in the shore 
reef about *4 mile wide, which affords good anchorage in 7 fathoms, 
sand and mud bottom, well protected from northeast winds. 

Odiongan is a small village situated at the mouth of the Odiongan 
River, which discharges into the southeast angle of the bay about 10 
miles south of Linugos. A small shelf of coral and sand, with ir- 



130 MINDANAO. 

regular depths of from 3 to 7 fathoms, northward of the eastern sido 
of the entrance to the river affords excellent anchorage for small 
vessels. 

Gingoog is a small village lying on the shore about 4 miles west- 
ward from Odiongan. Good anchorage in 15 fathoms, sand bottom, 
may be found about ^4 m il e from shore directly in front of it. 

A small coral shoal covered by a least depth of 1% fathoms exists 
about 1 mile northwestward from Gingoog and % mile from shore. 
There is a deep channel about y 2 mile wide between this shoal and the 
shore reef. 

From Gingoog to Sipaca Point, 17 miles northwestward, the shores 
are fringed by a steep-to coral reef. A short distance back from the 
shore heavily wooded mountains rise to heights of over 3,000 feet. 
Occasional villages and coconut groves exist on this stretch of coast. 

Talisayan, the principal town in Gingoog Bay, lies about 1 mile 
southeastward from the summit of Sipaca Point. Anchorage, ex- 
posed to northeast winds, may be found close to the shore reef north- 
ward from the town in 20 fathoms. 

A detached coral shoal covered by a least depth of 4 fathoms lies 
y± mile from shore on the bearings : Conspicuous iron-roofed building 
near the beach, Talisayan, 237° (235° mag.) and the right tangent 
to Sipaca Point 321° (319° mag.). It is reported in Talisayan that 
vessels occasionally anchor on this shoal. There is a deep, clear 
channel about y^ mile wide between it and the shore reef. 

Sipaca Point, the western entrance point to Gingoog Bay, is a bold 
conical hill rising from the water's edge to a height of 875 feet ; from 
a distance it appears as an island. It is connected with the main- 
land by a mangrove swamp, through which there is reported to be a 
■channel passable by canoes at high water. 

From Sipaca Point the coast trends west-southwestward with a 
•curve northward for about 6 miles to Bagacay Point. This section 
of the coast is fringed by a steep-to coral reef, which attains its great- 
est width off the town of Bagacay, where it is over y 2 mile wide, 
most of which is bare at low water. 

Canauayor Anchorage (chart 4639) lies southward from the small 
felet, Canauayor, which is situated 1% miles westward from Sipaca 
Point and about % mile from shore. Canauayor Islet is 110 feet 
high and is connected with the mainland southeastward by a coral 
reef which is nearly bare at low water. Westward from the islet and 
close to it there is a break in the reef leading to an anchorage for 
■small craft in 8 to 9 fathoms, about 300 yards northward from an 
iron-roofed warehouse in the western part of the village of Balin- 
guan. 

Camiguin Island, lying 5 miles from the coast of Mindanao, is oval 
in shape, 12 miles long northwest and southeast, and 8 miles wide. 
It is extremely mountainous and steep, the highest peak of Mount 
Mambajao, in the middle of the island, rising to a height of 5,620 
feet. The town of Catarman, on the northwest coast, was destroyed 
by a volcanic eruption in 1871. The entire island, excepting high up 
on the mountain slopes, is under cultivation, mainly with hemp and 
coconuts; above heights of 1,500 feet the mountains are heavily 
wooded. The shores, excepting around Catarman Point and a few 
detached bluffs, are low and sandy, and fringed with narrow steep-to 



CAMIGUIN ISLAND. 131 

coral reefs. Mambajao, Mahinog, Sagay, Bonbon, and Agoho are 
the principal towns. Indifferent anchorage, according to the season, 
can be found off these towns, but necessardy very close in because or 
the great depth of water. The principal exports are hemp and copra. 
Medano Islet is a sand cay lying about 1 mile northwestward from 
Agoho on the northwest side of the island. It is about 400 yards in 
extent, stands about 6 feet above high water, and has a few bushes 
on it. It is surrounded by a coral reef which, on the eastern side, 
extends to a distance of about y 2 mile. The channel between it and 
Camiguin is deep and clear and is generally used by coasting steamers. 
Jigdup Reef is a circular coral reef about V2 mile in diameter and 
covered by a least depth of % fathom, lying 3 miles from the north- 
east coast of Camiguin on the bearings: Mambajao Light 265° (263° 
mag.), distant 4 miles, and Bantigui Island 155° (153° mag.), dis- 
tant 5% miles. 

Bantigui Islet, lying 2 miles from the east coast of Camiguin, is 
small, low, wooded, and sandy. Coral reefs extend % mile from its 
north and east sides, while to the southward the bottom drops off 
rapidly to a depth of 55 fathoms. 

Bulias Shoal is a small 4^-fathom coral patch lying iy 2 mdes 
northward from Bantigui Isiet. 

Mambajao (chart 4639), the principal town on the island, is situ- 
ated on the north coast. A wide reef fringes the shore in front of 
the town. A stone jetty about 200 yards long, accessible only to small 
boats, extends northward to a break is the reef. A fixed red light, 
visible 7 miles from all points of approach by water, is exhibited 32 
feet above high water from a white pole near the end of the pier. 
Vessels may anchor in 18 fathoms, sandy bottom, with the end of 
the pier bearing 204° (202° mag.) distant about % mile. Small 
vessels may anchor closer in, with the pier on the same bearing, in 11 
fathoms, with Medano Islet just open of a small single tree on the 
extremity of the point westward from Mambajao. 

Mahinog is a small town situated on the east coast of the island 
about 7y 2 miles southeastward from Mambajao; it contains a large 
white stone church, which may be seen from a distance of 10 miles. 
Anchorage may be found off Mahinog in 15 fathoms, sandy bottom. 
A break in the shore reef about iy 2 miles southward of Mahinog is 
used as a landing by vessels of the Agusan Coconut Co. 

Sagay is a small town situated about 3 miles northwestward from 
Farol Point, the southern extremity of the island. Anchorage, pro- 
tected only during the northeast monsoon, may be found in 12 
fathoms, sand bottom, with the north gable of the church bearing 
2° (0° mag.). 

From Bagacay Point the coast trends southward with a curve east- 
ward for 12 miles to Banbayan Point at the northern entrance to 
Balingasag Bay. This section of the coast is fringed by a narrow 
steep-to coral reef, and there are no detached dangers with the ex- 
ception of a small coral reef covered by a least depth of 2y 2 fathoms 
lying y± mile from shore about 7 miles southward from Bagacay 
Point. From this reef the church in the village of Salay bears 140° 
(138°' mag.) distant about y 2 mile; there is a narrow deep channel 
between this reef and the shore. 

Constancia Reef, about % mile in extent and covered by a least 
depth of % fathom, lies about % mile westward from Banbayan 



132 MINDANAO. 

Point ; there is a deep channel about 350 yards wide between it and 
the reef fringing Banbayan Point. From the center of Constancia 
Eeef the church at Balingasag, which is very prominent, bears 152° 
(150° mag.) and the tangent to Gorda Point bears 190° (188° mag.) ; 
there are no nearer landmarks. 

Balingasag Bay, between Banbayan and Gorda Points, is 4y 2 miles 
wide at the entrance and extends iy 2 miles eastward. The town 
of Balingasag, the largest and most prominent in this vicinity, lies 
on the eastern shore of the bay. The usual anchorage is in front of 
the town, 400 yards from shore, in 9 fathoms, sand bottom. Better- 
protected anchorage in the southwest monsoon will be found near 
the head of the bay in 12 fathoms, mud bottom, with Balingasag 
Church bearing 5° (3° mag.) and the right tangent to Gorda Point 
265° (263° mag.). 

Gorda Point is clean and steep-to ; it is steep and wooded, has a flat 
crown, and forms a very prominent landmark from any part of 
Macajalar Bay. 

Macajalar Bay is 16 miles wide at the entrance between Gorda and 
Sulauan Points and extends about 12 miles southeastward. The 
eastern shore is the higher and is formed of sand beaches separated 
by low, rocky points. The head of the bay is fringed by narrow 
coral reefs, and about 1 mile inland grass-covered hills rise to heights 
of over 1,500 feet. The western shore of the bay is low and fringed 
by steep-to coral reefs. A coral reef, partly bare at low water, 
extends % mile northward from Malugan Point, and between this 
point and Sulauan Point there are five small detached reefs, none of 
which are y 2 mile from shore. The middle of the bay is deep and 
clear and contains no detached dangers with the exception of Alutaya 
Eeef. 

Alutaya Reef, situated 3y 2 miles 240° (238° mag.) from Gorda 
Point, is of oval form, having a greatest diameter of % mile. At low 
water the center uncovers, leaving bare a bank of sand and rocks. 
The channel between it and the shore is about 9,y 2 miles wide, and 
there is a depth of over 100 fathoms in it. 

Cabulig Bay, about 4 miles southward from Gorda Point, offers 
anchorage sheltered during the northeast monsoon, but necessarily 
very close in because of the great depth of water. The village of 
Jasaan, at the head of the bay, contains a very conspicuous church. 

Tagoloan is a small town situated iy 2 miles from the mouth of the 
river of the same name, which discharges 5y 2 miles south of Cabulig 
Bay. There is very little water on the bar at the mouth of the river, 
and the water outside of the bar is too deep to afford anchorage. 

Cagayan River (chart 4639), which discharges into the head of 
Macajalar Bay, has \y 2 fathoms of water on its bar at low water, 
but the depth and direction of the channel across it are constantly 
changing with the freshets of the rainy season ; shoal water extends 
about % mile from the river mouth. At the time the survey was 
made the course across the bar was about 168° (166° mag.) and was 
marked by stakes. Launches drawing about 7 feet.can enter the river 
at high water and proceed to the town of Cagayan, a distance of 
about 2 miles, above which it is not navigable, being filled with 
rocks. 

Macabalan Point, about % mile southeastward from the river 
mouth, is low and sandy and marked by a few native houses and coco- 



MAC A J ALAR BAY. 133 

nut trees. It is steep-to on its eastern side, but on the northern side 
shoal water extends to a distance of nearly y z mile. The cable from 
Iligan lands on Macabalan Point. 

A fixed red light is exhibited 58 feet above high water from a white 
steel-framed structure on the north side of Macabalan Point. A red 
second-class nun buoy in 3 fathoms, about 600 yards northward from 
the lighthouse, marks the eastern edge of shoal water northward 
from Macabalan Point. 

Whakf. — About 600 yards southward from Cagayan Light there is 
a small wharf, a few warehouses, and some native houses. This is 
the landing place for the town of Cagayan, capital of Misamis Prov- 
ince, situated on the Cagayan Eiver about 1% miles southwestward, 
with which it is connected by a good road. Vessels not intending to 
go to the wharf can find anchorage in 18 to 30 fathoms with the 
wharf bearing 328° (326° mag.). 

Sulauan Point, the western entrance point to Macajalar Bay, is low 
and wooded. Its shore line consists of low coral cliffs alternating 
with sandy stretches. It is fringed by a coral reef to a distance of 
less than y 2 mile, part of which bares at low water. 

From Sulauan Point the coast trends southwestward for 11 miles 
to Initao Point, thence south-southwestward for about 20 miles to 
the town of Iligan, at the head of Iligan Bay. This section of the 
coast is fringed by a narrow steep-to coral reef with very deep water 
at its edge. 

ILIGAN BAY, 

between Initao Point eastward and Polo Point westward, is a great 
arm of the sea, about 33 miles wide and 23 miles deep. Its eastern 
and southern shores are in general safe and steep-to. The western 
side is fringed by reefs which at some points extend to a distance of 
iy 2 miles. 

Maputi Point, about 4 miles southward from Initao Point, is broad 
and rugged. Immediately northward from it the coast recedes, 
forming Initao Bay, where there is anchorage for small vessels 
in 3 fathoms in front of the village of Initao. 

ftuinalang Cove (chart 4639) is a small indentation in the coast 3 
miles northward from the town of Iligan, where anchorage, sheltered 
from the northeast monsoon, may be found in 20 to 25 fathoms about 
y 8 mile from the edge of the shore reef. Good water may be obtained 
from the Mandulog River, which discharges eastward from Quina- 
lang Point, the south point of the cove. 

The town of Iligan is situated in the southeast angle of the ba,y on 
the bank of the river of the same name. There is a stone mole imme- 
diately northward from the mouth of the river, on both sides of 
which are reefs which bare at low water. The river is small and un- 
important, having only about 3 feet on its bar at low water. The 
cable from Cagayan lands on the north side of the mole. The an- 
chorage of Iligan is very bad because of the great depth of water 
close to the reefs. 

Camp Overton is a military post situated about 2 miles southwest- 
ward from Iligan. There is a wooden wharf over 1,000 feet long, 
with 28 feet of water at its end, built out from a break in the reef. 
In going alongside this wharf it is recommended that great caution 



134 MINDANAO. 

be observed, as rocks are reported to exist a short distance from either 
side of it. The cable from Misamis lands about % mile eastward 
from the wharf. 

Directions. — Vessels bound for Camp Overton should bring the 
end of the wharf to bear 154° (152° mag.) and steer for it, anchoring 
in 28 or 30 fathoms of water with sufficient swinging room to clear 
the buoys and wharf. 

Anchorage, protected during the southwest monsoon, may be found 
at Camp Overton, but necessarily very close in because of the great 
depth of water. Both Overton and Iligan Anchorages are bad and 
at times during the northeast monsoon are untenable ; at such times 
vessels seek shelter in Quinalang Cove. 

From Camp Overton the coast trends westerly with a slight curve 
southward for about 11 miles to Binuni Point and is intersected by 
an unusual number of small rivers. The Agus River, which dis- 
charges about 1% miles westward from Overton, is the outlet of 
Lake Lanao. It is a rapid-flowing river, descending about 2,200 feet 
in a distance of about 21 miles, has a depth of 4 feet on the bar at 
low water, and is somewhat deeper for a short distance up. From 
Overton to the Agus River the coral reef which fringes the shore 
extends to a distance of about y± mile; thence to the mouth of the 
Ridapon River, about 4 miles westward, there is very little reef. 
Near the Ridapon River the fringing coral begins again and con- 
tinues to Binuni Point with a general width of nearly y 2 mile. 
Along this stretch of coast heavily wooded hills rise a short distance 
inland. 

Binuni Point is low and wooded and surrounded by a fringing 
coral reef to a distance of about % mile. From here the coast trends 
southward and westward toward Port Misamis. 

Port Misamis (chart 4640), including Panguil Bay, is a long, nar- 
row inlet extending in a southwest direction for about 22 miles. It 
is 9 miles wide at the entrance between Binuni and Loculan Points 
and narrows until, about 12 miles from the entrance, it is less than 1 
mile wide ; from this point it spreads out, forming a large shoal basin 
known as Panguil Bay. The shores of the port are low and covered 
with mangroves, but northward from Misamis town there is an ex- 
tended sandy shore, and immediately southward, on the opposite 
coast, there are high hills. A number of reefs and shoals render the 
approach to Port Misamis somewhat dangerous and the entrance 
should be cautiously approached. 

Narvaez Shoal, the outer danger on the south ' side of the eastern 
approach to Port Misamis, is a small patch of coral, covered by a 
least depth of 1% fathoms lying iy z miles from the southeast shore 
of the port. From its northern edge the southern tangent to the fort 
at Misamis bears 244° (242° mag.) distant nearly 5 miles. 

Kulasihan Shoals, with iy 2 fathoms least water over them, lie 
southward from Narvaez Shoal and about % mile from shore. 

Panguilinan Shoals are two small patches covered by 1% fathoms 
least water, lying about 1% miles southwestward from Narvaez 
Shoal. From the northern patch the south tangent to Misamis fort 
bears 252° (250° mag.) distant 3% miles. 

Pasil Shoal is a long, narrow shoal extending nearly 3 miles in a 
northeast direction from Palalagoya Point, on the south side of the 
port. It has depths varying from 14 to 3 fathoms over it, and from 



ILIGAN BAT. 135 

the northern edge of the 3-fathom curve the south tangent to the 
fort at Misamis bears 262° (260° mag.), distant 2 miles. The north- 
ern extremity of Pasil Shoal is marked by a black second-class can 
buoy moored in 5 fathoms of water. 

Kolambugan Bay lies eastward of Pasil Shoals and affords good 
anchorage in 4 to 5 fathoms of water. The Kolambugan Lumber Co. 
has a wharf at Migcaniguing Point. Lighted range beacons have 
been erected on the point. The beacons in range bearing 194° (192° 
mag.) lead between the shoals at the entrance to Port Misamis to 
the anchorage off the wharf. 

Loculan Shoals, lying y 2 to V/^ miles from shore, about midway 
between Opol and Loculan Points, are shoals of sand and rock, parts 
of which bare at low water. Near the southwestern part of the shoals 
a small sand cay bares at extreme low water. Trunks of large trees, 
stranded by the currents, may often be seen upon the shoals. From 
their southeastern edge the fort at Misamis bears 225° (223° mag.), 
distant 3% miles. There are three shoal spots covered by from y 2 to 
2 fathoms lying southward and eastward from Loculan Shoals, be- 
tween which and the main shoals there is a narrow, deep channel. 
These patches are marked by a red second-class nun buoy moored in 
2y 2 fathoms of water, coral bottom. 

Shoal water extends nearly 1 mile eastward and northeastward 
from the fort, and ^4 mile beyond this there is a shoal spot with from 
2y 2 to 3 fathoms of water on it. The southeastern edge of the above- 
described shoal spot is marked by a red second-class nun buoy moored 
in 4 fathoms of water, hard sand bottom. Loculan Point, ]ust clos- 
ing in by the land northward from Opol Point, clears the eastern edge 
of the above-described 2% fathom patch, and the east end of Solaton 
Island, in the narrows between Port Misamis and Panguil Bay, bear- 
ing 227° (225° mag.), clears the above shoal and the shoal ground 
eastward from the fort. 

The town of Misamis lies on the northern shore of the port, 1% 
miles southwestward from Opol Point. The fort is situated about 
y± mile southeastward from the town, on Misamis Point, and is very 
prominent. Good anchorage may be found southward and westward 
from the fort according to draft. A good berth for a large vessel is 
in 4y 2 fathoms, with the fort bearing 36° (34° mag.) , distant ^ mile ; 
small vessels may anchor farther northward, about 200 yards south- 
ward from the wharf. The cable from Iligan lands near the east 
corner of the fort. 

Directions. — There are two channels that lead into Port Misamis, 
of which the eastern channel is the wider and better and is the one 
generally used. Vessels from the eastward should bring the fort to 
bear 240° (238° mag.) when at least 5 miles distant and steer for it; 
this course should give the red buoy off the Loculan Shoals and the 
black buoy off the northern extremity of Pasil Shoal each a berth of 
about % mile. It has been reported that with certain lights it is 
difficult to pick up the fort at this distance ; if this should be the case 
it would be advisable to keep at least 2 miles off the southern shore 
until the fort or the red buoy off Loculan Shoal is made out. When 
Pasil Shoal buoy is abeam and Loculan Point bears 347° (345° 
mag.) the course should be altered to 211° (209° mag.) ; when the 
fort bears 254° (252° mag.) and Loculan Point bears 356° (354° 



136 MINDANAO. 

mag.) the course should be altered to 230° (228° mag.), giving the 
red buoy marking the shoal water eastward from the fort a berth 
of about 250 yards, and when the fort is abeam the vessel may be 
hauled in for the anchorage. 

Vessels entering by the northern channel should pass about % mile 
eastward from Loculan, Point and steer 183° (181° mag.), keeping 
a good lookout for the shoals on either side. This course should take 
a vessel about 250 yards from Loculan Shoals; there is usually a 
stake marking the western limit of the shoals, but its presence must 
not be relied on. "When the fort bears 254° (252° mag.) the course 
should be changed to 230° (228° mag), giving red buoy No. 4 a berth 
of about 250 yards and the previous directions followed. 

Loculan Point, situated about 4 miles north-northeastward from 
Misamis, is low and sandy. The village of Loculan lies immediately 
back of the point on the river of the same name ; it is small and nearly 
concealed by trees. Anchorage may be found eastward from the 
point in 6 fathoms, fine sandy bottom. 

Near the shore on the west side of Iligan Bay the land is low, flat, 
and swampy and interspersed with low-lying alluvial and sandy 
areas. At a distance of from 1 to 2 miles back from the shore line 
the foothills begin to rise gradually to the mountain range running 
parallel to the shore. The foothills for a distance of from 6 to 10 
miles from the shore are cultivated, about one-half the area being 
cleared; on the uncleared portion there are many large trees. The 
mountains are much broken and heavily wooded. The valleys are 
precipitous and the peaks seemingly very steep. The shore is gen- 
erally fringed with coral, which in some places extends to a distance 
of 1% miles. 

Balicaocao Point, situated 1% miles northward from Loculan 
Point, is a rounded sandy point fringed with coconut trees. There 
are several detached reefs off this point and it should be given a berth 
of at least 1 mile. 

From Balicaocao Point the coast trends northward with a curve 
westward for 6 miles to Tabu Point, forming a large bay with a low- 
lying shore line of sand and mangroves fringed in most places by 
coral. The villages of Tudela, Nacavan, and Sinonoc lie on the shores 
of this bay. 

A chain of reefs, parts of which bare at low water, begins about 
y 2 mile northeastward from Balicaocao Point and extends northward 
to within 1 mile of Tabu Point. The outer edges of these reefs, 
which are steep-to, lie over iy 2 miles from shore. Between these 
reefs and the land there is an expanse of water where anchorage, 
well sheltered from the sea during the northeast monsoon, may be 
found in depths of from 3 to 20 fathoms, mud and sand bottom. 

Access to this anchorage may be had through channels between the 
reef lying eastward of it or from the northward, care being taken to 
avoid a 1%-fathom patch lying in the middle of the northern en- 
trance, 1 mile 188° (186° mag.) from Tabu Point. 

Tabu Point, situated about 7% miles northward from Loculan 
Point, is a low, sharp, sandy point bordered by coconut trees. It 
is very steep-to, a depth of 4 fathoms being found within 50 yards 
of it. 

Jimenez (chart 4639) lies 1% miles northwestward from Tabu 
Point and about 1 mile back from the shore. It may be recognized 



ILIGAN BAY. 137 

by a prominent white stone church having a square tower and hemi- 
spherical dome. The church stands at the head of the main street 
of the town and shows through the trees when well offshore. The 
landing place is at the termination of the main street leading to the 
town, northward of a black iron warehouse. The Palilan River, 
with very little water on its bar at low water, discharges about % 
mile northward of the landing place. The shore in this vicinity is 
faced by a number of reefs, parts of which are awash at low water 
and are usually well denned and easy to pick up. Between these 
reefs and the shore there is good but contracted anchorage. Between 
the reefs there are a number of channels leading to the anchorage, but 
the southern one is the one generally used. There are no aids to 
navigation, and a stranger entering for the first time should exercise 
great caution and keep a good lookout for the reefs on either side. 

Direction. — To approach the anchorage off Jimenez by the south- 
ern channel, when about 1 mile of Tabu Point, bring the church to 
bear 304° (302° mag.) and steer for it; when Tabu Point bears 340° 
(338° mag.) haul northward and pass 100 to 150 yards eastward from 
the point ; having passed Tabu Point haul a little westerly and anchor 
off the prolongation of the main street from town in 4 to 6 fathoms, 
300 or 400 yards from shore. 

This anchorage may also be approached from the northeastward, 
but this channel is seldom used. In case it is desired to enter by this 
channel bring the church to bear 236° (234° mag.) and steer for it; 
when Tabu Point bears 161° (159° mag.) it should be steered for and 
anchorage taken up as previously directed. 

From Tabu Point the coast trends in a general 348° (346° mag.) 
direction for 6% miles to Balaring Point. The first 2% miles of 
this section are faced by detached reefs to a distance of about 1 mile ; 
thence to Balaring Point the reefs which fringe the shore do not 
extend to a distnace of over y z mile and there are no off-lying 
dangers. 

Mapaan Point, about 3% miles northward from Tabu Point, is a 
low, sandy point covered with coconut trees and fringed by reefs to 
a distance of about y 2 mile. 

Aloran lies about 4 miles northward from Jimenez and 1 mile back 
from the shore and is not visible from seaward. The landing place 
is marked by an iron-roofed warehouse and several nipa shacks. 

Anchorage for communicating with Aloran may be found in about 
16 fathoms off the edge of the shore reef with the warehouse bearing 
249° (247° mag.) distant about % mile. 

Balaring Point is a round sandy point bordered with mangroves 
and nipa, with a strip of coconut trees about 100 yards from the 
shore, and is fringed by reefs to a distance of about y± mile. 

From Balaring Point the coast trends northwestward for 3 miles 
to Simio Point. San Vicente lies about l 1 /^ miles southwestward 
from Simio Point and % mile inland ; it is not visible from seaward, 
being entirely concealed by trees. Anchorage for San Vicente may 
be found in 4 fathoms about % mile southward from some houses on 
the beach just northward of the mouth of the San Vicente River. 

Simio Point is a low, sandy point covered with coconut trees and 
fringed by reefs to a distance of nearly % mile. , 

Oroquieta, the largest and most important town oh the shore of 
Iligan Bay, lies about 1 mile northwestward from Simio Point, on 



138 MINDANAO. 

the left bank and at the mouth of the Oroquieta River. It is easily 
recognized by a large warehouse, visible from a long distance north- 
ward, and also by the church which stands close to the beach and is 
unusually ornamental. The Oroquieta River has about 1% feet of 
water on its bar at low water. Oroquieta, as well as Jimenez, main- 
tains regular steam communication with Cebu. 

Anchorage, protected from southerly and westerly winds, with 

food holding ground, may be found about !/4 mile from shore in 12 
athoms, muddy bottom, with the church bearing 227° (225° mag.). 
This anchorage should be approached cautiously as the bank is very 
steep. At times during the northeast monsoon this anchorage be- 
comes untenable and small steamers find anchorage in Loboc Cove, 
about 1 mile northwestward from Oroquieta. This anchorage is 
very contracted and vessels are obliged to moor fore and aft, but it 
affords shelter in all but the heaviest weather. 

Paypayan Bay, between Napolo and Layaban Points, 2 and 2% 
miles northwestward from Oroquieta, is fringed by a wide reef, 
leaving anchorage space at the entrance, southwestward from Laya- 
ban Point, nearly y± mile in extent with a depth of dy 2 fathoms in 
the middle. 

Layaban Point is a low, sandy point bordered with coconut trees, 
which grow so closely together that the point has the appearance of 
a high bluff when seen from a distance. The reef which fringes 
Paypayan Bay surrounds Layaban Point, continues northward to 
Silanga Island, and has a general width of about y 2 mile. 

Silanga Island is a small island covered with trees about 60 feet 
high, lying on the reef close to the shore about 2% miles northward 
from Layaban Point. The reef which surrounds Silanga Island ex- 
tends to a distance of about % mile eastward from the island. 

From Silanga Island the coast trends northwestward, then north- 
ward, and then eastward to Polo Point, which bears 21° (19° mag.) 
distant nearly 3 mile from Silanga Island, forming Polo Bay. This 
large bay is almost filled by reefs, in which there are two breaks, 
where sheltered anchorage may be found. There are no aids to navi- 
gation and in the absence of local knowledge a stranger should not 
attempt to enter them except at low water, when the edges of the 
reefs can be made out. The better anchorage of the two among the 
reefs of Polo Bay is about 1 mile southward from the lighthouse on 
Polo Point. 

Capayas Islet is a very small islet composed of coral rock, lying 
11/4 miles 156° (154° mag.) from Polo Point Lighthouse. It is about 
100 yards long, east and west, and 50 yards wide and has bushes 
about 5 feet high on it. In 1906 it had two native houses on it and 
the greater part of the islet was cultivated with tobacco. 

Polo Point, the northeastern extremity of the land in this vicinity, 
is low and the land is flat for some distance back of it, being a man- 
grove swamp with a high-water passage to Inamucan Bay through 
it for small boats. Polo Point is fringed by a very narrow steep-to 
reef, and depths of over 50 fathoms are found at less than y 2 mile 
from it. A fixed red light is exhibited 60 feet above high water from 
a white steel-framed structure on Polo Point. A small concrete 
dwelling stands at the base and to the east of the tower. 



INAMTJCAN BAY. 139 

Higan Reef is a dangerous reef about 600 yards in diameter, com- 
posed of coral and white sand and covered by a least depth of \y 2 
fathoms lying 7% miles 64° (62° mag.) from Polo Point Lighthouse. 

Inamucan Bay (chart 4639), situated \y 2 miles westward from 
Polo Point, is the harbor for Plaridel, standing on the coast about 
1 mile northwest from it. It is small and affords good protection in 
southwest weather and fair shelter in northeast weather because of 
the reefs extending from both entrance points ; these reefs reduce the 
navigable channel to a width of 300 yards, and in entering a good 
lookout must be kept for them. The anchorage space" is very limited, 
being less than ^4 m ile in diameter. 

Directions. — To enter, a vessel should steer in on a 182° (180° 
mag.) course to give Baubaon Point, the eastern entrance point, a 
berth of about 300 yards ; when the buildings on the western shore 
bear 260° (258° mag.), steer 250° "(248° mag.) and anchor about 300 
yards eastward from the end of the road leading to Plaridel, in 
10 fathoms, soft muddy bottom. 

Plaridel is a small town about 3 miles westward from Polo Point ; 
it is well marked by prominent buildings. During the southwest 
monsoon anchorage may be found in 10 fathoms about y 2 mile from 
shore with the bell tower of the church bearing 182° (180° mag.). 
In approaching this anchorage care must be taken to avoid the 
Langaran and TJsucan Shoals, both of which lie about % mile from 
shore ; the former lies about \y 2 miles northwestward from the town 
and is covered by a least depth of \y 2 fathoms ; the latter lies about 
% mile north-northeastward from the town and is covered by a least 
depth of 2 fathoms. 

From Plaridel the coast trends west-northwestward for 8 miles 
to Bulato Point at the eastern entrance to Murcielagos Bay. Near 
the middle of this section of the coast there is a large bight about 
2y 2 miles long and 1 mile deep, which is nearly blocked with reef, 
leaving a small boat passage which is used occasionally as a landing 
place for Baliangao, 2 miles distant, with which it is connected by a 
good road. Between this bight and Murcielagos Bay the shore is 
fringed by a very narrow steep-to coral reef. 

Murcielagos Bay (chart 4641), between Bulato Point and Silla 
Point, about 6 miles westward, the coast recedes southward for about 
3 miles, forming a large bay nearly blocked by reefs and islets, among 
which there are narrow channels, where a small vessel could find 
sheltered anchorage. Baliangao, on the bay of the same name in the 
eastern part of Murcielagos Bay, is the principal port in this vicinity. 
There are no aids to navigation and in the absence of prominent 
marks it is impossible to give directions for Baliangao, the approach 
to which is very complicated. 

Silla Point is surrounded by a reef less than % mile wide. The 
point may be recognized by Mount Silla, which rises to a height of 
960 feet immediately behind it. Mount Silla is almost bare rock, 
very sharp and shaped like a thumb. It, with the adjacent hills, 
when viewed from the northeastward, takes the shape of a saddle. 

From Silla Point the c*oast trends southwestward for about 2 
miles and thence west-northwestward for 6 miles to Tagolo Point 
and is composed of low, even, mushroomed coral cliffs. The head 
of the bight westward from Silla Point is fringed by a wide coral 

33452°— 21 10 



140 MINDANAO. 

reef, leaving a passage to the village of Cavite, which is situated on 
the western shore. 

Tagolo Point, the northern entrance point to Dapitan Bay, is the 
most northern point of land in this vicinity. It is about 100 feet 
high and is surrounded by a narrow steep-to reef. About 1 mile 
southeastward from the point the land rises to a height of 920 
feet and is heavily wooded. The tidal currents are very strong off 
Tagolo Point; the flood sets eastward and the ebb westward. An 
occulting white light is exhibited 109 feet above high water from 
the top of a white concrete house on Tagolo Point. 

Silino Island, lying 8 miles 16° (14° mag.) from Tagolo Point, is 
about y 2 mile in extent, low, flat, and wooded, with sandy shore. It 
is fringed with a narrow steep-to reef, which on the west side extends 
a distance of about % mile. ; 

Aligbay Island, lying 9 miles 277y 2 ° (275y 2 ° mag.) from Tagolo 
Point, is about y 2 mile in extent, low, and wooded, and from its north- . 
west side a steep-to coral reef extends to a distance of about ^ mile. 

Challenger Reef, lying 2 miles 160° (158° mag.) from Aligbay 
Island, is composed of coral and is covered by a least depth of 3y 2 
fathoms ; it is about % mile in diameter within the 10-f athom curve. 

Don Reef, composed of coral and covered by a least depth of 2 
fathoms, lies on the bearing Tagolo Point 50° (48° mag.) and Boto- 
gan Point 103° (101° mag.). Within the 10-f athom curve it is about 
% mile long northwest and southeast and about one-half that in 
width ; the shoal part is very small compared with the rest of the reef. 

DAPITAN BAY 

(chart 4639). From Tagolo Point the coast trends southward for 
about iy 2 miles to Tubud Point, thence southeastward and north- 
westward to Botogan Point, situated 3% miles southward from 
Tubud Point, forming Dapitan Bay. The depth at the entrance is 28 
fathoms, decreasing gradually to the beach at the head of the bay. 
Good anchorage may be found in any part of it, sheltered from all 
except northwesterly winds. Tubud Point is formed by a promi- 
nent isolated hill; it is fringed by reefs about y 4 mile wide, which 
extend northward to Tagolo Point. Liuay Rock is a flat rock about 
50 yards in diameter, partly awash at high water, lying about 600 
yards westward from Tubud Point. A small coral reef with a least 
depth of 4 feet lies 400 yards 208° (206° mag.) from the small islet 
off Estacion Point. Depths of over 3 fathoms are found between the 
reef and the point. The Dapitan River, discharging into the head 
of the bay, has very little water on its bar at low water; at high 
water and with a smooth sea small lighters can cross. 

The town of Dapitan is situated about % mile from the beach, 
southward from the mouth of the river. It contains a very conspic- 
uous church, with two pyramidal spires and an iron roof. 

The usual anchorage is about % to y 2 mile from shore in 3y2 
fathoms, muddy bottom, with the church, which is very prominent, 
bearing 92° (90° mag.). Good anchorage may also be found in 7 
fathoms about % mile southward fromxhe small islet off Estacion 
Point, with the river mouth bearing 92° (90° mag.). 

Tides. — The high-water interval is 10 h 25 m . Springs rise about 4 
feet. 



DAPITAN BAY. 141 

Port Talaguilong is a snug little port in the northern part of Dapi- 
tan Bay. The entrance, situated 1% miles southeastward from 
Tubud Point, is about 300 yards wide, with a depth of 4y 2 fathoms in 
the middle. Immediately inside the entrance there is an anchorage 
space about % mile in extent, in which the least depth is 4% fathoms ; 
northeastward from the small island in the western part of the port 
there is another good anchorage basin about 300 yards in extent. 

From Botogan Point, at the western entrance to Dapitan Bay, the 
coast trends west-southwestward 1% miles to Sicayac Point, and then 
southward 8 miles and westward 14 miles to Blanca Point, forming a 
large bay. Botogan Point is fringed by a narrow reef; Sicayac 
Point is fringed by rocks, always visible, which extend about 350 
yards westward, beyond which shoal water extends to a distance of 
about 250 yards. The great bay between Sicayac and Blanca Points 
is deep and free from danger. 

Dipolog, the largest town in this vicinity, is situated on the south 
side of the mouth of the river of the same name, slightly back from the 
beach, about 2y 2 miles southward from Sicayac Point. The water in 
front of the town shoals gradually, the 5-f athom curve being found 
at a distance of % mile from shore. Anchorage may be found any- 
where westward from the town according to draft. The Dipolog 
River has very little water on its bar, but may be entered by a pulling 
boat at high water. There is a good road leading from Dipolog to. 
Dapitan. 

Sicayac, on the point of the same name, and Lubungan, Langatian, 
and Dohinog, westward from Dipolog, are small and unimportant. 
Off Lubungan and Langatian it is necessary to anchor very close in 
because of the great depth of water. 

Blanca Point, one of the remarkable features of the coast is a per- 
pendicular cliff of white clay about 50 feet high. It forms a long 
horizontal table-land covered with grass, but with no trees on it. 
During the rainy season a stream of good water falls from this head- 
land. The vicinity of the point is shoal ; at a distance of about 400 
yards there is a depth of only 2 fathoms. Between Blanca Point 
and Dohinog, about 8 miles eastward, shoal water extends to a con- 
siderable distance, the 5-fathom curve being generally found about 
y 2 mile from shore. The land in the interior in this vicinity is 
mountainous and there are many small peaks and ridges which are 
heavily wooded. 

Dauit Point, about 4 miles southwest from Blanca Point, is clear 
and steep-to and can be recognized by a small hill in the form of an 
obelisk. 

Tabonan Point, about 5 miles southward of Dauit Point, is high, 
rocky, and very steep, with a flat top. There is an anchorage in the 
bay between this point and Dauit Point. 

Dauigan Point rises abruptly from the water's edge for about 150 
feet to the tops of the trees that cover the point. The point itself 
below the tree line appears as a yellow bank or slide. Conical hills, 
varying in heights from .600 to 850 feet, lie 2 to 3 miles inland, and 
detached rocks and breakers extend 400 yards northwest of the point, 
on which the sea breaks heavily during the northeast monsoon. 
Southward of Dauigan Point into Sindangan Bay a coral reef 200 to 
300 yards wide fringes the shore, with mangrove bushes growing 
well outside the high-water line. The east and southeast shore ot 



142 MINDANAO. 

Sindangan Bay is composed of a low sand beach, while a cobblestone 
beach, with unimportant rocky points, makes up the shore of the bay 
from the Pian Eiver westward to Pilandog Point. 

Pilandog Point is a high cobblestone beach projecting about y 2 
mile -from the general trend of the coast. The point is heavily 
wooded and, with its background of cogon, appears dark and more 
prominent from seaward than it really is. High cobblestone beaches, 
clay banks 15 to 30 feet high, and small rocky ledges make up the 
shore from Pilandog Point to Talisay Point. This coast is heavily 
wooded to the high-water line. Talisay Point, though faced by a 
vertical cliff, is not prominent from seaward. Bare rocks and break- 
ers extend about 300 yards north of it. Westward of Talisay Point 
is an easy sand beach, with sparsely-wooded country back of it. 

Sindangan Point consists of undercut cliffs and rocks, 20 to 50 feet 
high, with deep water close to shore on its east side. Shoal water 
extends about 300 yards from its north and west sides. The point 
itself is flat on top and heavily wooded, and when seen from north- 
ward appears to slope gradually to a 2,150-foot peak ; from the south 
and west this slope appears broken by a series of hills which rise step 
by step to the high land inland. 

Sindangan Bay, between Dauigan Point and Siridangan Point, 
affords indifferent anchorage. The best protection may be had in 
the eastern part of the bay near the town of Sindangan. Bring the 
tribunal to bear 78° (76° mag.) and anchor y 2 to 1 mile from shore 
in 3y 2 to 8 fathoms of water, mud bottom. The southeast corner of 
the bay is very deep, a depth of 100 fathoms being found less than 
y 2 mile "offshore. Dauigan Point, Pilandog Point, and Sindangan 
Point serve as landmarks for navigating in the vicinity of Sindangan 
Bay. 

Quipit Point is low, flat,, and sandy, with shoal water off it. The 
bay to the eastward, into which the river Quipit flows, is shoal, with 
soundings of 6 fathoms at 1 mile from the coast. The surrounding 
land is low. 

Murcielagos Islets, lying about 3 miles northward of Quipit Point, 
are two islets on an oval reef about 1 mile long east and west. The 
soundings around its edge are 4y 2 to 9 fathoms. The islets are 
low and the eastern and larger one is about 600 yards in length east 
and west. Anchorage may be had southeast of this islet in 7 fathoms, 
sand bottom. The channel between the islands and Quipit Point 
is clear and safe, with a depth of 18 fathoms in the middle of it. 

Westward of Quipit the coast is low and bordered by sand beaches 
separated by rocky headlands and cut into by several small rivers. 
Anchorage may be had at 1 mile from the shore in- 7 fathoms, fine 
sand bottom. 

Gorda and Coronado Points are both high and steep, but Gorda 
Point, which lies 4 miles northeast of Coronada Point, is much the 
higher, and is liable to be mistaken by vessels coming from the 
southward for the western extremity of the land. 

WEST COAST OF MINDANAO. 

From Coronado Point the coast is clean and steep-to as far as 
Balangonan, which lies 15 miles 210° (208° mag.) from Coronado 
Point. Coronado Bay, south of the point of the same name, is sheltered 
from all except west and southwest, winds and offers anchorage in 



WEST COAST. 143 

9 to 13 fathoms, sand bottom. In the angle northward, where a 
small river empties, the depth is 2% to 4 fathoms. 

Balangonan Point is composed of dark, ferruginous rock, low and 
very steep-to. Balangonan Bay, eastward of it, is more sheltered 
than Coronada Bay, but its shores are very steep, so that it is neces- 
sary to anchor very close to shore. At 1 mile northward of the north 
point of this bay there is a small islet, clean and steep. 

Port Santa Maria (chart 4644), a well-sheltered port, is situated 
immediately south of Balangonan Point. It is about 14 mile wide 
at the entrance and extends nearly 1 mile southeast and contains 
two basins fit for small vessels. In the middle of the port the 
depth is 15 fathoms and a 'little less near the shore. A narrow reef 
fringes the shore and extends 200 yards from the western shore at 
the entrance of the western basin. There is also a reef making out 
northward of the point which projects from the south shore and 
forms the division between the two basins. The shores are low 
and covered with forests. The anchorage area is small, that in 
the western basin being only about 300 yards in diameter and in the 
eastern basin about 700 yards. Water can be obtained from a small 
stream in the eastern end of the port. 

Dulungiiin Point, southwest of Port Santa Maria, is rocky and 
of no great height, and is steep-to. It resembles Balangonan Point, 
and, coming from the southward, may be taken for it. At 600 yards 
from the coast, between this point and Port Santa Maria, there are 
four detached rocks, clean-to. 

Sicogon Bay, between Dulunguin and Sicogon Points, is 9 miles 
wide, clean, deep, and bordered by a white sand beach, where two 
rivers discharge. There are some rocks lying near the shore in the 
middle of the bay. The depth % mile from the shore is 5 to 6 
fathoms, sand bottom. 

Sicogon Point is rocky, clean, and steep-to. 

Panabutan Bay (chart 4644) is situated between Panabutan Point, 
iy 2 miles southeastward from Sicogon Point, and Siraguay Point. 
It is over 1 mile wide at the entrance and extends about the same 
distance eastward. A recent report states that the island shown 
on the chart off Panabutan Point does not exist and that the point 
is clean at a distance of 100 yards, and also that the northern part 
of the bay is not correctly charted. The Panabutan and Siraguay 
Rivers are shallow ; water can be obtained here. 

Cauit Bay, situated 3 miles southward of Panabutan Bay, is semi- 
circular and about % mile in diameter. There are small, steep 
reefs on both sides of the entrance and the shore of the bay is sandy. 
Near the south shore there is an islet about 200. yards in extent, 
clean and steep on the eastern side and fringed by a reef on the 
others. In the bay there is good anchorage in 5 to 9 fathoms, sand 
bottom, under shelter of the islet. 

Cauit Point, southward of Cauit Bay, is high and steep; the sea 
slope is composed of red earth and the summit is rounded and cov- 
ered with trees. 

Between Cauit Point and Bototindoc Point, 9 miles southward, 
the coast is clean and steep and forms little bays between the in- 
termediate points, Pincan and Nanga, which points are high, rugged, 
and steep. There is a small islet northward of Nanga Point, close 
to the shore. 



144 MINDANAO. 

Bototindoc Point is high, clean, and steep, with a flat top. At 130 
yards from it there is a small pointed rock. Between this point and 
Nanga Point there is anchorage near the shore in 3 to 8 fathoms. 

Sibuco Bay (chart 4644), situated between Bototindoc Point and 
Buril Point, 6 miles southward, penetrates 3 miles eastward. It is 
free from danger, with steep shores, bordered by a long sand beach 
with a small river at each end, where boats can enter and obtain water 
even at low tide. The depth in the bay is not less than 27 fathoms, 
except very close to the beach, where 11 fathoms are found. The 
anchorage is a good one, but a sea sets in with westerly winds. The 
town is 2 miles inland. 

Southward of Sibuco Bay the coast is high, clean, and steep, and 
bordered by sand beaches interrupted by rocky cliffs as far as Bata- 
lampon Point, the western point of Mindanao. From here to Zam- 
boanga the coast curves gradually round southward and eastward 
and is low, covered with trees and bordered with steep sand beaches 
with a depth of 14 fathoms at 200 yards distance^ Coasters going 
from Zamboanga when the wind and tide are against them land their 
crews and track their vessels to Caldera Point. 

Batalampon Point is of even height and steep, with a flat crown. 
Alimpaya Point, about 1 mile northward from it, is flat and sandy; 
San Ramon and Caldera Points are sandy beaches ; all these points, as 
also the rounded coast they define, are clean and steep-to. 

The tidal streams, which at springs reach a velocity of 5 knots an 
hour, set toward Caldera Point with great force. 

SOUTH COAST OF MINDANAO. 

Caldera Bay and port lie to the eastward of the sandy point of that 
name at the southwest end of Mindanao. There is anchorage in the 
bay in a depth of 6 to 8 fathoms, sand bottom. The inner port of 
Caldera can only hold four or five vessels of 6 feet draft ; the entrance 
channel to it is but 70 yards wide and 2 fathoms deep. A supply of 
coal belonging to the Philippine Government is kept here; it is in 
charge of the collector of customs, Zamboanga. 

From Caldera Point the coast trends east-southeasterly for 7 miles 
to the town of Zamboanga. It consists of sand beaches with some 
rocky bluffs and is low, steep, and wooded. Vessels can anchor, if 
necessary, off the town of San Mateo, 4 miles eastward of Caldera 
Point, on a bank of sand in 15 to 8 fathoms of water, but elsewhere 
along this coast the bottom is foul and uneven. 

Basilan Strait, open from west to east,, separates the southwest end 
of Mindanao from Basilan Island ; it is 8y 2 miles wide and 24 miles 
long. The Santa Cruz Islands and Bank, situated on the Mindanao 
side, divide the strait into two channels, both equally navigable. The 
northern channel, although the narrower, is generally preferred by 
sailing vessels ; as it offers the advantage of an anchorage on the coast 
of Mindanao m case of a calm, thus avoiding being carried away by 
the current. 

••.., ZAMBOANGA. 

The principal town on Mindanao and the capital of the Province 
of Zamboanga, situated on the southwest extremity of the island 
facing Basilan Strait, is a small town of growing importance. It is 
a port of entry and maintains regular steam communication with the 



ZAMBOANGA. 145 

ports of Mindanao and other ports of the Philippines ; it is an occa- 
sional port of call for steamers from Hongkong, Australia, Celebes, 
Singapore, etc. There is a long wooden wharf with an L, at the end 
of which there is a depth of 18 feet at low water. Caution must be 
used by vessels approaching this wharf because of the strong and 
irregular currents around it. A fixed red light, visible 9 miles, is 
exhibited from an iron frame with a small cabin at its base at the 
outer end of the wharf. Water for boiler purposes can be obtained 
from a pipe on the wharf. A moderate supply of distilled water, 
coal, and stores are obtainable; Harbor improvements are in course 
of construction. 

There is a radio station at Zamboanga, call letters WVW. The 
skeleton- steel tower is a conspicuous object from the sea, standing 
about 2^ miles west-northwestward from the town. 

Dry Dock. — Just inside of the mouth of the Hondo River, which 
discharges about % mile eastward from the fort at Zamboanga, there 
is a dry dock belonging to the United States Army. This dock will 
accommodate small vessels of 130 feet length and 8 feet draft. The 
river mouth is shoal and the dock can only be approached by vessels 
of the above draft at high water. 

The anchorage off Zamboanga is not good; the narrow bank that 
forms it is very steep, and outside of depth of 12 fathoms the bottom 
is hard and uneven and many vessels have lost their anchors here. 
Vessels anchor anywhere in front of the town, not going inside of 
10 fathoms, as the -water, shoals rapidly. This anchorage is much 
exposed to gales from west and southwest. A heavy sea sets in with 
these gales and is increased when the flood stream sets against the 
wind. Vessels have been wrecked here by sudden and heavy south- 
west gales, their chains having parted or their anchors dragged. On 
the first appearance of a southwest gale, sailing vessels slip from 
Zamboanga and if possible run inside Tictauan Island, where there 
is anchorage in Masinloc Anchorage in 7 to 10 fathoms, mud bottom, 
good holding ground. The approach of these storms is generally 
foretold by the coast of Basilan being hidden by masses of flying 
clouds, and the Sangboy Islands, to the westward, being lost to view ; 
and if at the same time it should be cloudy, dark, and threatening to 
the northwest bad weather is certain, the wind generally beginning 
to blow from the northwest and backing until it settles from the 
southwest. The cause appears to be a typhoon passing northward. 
During the northeast monsoon the road is sheltered and the water 
smooth. 

Tides and Tidal Currents. — At Zamboanga there are generally 
two tides in the lunar day ; but at equinoctial quarterings, and when 
the moon has high declination, there is but one tide. The mean time 
of high water is 6 h 32 m after the moon's meridian passage, and the 
mean height of the higher high waters is 3.2 feet above the plane of 
reference. The same phenomenon is observed here as in the China 
Sea viz, the highest tides follow the moon's superior transit when 
she has southern declination and the inferior transit when she has 
northern declination. Directions for computing the times of high 
water are given on the chart and they may also be found in the tide 
-tables published annually by the Coast and Geodetic Survey. 



146 MINDANAO. 

In Basilan Strait the tidal streams follow the direction of the 
channel, and near the islands and shoals they follow the edge of the 
reefs'. The flood stream sets westward and the ebb eastward with a 
velocity of 2 to 3 knots at neaps and 5 to 6 knots at springs. The 
streams have been observed, however, to set in the reverse way in the 
months of November and December, and sometimes to set in the same 
direction for 24 hours, generally from west to east, although there 
have been two high tides and two low tides the same day. With 
these exceptional cases the turn of the stream at Zamboanga takes 
place with slight differences at the hours of high and low water. 

The turn of the tide takes place later in the strait than at Zam- 
boanga. The change begins first on the coast of Mindanao, then in 
the strait, and last on the coast of Basilan. 

Winds. — In the vicinity of Zamboanga the winds which prevail 
during the different months of the year are in January from east and 
northeast, with clear weather; in February, March, and April the 
same winds, with occasional breezes from the northwest of short 
duration. In May and June it blows from the southeast and is 
variable, but in June there are squalls, and at the end of the month 
fresh breezes from the southwest. In July, August, and September 
it blows from the southwest with more or less force and much rain 
and foul weather ; when a gale occurs it generally does not last more 
than three or four days. In November and December it blows from 
the north and northeast and then the monsoon becomes steady. 
Throughout the year, when the seasonal wind is 'not strong, the land 
breeze blows during the night, sometimes freshly. 

Santa Cruz Bank is a coral bank, the northern edge of which is 1% 
miles distant from the coast of Mindanao. It extends 8 miles in a 
direction parallel with the coast and has a general width of 2 miles. 
There is a channel with not less than 8 fathoms crossing the middle 
of the bank diagonally in a northwest and southeast direction. The 
shoalest water, 1 foot to 4 fathoms, is distributed in patches along 
the outline of the bank. There is a dangerous spot, covered by 1 foot 
of water, 2% miles westward from the middle of Great Santa Cruz 
Island on the continuation of a line drawn from halfway between 
the fort and the cemetery at Zamboanga and the eastern end of Little 
Santa Cruz Island. 

Little Santa Cruz Island is a small, low, flat, wooded island lying 
on the northern edge of the bank, about 2 miles southwestward from 
Zamboanga. It is % mile long east and west and % mile wide ; each 
end is prolonged by a reef which dries at extreme low water to a dis- 
tance of V 2 mile. Shoal water of 2 fathoms' depth extends from the 
western reef to a distance of V/2 miles from the land. 

An occulting white light, visible 13 miles over the entire horizon 
except where obscured by Great Santa Cruz Island, is exhibited 64 feet 
above high water from a white framed structure near the middle of 
Little Santa Cruz Island. 

Great Santa Cruz Island lies on the eastern end of the bank south- 
eastward from the smaller island from which it is separated by a 
channel 6 to 8 fathoms deep. This island is 1% miles long in a 
northwest and opposite direction and nearly 1 mile wide; low, flat, 
and wooded and fringed by a narrow reef with 6 and 8 fathoms at its 
edge. 



BASILAN STRAIT. 147 

President Shoal, with depths of from 2% to 4% fathoms, extends 
from % mile 218° (216° mag.) to 1 mile 142° (140° mag.) from the 
eastern end of Great Santa Cruz Island. 

Two shoal patches of 2 and 2% fathoms lie, respectively, 0° (358° 
mag.) and 40° (38° mag.) % mile from the eastern end of Great Santa 
Cruz Island. There is also a detached patch of 4% fathoms lying 
111° (109° mag.) distant iy 2 miles from the same point. 

Clearing marks. — The southwest tangent of Mindanao, bearing 
332° (330° mag.), clears the western part of Santa Cruz Bank, and 
the light on the wharf at Zamboanga, Dearing 90° (88° mag.), clears 
the northern part of the bank. The north tangent to Little Santa 
Cruz Island, bearing 285° (283° mag.), clears the shoal patches 
north and northeast of Great Santa Cruz Island, and Zamboanga 
Light, bearing 330° (328° mag.), clears the detached 4%-fathom 
patch east-southeastward from Great Santa Cruz Island. 

Luzon Reef lies on the bearings: Fort at Zamboanga 5° (3° mag.) 
and the north end of Lanhil Island 91%° (89%° mag.). It is covered 
by a least depth of 3% fathoms, is very small, and is surrounded by 
deep water. 

From Zamboanga the coast trends east-southeasterly for about 2 
miles to Mariqui Point and thence east-northeasterly for 4 miles to 
the mouth of the Masinloc River. This section of the coast is low 
and composed of mangroves and is fringed with a narrow reef that 
bares at low water. Shoal water extends southeastward and eastward 
from Mariqui Point, a depth of 4^ fathoms being found about y 2 
mile southeast of it. From the mouth of the Masmloc River to the 
northern entrance of Masinloc anchorage the coast is low, bordered 
with mangroves, and fringed with reefs. About 2 miles northward 
from the river mouth the shore reef begins to widen and gradually 
attains a width of about y 2 mile. 

Masinloc River, discharging into Masinloc Anchorage, has a least 
depth of QYi fathoms on its bar at low water, but is very narrow and 
of little commercial importance. The town of Masinloc lies on the 
south side at the mouth of the river. 

Tictauan Island, lying with its western end 1% miles east-south- 
eastward from Mariqui Point, is about 2 miles long in an east-north- 
east and opposite direction and % mile wide. Tktauan is low and 
entirely covered with mangroves, with the exception of a narrow strip 
of sand beach at the west end and a larger strip at the east end, 
where there are a few coconut trees and a small native village. At 
this end of the island there is a wide reef, partly bare at low water, 
beyond which shoal water with 2 fathoms at its end extends about % 
mile from the land. Shoal water also extends westward and south- 
ward from the island, and it is recommended that these sides be 
given a berth of about y 2 m il e - 

Tictauan Channel, between Mindanao and Tictauan Islands, is % 
mile wide at the narrowest part, 10 to 14 fathoms deep, and affords 
good anchorage if required. 

Tictauan Shoal, about 400 yards long in a north-northwest and 
opposite direction and 150 yards wide within the 5-fathom curve, 
exists in the middle of Tictauan Channel. It is composed of sand 
and coral, covered by a least depth of 3 fathoms, and generally 
marked by tide rips. The wider and better channel lies northwest 



148 MINDANAO. 

of it. The southwest point of Tictauan Island bearing 203° (201° 
mag.) leads westward, and the north tangent to the same island 
bearing 94° (92° mag.) leads northward from this shoal. 

Saeol Island, forming the eastern side of Masinloc Anchorage, is 
7 miles long in a northeast and southwest direction and about 2 miles 
wide. The western part is low and consists mostly of mangrove 
swamps. In the eastern part there are three prominent hills, the 
middle and highest of which, known as Sacol Hill, rises to a height 
of 781 feet. The northwestern side, facing Masinloc Anchorage, is 
clean and steep-to ; the northern and eastern sides are f ringed; with 
narrow, steep-to reefs, and the southern side is fringed with coral, 
outside of which foul ground extends to a considerable distance. 

Panhapuyan Island is a small mangrove-covered island lying close 
to the southwest end of Sacol Island ; shoal water, with 5 fathoms at 
its edge, extends % mile southwest from it. 

Stretching out northeastward for a distance of nearly 2 miles 
from the eastern end of Tictauan Island there are a number of shoal 
patches covered by depths of from 2*4 to 3 fathoms. The channel 
between these shoals and Panhapuyan Island, while practicable, is 
not recommended for a stranger. 

Masinloc Anchorage is the name given to the channel between Min- 
danao and Sacol Islands. From the entrance to Tictauan Channel, 
which may be considered a prolongation of Masinloc Anchorage, it 
is about 8 miles to the shoals obstructing the northern end. It is over 
y 2 mile wide at the narrowest part and from 7 to 14 fathoms deep. 
Good anchorage may be found anywhere in this strait in from 6 to 12 
fathoms, completely sheltered from wind and sea, and vessels take 
refuge here in the southwest monsoon. The flood tide sets south- 
westward and the ebb northeastward at the same hours as at Zam- 
boanga. 

In the northern entrance to Masinloc Anchorage there are a num- 
ber of shoals which divide it into two channels, both of which 
are about y 2 mile wide. The western^ channel has a least depth of 
5y 2 fathoms and the eastern one a least depth of 6% fathoms. 

A small shoal covered by a least depth of y 2 fathom lies % mile 
northward from the north coast of Sacol Island on the bearings: 
West tangent to Sacol Island 224° (222° mag.), and the northeast 
part of Sacol Island 100° (98° mag.). 

Roldan Rock is a small rock covered by a least depth of % fathom 
lying 2% miles from the north part of Sacol Island. It is surrounded 
by deep water and is situated on the bearings: Sacol Hill 201° (99° 
mag.) and the summit of Tulnalutan Island 129° (127° mag.). 

Tnlnalutan Island is a small island less than 1 mile in extent, clean 
and steep-to, with a central hill rising to a height of 269 feet. It is 
situated Zy 2 miles eastward of the east point of Sacol Island. 

Sinonog Island, lying 2% miles eastward from Sacol Island and 2 
miles southwestward from Tulnalutan, is small and low except on its 
eastern side, where there is a cliff 100 feet high; it is surrounded by 
a reef which extends % mile east-northeastward with 9 to 17 f athom's 
at its edge. 

A very small shoal of black and white sand, covered by a least 
depth of 4% fathoms, exists about iy 2 miles 101° (99° mag.), from 
Sinonog Island. 



MASINLOC ANCHORAGE. 149 

Malanipa Island lies on the northern side of the eastern end of 
Basilan Strait 3y 2 miles southward of the east end of Sacol Island. 
It is 134 miles long, northwest and southeast, wooded, and has a 
greatest elevation of 294 feet. Little Malanipa, a small, wooded 
islet, lies close to its eastern coast. From the west side of Malanipa 
a bank of fine sand, covered by depths of 4 to 9 fathoms, extends 4%. 
miles westward. It is y 2 mile wide near Malanipa, tapering to the 
western end, where a depth of 6*4 fathoms is found 1% miles east- 
southeastward of the east end of Tictauan Island. 

Coco Island lies 4% miles from the northeast coast of Basilan 
Island. It is about 1 mile long northwest and southeast, y 2 mile 
wide, 489 feet high at the northwest end, and thickly wooded. The 
shore reef surrounding it is steep-to at a distance of 400 yards. 
Little Coco Island, of moderate height, round topped, and covered 
with vegetation, lies 600 yards northwestward of Coco Island; be- 
tween the two there is a navigable channel 400 yards wide with 
depths of 3% to 6 fathoms, bottom sand and stones. 

Sibago Island lies iy 2 miles eastward of Coco Island and about the 
same distance northeastward from Matanal Point, the eastern ex- 
tremity of Basilan Island. It is \y 2 miles long in a north-northwest 
and opposite direction, % m il e wide, and covered with vegetation. 
It contains two distinct and prominent hills, the northern one of 
which is the higher. A group flashing light, visible all around the 
horizon from a distance of 20 miles, is exhibited at a height of 661 
feet above high water, from a white steel frame structure, with 
black lantern erected on the highest part of the peak. The shores 
are low, and stretching off from the southeast side for more than 
y 2 mile is a bank of clean sand, with depths of 5, 11, and 16 fathoms, 
increasing rapidly to 50 and 55 fathoms. 

Lanh.il Island, lying iy 2 miles northwestward of Sibago, is 1^4 
miles long in an east-northeast and opposite direction, 558 feet in 
height at the southern part, and covered with forests. The shore is 
low, and the reef which surrounds the island dries out 14 m & e east- 
ward, forming a little bay southward of it. Sibago and Lanhil, seen 
from certain directions, appear as one saddle-shaped island; there 
are no outlying dangers and tjie channel between them is clear, hav- 
ing a depth of 17 fathoms, sand and stone bottom. 

SIBT7GTJEY BAY. 

From the northern entrance to Masinloc Anchorage the coast 
trends in a general north-northeasterly direction for about 50 miles, 
and then after curving around to the eastward for about 10 miles, 
trends southward for about 30 miles to Lutangan Islet, off the south- 
ern extremity of Olutanga Island, forming Sibuguey Bay. This 
extensive bay is about 30 miles long in a north and south direction 
and varies in width from 33 miles abreast of Olutanga Island to 16 
miles at Buluan Island. 

Shoals in the entrance. — In the entrance to Sibuguey Bay, about 
midway between Sacol and Olutanga Islands, eight distinct detached 
shoals have been located. Three-Fathom Shoal, shown on some 
charts as a 2^-f athom shoal lying 12 or 13 miles in an east-northeast 
direction from Tulnalutan Island, was not found in the position 



150 MINDANAO. 

usually assigned it; possibly it is one of the southern shoals of those 
located. The eight above-mentioned shoals are all of coral and white 
coral sand formation and are surrounded by deep water. In a favor- 
able light they can usually be picked up by the color of the water; 
but this must not be relied on, for often the coral heads on which 
the least water is found are dark colored and do not show up as well 
as the sand of the deeper water. The positions of the shoals are fixed 
by the bearings of the nearest prominent landmarks that can be 
readily identified from the shoals, a list and description of which are 
as follows : 

Mount Sibuguey, on the eastern side of the bay, is usually visible 
from all the shoals. 

Sharp Peak is the highest peak on the ridge westward from Tun- 
ganan Bay. The peak is 8% miles, 351° (349° mag.) from Mount 
Taguite, near the southern extremity of the ridge, and there is an- 
other peak southward from it at a lower elevation. No confusion 
need arise as to which is the peak to which the bearings are taken 
unless the ridge is in the clouds, in which case only the lower peak 
will be seen. 

Mount Taguite is the only high hill near the coast in its vicinity. 
It is entirely wooded and has steep symmetrical slopes, with a 
smoothly rounded dome-shaped top. 

Sacol Hill is the highest of the three hills on the northeastern part 
of Sacol Island. 

Tulnalutan Island has already been described ; its summit is visible 
from the nearer shoals. 

A shoal, covered by a least depth of 4 fathoms, lies on the bearings : 

Mount Taguite 284° (282° mag.). ; < 

Sharp Peak 302° (300° mag.). 

Mount Sibuguey 28° ( 26° mag.). 

A shoal, covered' by a least depth of 4% fathoms, lies on the bear- 
ings: 

Mount Taguite 289° (287° mag.). 

Sharp Peak 305° (303° mag.). 

Mount Sibuguey 25° ( 23° mag.). 

Sacol Hill 240° (238° mag.). 

A shoal, covered by a least depth of 2% fathoms, lies on the bear- 
ings: 

Mount Taguite 295° (293° mag.). 

Sharp Peak 311° (309° mag.). 

Sacol Hill 242° (240° mag.). 

A shoal, covered by a least depth of 4 fathoms, lies on the bearings : 

Mount Taguite i 300° (298° mag.). 

Sharp Peak 317° (315° mag.). 

Sacol Hill 234° (232° mag.). 

A shoal, covered by a least depth of 2 fathoms, lies on the bearings : 

Mount Taguite 315° (313° mag.). 

Tulnalutan Island 227° (225° mag.). 

Sacol Hill 240° (238° mag.). 

A shoal, covered by a least depth of 6 fathoms over an area of 300 
yards, lies 2y 2 miles eastward of the last-described shoal. 



SIBTJGUEY BAY. 151 

A shoal with several shoal spots 200 to 300 yards apart and covered 
by a least depth of 2y 2 fathoms lies on the bearings : 

Mount Taguite 305° (303° mag.). 

Malanipa Island 234° (232° mag.). 

Tulnalutan Island 243° (241° mag.). 

Sacol Hill 249° (247° mag.). ; 

A shoal, covered by a least depth of 3 fathoms, lies on the bearings : 

Mount Taguite 301° (299° mag.). 

Malanipa Island 242° (240° mag.). 

Sacol Hill 255° (253° mag.). 

Angosto Shoal, covered by a least depth of V/ 2 fathoms, is a shoal 
of coral and sand y s mile in extent, lying about 4 miles 75° (73° 
mag.) from Tulnalutan Island. From this shoal Sacol Hill and the 
north end of Tulnalutan Island are in range, and Matanal Point, 
Basilan Island, is in range with the western end of Lanhil Island. 

From the northern entrance to Masinloc Anchorage the coast 
trends in a general north-northeast direction for 25 miles to Vitali 
Point. This stretch of coast is very irregular, being indented by 
small bays, most of which are foul and of no importance to naviga- 
tion. It is cut into by a number of small streams, none of which are 
navigable, and there are a number of small unimportant villages 
scattered along the shore. 

It is fringed in places by coral reefs and faced by a number of 
small islands, most of which are clear on their seaward sides. This 
section of the coast can be safely navigated by keeping 1 mile outside 
of the islands and outlying points. 

Malasugat Point, about 5 miles north-northeastward from the 
northern entrance to Masinloc Anchorage, is low, wooded, and 
fringed by a narrow reef. Malasugat Bay, a slight indentation in 
the coast southwestward from the point of the same name, is nearly 
blocked by reefs. There is a small, dangerous 1-fathom patch lying 
about iy 2 miles southward from Malasugat Point and about 1 mile 
from shore. 

Panubigan Islands are a group of some 20 small islands and rocks 
lying off the coast between Malasugat Point and Lawigan Point, 
5% miles northward. None of them are over 2 miles from shore. 
They are generally high and well wooded and do not require any de- 
tailed description. Sheltered anchorage may be found among them 
as will be seen by consultng the chart. 

A small shoal, covered by a least depth of 4% fathoms and sur- 
rounded by deep water, exists on the bearings : Mount Taguite 284° 
(282° mag.) and Sacol Hill 216° (214° mag.). 

From Lawigan the coast trends northward to Bluff Point and is 
indented by a number of small, unimportant bays mostly blocked 
by coral. 

Mount Taguite is a prominent hill rising abruptly from, sea level 
to a height of 1,400 feet and is situated about y 2 mile from the water's 
edge and 1 mile 326° (324° mag.) from Bluff Point. It is entirely 
wooded and has steep symmetrical slopes with a smoothly rounded 
dome-shaped top. It is the only high hill near the coast in this 

From Bluff Point the coast trends northward for 3i/ 2 miles and 
then southeastward in a very irregular line for over 2 miles, forming 



152 MINDANAO. 

Taguite Bay. This bay is 5 miles wide between Bluff and Taguite 
Points and extends about the same distance northward. Taguite 
Island, lying nearly in the middle of the bay, is a wooded island 
about y% mile in extent, which rises to a height of 217 feet. The 
bay is shoal and of no value to navigation. 

Vitali Point is situated about 6% miles northeastward from 
Taguite Point. This stretch of coast is heavily wooded from the 
shore line or inner edge of the mangrove as far as can be seen except 
near Vitali Point; here the low foothills are covered with rank 
grass. All the hills as far back as can be seen are heavily wooded to 
their summits. This section of the coast is fringed by a narrow 
coral reef. About iy 2 miles southwestward from vitali Point there 
is a small, low, wooded islet lying on the shore reef close to the 
shore. A rock awash, surrounded by deep water, lies 160° (158° 
mag.) distant % mile from Vitali Point. 

Tigbaon Islands are a group of five islands and one rock lying east- 
ward and southeastward from Vitali Point. They include Tigbura- 
cao, the Gatusan Islands (2), White Eock, Bacungan, and Lampinigan 
Islands. Tigburacao, the most southeastern of the group, is a low, 
flat, heavily wooded island lying about 3% miles 134° (132" mag.) 
from Vitali Point. It is fringed by a narrow reef, widest on the 
western part. It is about 300 yards long east and west and 150 yards 
wide. Southeastward, about 100 yards from this island, are two 
large pinnacle rocks, the higher of which rises to a height of 40 feet. 
These rocks are very prominent and can be seen from a considerable 
distance. When seen from the eastward they appear as one. White 
Rock. — Over y 2 mile 248° (246° mag.) from Tigburacao Island there 
is a white rock, bare at all stages of the tide. It stands on a small 
coral reef which is surrounded by deep water. Gatusan Islands, two 
in number, lie about 2 miles 155° (153° mag.) from Vitali Point. 
Both are small, about 300 yards long north and south, less than one- 
half that in width, wooded, and fringed with rocks. The northern 
island is less than 50 feet high, while the southern rises to a height of 
117 feet. Bacungan Island, the largest of the group, lies 2 miles 
eastward from Vitali Point. It is about 450 yards long northeast 
and southwest and nearly 300 yards wide. The shores are fairly bold, 
and the land rises sharply from sea level to a height of 211 feet. 
There is a large umbrella-shaped tree remaining standing on the 
summit than can be seen from a considerable distance. About % mile 
236° (234° mag.) from Bacungan Island there is a rock awash.' The 
channel between the island and rock is deep and clear. Lampinigan 
Island lies a little over y 2 mile 60° (58° mag.) from Vitali Point. 
It is nearly round, about 200 yards in extent, heavily wooded, and 
rises to a height of 192 feet. On the south and east sides are rocks, 
bare at low water, to a distance of 50 or 60 yards. The channel be- 
tween Vitali Point and this island has a least depth of 2% fathoms. 
Lampinigan, seen from the southward, appears like a cone with a 
steep slope on the eastern side and a gradual rise" on the western. 
There is a small shoal, covered by a least depth of 2^ fathoms, lying 
nearly % mile 92° (90° mag.) from Lampinigan Island. 

From Vitali Point the coast trends sharply westward, then north- 
ward and eastward to Linguisan Point, forming Tunganan Bay. 
Near the coast are numerous hills with heights of from 100 to 200 



SIBUGUEY BAY. 153 

feet, separated by deep, winding valleys. Back of these hills the land 
rises in a series of hills to the mountains well back in the interior. 

Tunganan Bay is a nearly semicircular indentation between Vitali 
and Linguisan Points. It is about 7 miles wide at the entrance and 
extends some 3 miles westward. The depths decrease gradually 
toward the western shore, where there are extensive mud flats. 
Nearly the whole bay has a mud bottom, but in the few places where 
the depth is over 10 fathoms the bottom is sandy. There is good 
anchorage in 10 fathoms, mud bottom, anywhere in Tunganan Bay, 
on a line northward from Basan Eeef, except at the northern part, 
where the depths are slightly greater. 

Cabog and Camugan, two small wooded islands, but little over 50 
feet in elevation, and a very small wooded islet 20 feet high lie on the, 
same reef about iy 2 miles northwestward from Vitali Point. 

Basan Reef, a dangerous detached coral reef, nearly % mile in ex- 
tent, lies 348° (346° mag.), distant 2 miles from Vitali Point. This 
reef, part of which bares at half tide, is the only danger on the south- 
ern side of the entrance to Tunganan Bay. On the two highest parts 
of this reef banks of white sand have formed and are visible from a 
considerable distance except at extreme high water. The north and 
east sides of the reef are steep-to and may be approached with safety, 
but the south and we^t sides are foul. The water deepens rapidly 
east and south of Basan Beef. 

Tigbucay Bay is a small bay extending about 1 mile in a northeast 
direction from the northern part of Tunganan Bay. The southern 
part is apparently deep and clear, but the northern part is shoal. It 
is of comparatively little importance, lying as it does immediately 
westward from the fine harbor of Port Banga. 

Bangaan Island lies between Tigbucay and Linguisan Points, the 
western and eastern entrance points to Port Banga. It is about 
% mile long in a northeast and southwest direction and has a greatest 
width of y± mile. It is sparsely wooded on the slopes, grassy on the 
highland, and rises to a height of 160 feet. Its shores are clean and 
steep-to on the northern side but foul on the southeastern and lower 
part of the western sides. From a point 90 yards off the northeastern 
point a line of rocks extends southwestward to a little below the 
southwest point of the island, from which point a rocky ledge extends 
about % mile in a southwest direction. The southwest point of the 
island should be given a good berth, as the water shoals rapidly, and 
at high water the above-mentioned rocks are not visible. 

A fixed red light is exhibited 104 feet above high water from a 
white-framed structure on the eastern extremity of Bangaan Island. 

On the northwest point of Bangaan Island there is a wharf 150 
feet long, 30 feet wide, with a depth of 22 feet at its end at low 
water. This wharf and the sawmill to which it belongs are promi- 
nent objects, but are not visible from seaward. Fresh water is avail- 
able during the rainy season only; i. e., from April to January. 

Port Banga (chart 4653). opening from the northern part, of Tun- 
ganan Bay, is 2 miles wide at the entrance and extends about 4 miles 
northeastward. It affords good anchorage, perfectly protected from 
all winds, for vessels of any size. Bangaan Island divides the en- 
trance into two good channels. The port is navigable for a distance 
of 2 miles from the entrance for all classes of vessels and for very 



154 MINDANAO. 

small vessel nearly to its head. Lampinigan Island is a small 
heavily wooded island lying off the northwest side of the port, 
iy 2 miles above Bangaan Island and about 14 mile from the shore. 
Along the northwest shore of the port, northwestward of a line run- 
ning 45° (43° mag.) and 225° (223° mag.) from the east side of 
Lampinigan Island, there is a foul ground with bare coral patches 
northeastward from the island and coral extending to a short distance 
off the points southwestward from it. On the southeast side of the 
port there is a small detached coral patch covered by a least depth of 
3 feet at low water. It bears 155° (153° mag.) distant about y 2 mile 
from Lampinigan Island and about % mile from shore; otherwise 
the southeast shore of the port is clear nearly up to the beach except 
about Linguisan Point. 

Linguisan Point, the eastern entrance point to Port Banga, is low 
and wooded. Surrounding the point and eastward from it along the 
south side of the peninsula, which forms the eastern side of the port, 
there is a coral shelf, partly bare at low water, extending to a distance 
of over x /4 mile. The extreme eastern limit of this shelf extends a 
little farther out and is marked by rocks showing above high water. 
Small shoal patches of 4 arid 4% fathoms exist 670 and 875 yards, 
respectively, from Linguisan Point in a line with the point and the 
north side of Bangaan Island. 

A small dangerous detached reef surrounded by deep water lies 1 
mile southeastward from the southeast point of the peninsula between 
Port Banga and SibugUey Bay, westward of a line tangent to the 
coast when Buluan Island is just closed in by it, and from its southern 
edge the northeast point of Bangaan Island bears 283° (281° mag.) 
distant 2% miles. The reef is composed of numerous coral heads, 
some of which bare at extreme low water. 

Directions. — To enter Port Banga by the western channel, stand 
westward, giving the southwest point of the island a berth of at least 
y 2 mile. When the channel is well open and Lampinigan Island 
begins to be shut in by the point on the west side of the port, head up 
the channel with the above point a little open on the starboard bow, 
favoring the western shore. Avoid the northwest point of Bangaan 
Island, and when clear of this, haul northeastward and proceed up the 
middle of the port, anchoring anywhere between Bangaan Island and 
a line drawn eastward from Lampinigan Island in 11 to 7 fathoms, 
muddy bottom. 

To enter by the east channel, bring the northeast point of Bangaan 
Island to bear 295° (293° mag.) before Buluan Island is shut in by 
the land and steer for the point ; when drawing up to it haul off to 
give it a berth of from 200 to 300 yards, and when the west channel 
begins to open haul up northeastward for the middle of the port and 
anchor as previously recommended. 

From Linguisan Point the coast trends eastward for 1 mile and 
then northeastward for 5% miles to Bagolibud Point, at the entrance 
to Busan Bay, forming a peninsula between Port Banga and 
Sibuguey Bay. The shore line is well denned by numerous cliffy 
points with sandy beaches in the indentations between them. The 
southern part of, the peninsula is covered with cogon grass and a 
few scattered trees. On the northern part are low, wooded hills, the 
northeasternmost one of which rises to a height of 183 feet and forms 



SIBUGHEY BAY. 155 

the summit of Bagolibud Point. This stretch of coast is fringed by 
a narrow strip of coral, and there are no detached dangers with the 
exception of a %-f athom patch about 1*4 miles southward from Bago- 
libud Point. 

Panabulan Islet, situated 3 miles southwestward from Bagolibud 
Point, is very small and is surrounded by a reef which connects it 
with the land about 300 yards distant. 

Loclabuan Bay is a small bay about 1% miles southwestward from 
Bagolibud Point, which is about y 2 mile in extent. On the northern 
side of this bay there is a prominent heavily wooded hill, which rises 
to a height of 244 feet and is the greatest elevation in this vicinity. 

A small shoal covered by a least depth of % fathom lies about 1^4 
miles 187° (185° mag.) from Bagolibud Point off the entrance to 
Loclabuan Bay. 

Bagolibud Point, the southern entrance to Busan Bay, is a heavily 
wooded narrow neck of land extending in a northeast direction. 
Foul ground extends to a distance of Y^ mile eastward from the point 
and the north side is fringed by a reef and lined with mangroves. 
Nearly % mile northward from the point are the Tatal Bocks, a 
cluster of rocks 10 to 13 feet high, which are connected with the land 
by a reef bare at low water. These rocks are very conspicuous when 
seen from seaward. 

Fadugan Islet lies on the outer edge of the shore reef, which bares 
at low water. It is situated about 300 yards from shore, is very 
small, and rises to a height of 20 feet. Padugan Islet and the rocks 
just described mark the limit of the dangers northward from Bagoli- 
bud Point. 

Busan Bay. — From Bagolibud Point the coast trends westward for 
4% miles and then, turning sharply, trends northeastward for 9 
miles to Laboyoan Point, which bears 10° (8° mag.) distant 7 miles 
from Bagolibud Point, forming Busan Bay. Among the natural 
features in the immediate interior Tupilac Hill is the most conspicu- 
ous; it lies 1% miles back from the coast and 265° (263° mag.) from 
the summit of Buluan Island. It is a cone-shaped grassy hill, which 
rises to a height of 517 feet, and, having a wooded background, can 
be seen from a considerable distance seaward. Three grassy hills 
of less importance are situated southwestward from Tupilac and 
numerous low hills with grassy slopes lie around the southwest shore 
of Busan Bay. These hills are separated from the higher, more 
prominent distant hills in the interior by a valley leading inland in a 
westerly direction from Calug Point. A similar valley extends from 
the southern shore of Busan Bay to Port Banga. Anchorage with 
good holding ground may be found anywhere in Busan Bay. 

Lalim Point, about 1% miles westward from Padugan Islet, is 
fringed by coral reefs which extend % mile northward from it. The 
southwest corner of Busan Bay is entirely closed by coral reefs awash 
at low water; between the eastern limits of these reefs and Lahm 
Point there is good anchorage in 6 to 7 fathoms, muddy bottom. 

Saduc Islet is merely a clump of mangroves growing on the reef in 
the southwest part of the bay, about 300 yards from shore. 

Diligan Island, lying about 1% miles northwestward irom Bagoli- 
bud Point, is low and heavily wooded. It is about % mile long east 
and west, half that in width, and is fringed by a narrow steep-to 

33452°— 21 11 



156 MINDANAO. 

coral reef. Diligan Island may be rounded in safety at a distance 
of y± mile. 

Calug Point, about 2 miles northward from Diligan Island, is a low, 
narrow point extending in an easterly direction. A coral reef, all 
but the outer extremity of which is awash at low water, projects 
about % mile southward from the point. Northward from the point 
the shore is fringed by coral except in the bight on the north side of 
the point and again in the bight westward from Buluan Island. 

laboyoan Point, forming the northeastern limit of Busan Bay, is 
merely a mangrove point and by its position defines the mouths of 
the Gango and Looc Rivers, both of which are small and unimpor- 
tant. From the end of the point mangroves extend about 1 mile in a 
northwest direction. It is surrounded by coral reefs which extend to 
a distance of over y% mile. 

Mount Silingin, situated from 4 to 5 miles northwestward from 
Laboyoan Point, is a conspicuous landmark from all parts of Sibu- 
guey Bay. It has three prominent peaks and a lesser one rising from 
its northern shoulder. Quipit Peak (2,842 feet), the central and 
highest, and Matanog Peak (2,431 feet) have been accurately located 
and are readily identified unless obscured by clouds or rain. 

Buluan Island, the largest and most prominent island in the north- 
ern part of Sibuguey Bay, is about % mile long in a northwest and 
southeast direction and rises in the southeast part to a sharp, heavily- 
wooded peak 324 feet high. It is situated 6% miles 20° (18° mag.) 
from Bagolibud Point and about % m il e southwestward from La- 
boyoan Point, from which it is separated by a navigable channel % 
mile wide and 8 to 10 fathoms deep in the middle. The eastern, 
southern, and southwestern sides of the island are fringed with coral, 
bare at low water, and % mile southeastward from the island are 
rocks awash at high water. Deep water is found close to the reefs 
on all sides except the southeastern, which should be given a berth 
of at least ^ mile. 

Southward from the eastern edge of the reef which extends south- 
eastward from Laboyoan Point there is a detached shoal covered by 
a least depth of Sy^ fathoms. It lies with its eastern edge about % 
mile westward from Buluan Island. 

From Laboyoan Point the coast trends northeastward with a curve 
northwestward to Madiaop Point. Buluan River discharges about 
iy 3 miles north-northeastward from Laboyoan Point ; the village of 
the same name lies on the south side of the mouth. The village of 
Caparan lies on a low islet in the midst of mangroves about 3 miles 
31° (29° mag.) from Laboyoan Point. A white sand beach outlines 
the south side of the islet. 

Madiaop Point projects in a southeast direction and is fringed by a 
narrow belt of mangroves which are protected by numerous rocks 
awash at low water. 

Saro Point, situated 1% miles east-northeastward from Madiaop 
Point, is outlined by low cliffs. This point marks the eastern limits 
of the low, irregular, grass-covered hills which extend in a southwest 
direction toward Madiaop Point. 

Bacalan Point, about iy 3 miles east-northeastward from Saro Point, 
extends about y 2 mile in a southeast direction. The southern ex- 
tremity of the point is composed of low cliffs while a gravel beach 



SIBUGUEY BAY. 15 7 

outlines the eastern part. The point is slightly over 10 feet high, 
covered with a thick growth of light timber and brushwood and is 
in reality an island, being connected with the mainland by an exten- 
sive mangrove swamp. 

Between Bacalan Point and Taynabo Point, 3% miles 83° (81° 
mag.) from it, the shore recedes northward for about 1 mile, forming 
a large bay, the upper half of which is composed of mud flats bare 
at low water. The head of this bay is lined with mangroves and there 
are several small streams emptying into it. There are no villages 
on the shore of this bay. 

Coba Islet is a very small wooded islet which rises to a height of 
30 feet about 400 yards from the shore at the head of the bay. It 
is an islet at high water only, being surrounded by mud flats at low 
water. The southern side is composed of cliffs about 20 feet high, 
giving it a rugged appearance when seen from the southward. 

Taynabo Point is the most prominent point at the head of Sibuguey 
Bay. Cliffs about 15 feet high outline' the southern and eastern side 
while the southeastern side is a curved, sandy beach. The southern 
part is heavily wooded ; the eastern part is covered with grass and 
brush and rises to a height of 165 feet. The point is connected with 
the mainland by a narrow neck of mangroves similar to Bacalan 
Point. 

Between Taynabo Point and Ticauan Point, about 4% miles east 
by south from it, there is a bay somewhat larger than the bay west- 
ward from Taynabo Point. Tando and Banco Points project south- 
ward from the head of this bay and divide it into three smaller bays. 
Both of these points are fringed with coral, but the bays are com- 
paratively clean. Villages lie on the shores of the two eastern bays. 

A small reef, less than 14 mile in extent, covered by a least depth 
of 14 fathom and surrounded by deep water, lies in the entrance of 
the bay on the bearings : Taynabo Point 277° (275° mag.) and Banco 
Point 51° (49° mag.). There is a clear channel % mile wide and 9 
fathoms deep in the middle between this reef and the reef fringing 
the 15-foot rock southward from Tando Point. 

Tando Point, about 1% miles northeastward from Taynabo Point, 
terminates in low cliffs about 10 feet high. It is covered with brush- 
wood, and at a short distance from its extremity rises to a height of 
211 feet. Numerous rocks, awash at low water, lie off the south end 
of the point. About 400 yards southward from the point there is an 
irregularly shaped rock about 15 feet high. 

About iy 3 miles northwestward from Tando Point is situated one 
of the most conspicuous hills at the head of Sibuguey Bay. This hill 
is heavily wooded, detached from the higher hills of the interior, and 
has two similar-shaped peaks. The southwestern peak is 696 feet 
high, the northeastern 656 feet. 

Banco Point, situated nearly 1 mile in an east-southeast direction 
from Tando Point, is outlined on its southwest and south sides by 
cliffs about 10 feet high. It terminates at the southern extremity in 
a sharp point surrounded by a number of rocks awash at low water. 
The point is heavily wooded, rises to a height of over 100 feet on the 
southwest side, and slopes down gradually northeastward. Mangrove 
swamps northward and northeastward from the point separate it en- 
tirely from the mainland. 



158 MINDANAO. 

About % mile in an east-northeast direction from Banco Point is 
the summit of a slightly conical-shaped grassy hill, which rises to 
u height of 271 feet and whose grassy slopes form the most prominent 
natural feature at the head of Sibuguey Bay. 

Ticauan Point, situated about 4% miles east by south from Tay- 
uabo Point, is the most pronounced point in the vicinity of the north- 
east part of Sibuguey Bay; it extends in a southwest direction to a 
distance of about y 2 mile. With the exception of two small incon- 
spicuous areas of dry land, the entire point is composed of mangroves. 

From Ticauan Point the coast trends eastward for 3 miles and 
then generally southward for 29 miles to Lutangan Islet, the eastern 
entrance point to Sibuguey Bay. Mangrove swamps extend along 
this section of the coast and completely obscure the shore line except 
«,t Patan Point, where the mangrove belt is very narrow; at Lam- 
bayogan Point; at one point in Taba Bay, off the village of Baga- 
lamatan ; and at Seboto Point. At the three latter points the shore 
is rocky or sandy and free from mangroves. Extensive mud flats, 
bare at low water, front the coast between Ticauan and Patan Points, 
and deep water is usually found close to the outer edge of them. An 
exception to this rule is found, however, just eastward from Ticauan 
Point, where the bare area is less than y 2 mile wide while the 3- 
fathom curve is over 2 miles from shore. Between Ticauan and 
Patan Points the coast is free from danger and may be safely navi- 
gated by keeping 1 mile from shore except at the shoal area, which 
makes off to a distance of 3 miles off the mouth of the Siay River. 

Mount Sibuguey, situated 1% miles east-northeastward from Patan 
Point, is the most conspicuous and easily identified landmark on the 
eastern shore of Sibuguey Bay. It consists of one prominent peak 
1,050 feet high and several peaks of lesser elevation stretching to the 
eastward of it. 

Siay River, the largest and only river of any importance in this 
region, discharges into the northeast corner of Sibuguey Bay. A 
clear but narrow and tortuous channel, having a least depth of 8 feet 
at low water, winds through the mud flats of the bay to the mouth 
of the river. The river has been ascended to a distance of 3 miles by 
steam launch and no obstructions found. 

Cabut Island, forming the western side of the mouth of the river, 
is connected with the mainland southward from it at low water and 
is so nearly like the mainland that it is not recognized as an island 
when seen from the bay. 

Directions. — The following directions for entering Siay River are 
given by the party engaged in making the survey but implicit confi- 
dence should not be placed in them as changes are liable to take place 
on the bar and the position of the nipa hut referred to. 

To enter the river bring the nipa hut at the mouth of the Ley River, over 1 
mile northward from Cabut Island, to bear 41° (39° mag.) and steer for it; 
when within % mile of the hut change course to 90° (88° mag.) and when the 
eastern side of the mouth of the Ley River bears 0° (358° mag.) enter the Siay, 
keeping well over to the north bank, where the best water will be found until 
well into the river. Shoal water extends some distance from the eastern side 
of Cabut Island ; this may be avoided by hugging the eastern bank. ' 

Pamandian River, which discharges into the bay about 1% miles 
southward from Cabut Island, has 5 feet of water on the bar at low 
water and considerably more inside. 



SIBUGUEY BAY. 159 

Sibuguey River, which discharges about 3 miles northward from 
Patan Point, is nearly dry at the mouth at low water. This river 
leads to the coal deposits back of Mount Sibuguey that were worked 
to some extent in the past and are now being developed by the Na- 
tional Coal Co. 

There is a small patch of coral, bare at low water, 1/3 mile from 
shore, at the edge of the mud flat at the mouth of the Tongcolasian 
River, a small stream discharging 1^ miles southward from the 
Sibuguey River. 

Patan Point, situated 10 miles south-southeastward from Ticauan 
Point forms the northern entrance to Taba Bay. The detached hill 
forming this point rises to a height of 244 feet about % mile east- 
ward from its extremity. The low, heavily wooded area eastward 
from this hill is approximately 25 feet above sea level. The southern 
slope of the eastern extremity of the hill is covered with cogon grass, 
while the remaining portions are heavily wooded. The western ex- 
tremity of the point is fringed by a narrow coral reef; low cliffs 
define the south side of the point. 

Taba Bay (chart 4651). — From Patan Point the coast trends south- 
eastward and southward for 5 miles and westward and northward 
to Cabog Point, situated 2% miles south by east from Patan Point, 
forming Taba Bay. The Cabog Islands, two small mangrove-covered 
islets, he close together on a reef, part of which bares at low water. 
This reef extends northward from the islets to within y 2 mile of 
Patan Point. The inclosed basin, 4 miles long with an average clear 
width of % mile, forms the best sheltered anchorage on the east side 
of Sibuguey Bay. It is comparatively easy to enter at any stage of 
the tide and at low water the edges of the dangers are clearly de- 
fined. Coral fringes the western extremity of Patan Point to a dis- 
tance of % mile and there are two small detached coral reefs, one % 
mile southeastward from the point and the other 1% miles in the 
same direction and about *4 m ^ e from the shore ; beyond these shoals 
the best water is found on the western side of the bay. These two 
detached reefs, as well as the coral fringing Pata Point, can usually 
be readily made out by the color of the water over them. The shores 
of the bay are generally lined with mangroves and the fringing reefs 
are very narrow. The head of the bay is shoal, and in the southeast 
corner are mud flats, bare at low water. A number of small unim- 
portant streams flow into the bay. Payao lies on the north shore of 
Taba Bay eastward of Patan Point. Bagalamatan is situated about 
2 miles southeastward from Patan Point. The point on which this 
village is situated is outlined by low cliffs and rises to a height of 
35 feet about y 8 mile inland. Suong Island is a small mangrove 
islet at the head of the bay ; it can not be distinguished as an islet 
when entering. . 

Directions. — To enter Taba Bay, pass Patan Point on a 137° 
(135° mag.) course, giving the point a berth of about 14 mile; when 
the eastern side of the Cabog Islands bears 180° (178° mag.), alter 
the course to 160° (158° mag.) and anchor according to draft. 

Southward of the entrance to Taba Bay nearly to Lutangan Point 
the coast is foul and should be avoided by all but small craft. There 
are good anchorages along this coast where good shelter from all 
winds except those from the southwest may be had, but these an- 
chorages are not easy to approach because of the many offshore reefs, 



160 MINDANAO. 

often not seen until close aboard, and the absence of natural objects 
ashore suitable for ranges or bearings. No directions for clearing 
these dangers other than are apparent from an inspection of the 
chart can be given. 

About 5 miles southwestward from Patan Point there is a coral 
reef of which the area awash at low water is about 1 mile long north 
and south and % mile wide. On the northern part of this reef is 
a mound of white coral sand nearly y s mile in diameter, which is 
usually awash at high water; its shape and position change with 
every storm. Deep water surroundes the reef on all sides, but the 
bright sand pile not only gives ample warning of the danger but 
affords a fair landmark for navigating this coast. 

Labatan Hill, a heavily wooded dome-shaped hill, 440 feet high (the 
tops of the trees are 150 feet higher), is situated near the coast 
about midway between Cabog Point and Talaid Point at the entrance 
to Locsico Bay. It is the only elevation southward from Mount 
Sibuguey and for this reason is readily recognized from any part 
of the bay. 

Pandalusan Island is a small partly wooded island situated 9% 
miles southwestward from Patan Point. It is irregular in shape, 
about 300 yards in extent, and rises to a height of 72 feet near the 
southeast point. A coral reef, awash at low water, extends i/ 5 mile 
southwestward from the island, while another, not quite awash, ex- 
tends about the same distance to the eastward. A narrow bank, 
with a 2-fathom reef at its eastern extremity, projects 1% miles 
eastward from the island. 

Northwest Rock, about 2 miles 302° (300° mag.) from Pandalusan 
Island, is a small coral reef about y^ mile in extent, which is awash 
at low water. It is not easily picked up, and vessels should keep well 
over toward Pandalusan Island and not attempt to pass westward 
of this reef. 

About 4% miles 188° (186° mag.) from Pandalusan Island there 
is a shoal nearly 1 mile in extent, covered by a least depth of 5 
fathoms. This shoal has been picked up at a distance of over 1 
mile by the color of the water. 

East Circe Shoal lies about 101/4 miles 179° (177° mag.) from Pan- 
dalusan Island and is covered by a least depth of 2% fathoms. On 
the north side of the shbal the water deepens rapidly, but southward 
the depths increase gradually and depths of 16 fathoms are found 
1 mile southward from the shoalest spot. 

West Circe Shoal lies about 10 miles 199° (197° mag.) from Pan- 
dalusan Island and 3% miles 282° (280° mag.) from East Circe 
Shoal, and has a least depth of 3 fathoms on one rock near the center 
of the shoal. Lutangan Point, bearing 90° (88° mag.), will carry a 
vessel well southward of both Circe Shoals. 

From Cabog Point the coast trends southward for 4*/ 2 miles to 
Talaid Point. This section of the coast is lined with mangroves and 
fringed by reefs which extend to a distance of 1 mile in some places. 
Beyond this reef are a number of small detached reefs whose position 
will be best understood by reference to the chart. 

Talaid Point, forming the western side of Locsico Bay, extends 
about iy 2 miles in a southwest direction. The entire point is fringed 
by a narrow belt of mangrove, within which the land is low and 



SIBUGUEY BAY. 161 

heavily wooded. The point is surrounded by a reef which extends 
nearly 1 mile in a southwest direction. 

Locsico Bay is about 2y 2 miles wide at the entrance between Talaid 
Point and the islet marking the western entrance to Canalizo Strait 
and extends about 2 miles northeastward. Its entire shore line is 
lined with mangroves and fringed with coral reefs. Topocan Point 
is a small mangrove-covered point extending southward from the 
head of the bay. This point and the long reef extending southward 
from it divide the bay into two arms, neither of which are of any 
value except to very small vessels. The main part of the bay is fur- 
ther obstructed by a number of small detached coral reefs, parts of 
which bare at low water. In the absence of any natural or artificial 
aids to navigation it is impossible to give any directions for this bay. 

Olutanga Island lies immediately southward from the peninsula 
forming the eastern side of the head of Sibuguey Bay. It is sepa- 
rated from the mainland by a broad, irregularly shaped body of 
water extending from the eastward along the northern part of the 
island, and by Canalizo Strait, a narrow, tortuous channel which con- 
nects that body of water with Sibuguey Bay. Olutanga Island is of 
very irregular shape and has a greatest length north and south of 9 
miles and is 11 miles wide at the widest part. The western coast is 
fairly regular; the southeastern and northern ends are cut into by 
deep bays. The entire island is low and flat, generally fringed with 
mangroves and heavily wooded in the interior. The only part of the 
island which rises above the general level is in the vicinity of Cangan 
Point, on the southeast side of the island, where there is a small area 
estimated to have an elevation of slightly less than 100 feet. 

The western entrance to Canalizo Strait is marked by a small man- 
grove islet lying on the north side of the entrance about y 8 mile from 
shore. This islet is situated 2y 2 miles 140° (138° mag.) from Talaid 
Point. The strait is a narrow and extremely foul channel navigable 
for launches only. It is about 2 miles long and from y 8 to y 4 mile 
wide. At low water 7 feet can be carried through the strait, but the 
western entrance is only 100 yards wide between coral heads and is 
rather difficult to find. 

From the entrance to Canalizo Strait the coast trends in a general 
south by west direction for 4y 2 miles to Deal Point and is fringed 
by a comparatively narrow belt of mangrove which is intersected by 
a number of small streams. The shore reef is nearly % mile wide 
and there are a number of detached reefs which bare at low water 
lying nearly 2 miles from shore. 

Lipari Island, situated about 2% miles southward from Canalizo 
Strait, is a small mangrove island lying less than y 2 mile from the 
shore. It is surrounded by a wide reef and when viewed from the 
westward appears to be part of the main island. 

Deal Point, a low heavily wooded point fringed with a narrow belt 
of mangroves, is the most conspicuous point on the west coast of Olu- 
tanga Island. i,i 

From Deal Point the coast curves around m a general south- 
southeast direction for 4% miles to Seboto Point, the southern ex- 
tremity of Olutanga Island. Seboto Point is outlined by a curved, 
white sandy beach and is entirely covered with heavy timber. The 
shore reef widens in the vicinity of Seboto Point, where it extends 



162 MINDANAO; 

southward, partly baring at low water, for a distance of nearly V/ 2 
miles, and eastward surrounding Lutangan and Silagui Islands. 
Vessels passing southward of Olutanga Island should give Seboto 
Point a berth of at least 2% miles. 

Lutangan Islet, lying immediately southeastward from the southern 
extremity of Olutanga Island, with which it is nearly connected by a 
mangrove swamp, forms the southeastern entrance point to Sibuguey 
Bay. It is about % mile in extent, low and heavily wooded. Its 
southeastern side is composed of low cliffs and a sand beach; the 
remaining sides are fringed with mangroves. Its eastern extremity 
is clean and steep-to; on all other sides it is surrounded by reefs, 
partly baring at low water. 

Silagui Island is a small, low island, covered with light timber, 
lying on the same reef as Lutangan Island and about 200 yards 
northward from it. Its southern and eastern sides are composed 
of low, brown cliffs. There is a small rocky islet covered with bushes 
rising to a height of 20 feet lying about 60 yards eastward from 
Silagui Island. The reef on which Silagui Island lies extends y s 
mile eastward and over y 2 mile northward from it. There is a small 
detached coral patch, baring at low water, lying about *4 mile north- 
eastward from the bushy islet previously mentioned. Good anchor- 
age for a small vessel may be found in a pocket in the reef about % 
mile northwestward from Silagui Island, where there is a clear 
anchorage space of over 14 mile in extent with a depth of 8 fathoms 
over a muddy bottom. 

From Seboto Point the coast trends in a general east-northeast 
direction for about 10 miles to Taguisian Point, the eastern extremity 
of Olutanga Island and the southern entrance point of Port Si- 
bulan. Between these two points there are two fairly prominent 
points, Cangan and Sarva, between and on either side of which are 
distinct indentations in the shore line. The first two indentations 
are less prominent than the third and apparently have no names. 
The third, between Sarva and Taguisian Points, is known as Pongca 
Bay. This bay is about 1 mile wide and extends about 3 miles north- 
westward ; it is practically closed by reefs and affords no anchorage. 
All of this section of the coast is fringed by wide reefs, which bare 
at low water. 

Arayat Shoal, covered by a least depth of 3% fathoms, is about 1 
mile long east and west and % mile wide. From the center of the 
shoal Lutangan Point bears 272° (270° mag.) distant 7% miles, and 
Taguisian Point bears 2° (0° mag.) distant 6 miles. 

In the area bounded by Lutangan Island, Taguisian Point, and 
Arayat Shoal there are a number of shoal spots whose position will 
be best understood by reference to the chart. They are covered by 
depths of from 4 to 6 fathoms. When directly over them the 
bottom can be seen distinctly, and they are readily picked up from a 
distance by the discolored water. 

POET SIBULAN 

(chart 4652) includes the central and largest part of the water area 
between Mindanao and Olutanga Island. It is about 6 miles wide 
at the entrance between Taguisian and Lapat Points and extends 8 
miles northwestward. From the head of the port, the large bay, 



POET SIBTJLAN. 163 

Tantanang, extends northward into Mindanao and Tumalung Bay 
southward into Olutanga ; there are also a number of smaller bays in- 
denting the shores of Port Sibulan. The best water in Port Sibulan, 
between the entrance and the mouths of Tantanang and Tumalung 
Bays, is in the southwest part of the port, where the shore may be ap- 
proached to a distance of % mile at any place, and usually much 
closer. 

Middle Reef, lying in the entrance to Port Sibulan, is a large de- 
tached reef covered by a least depth of \y 2 fathoms. This reef has 
a length of about 2^4 miles in a northwest and southeast direction 
and a greatest width of % mile within the 5-fathom curve. The 
least depth, V/ 2 fathoms over a small rocky patch, is situated on the 
bearings: Tangent to. the west side of Letayen Island 349° (347° 
mag.), tangent to north side of Sibulan Island 287° (285° mag.), 
and Taguisian Point 175° (173° mag.). Depths of 2y 2 fathoms are 
found to a distance of Y& mile westward and y 8 mile southward from 
the 1%-f athom rock. The remainder of the reef is covered by depths 
of from 3 to 5 fathoms over coral and sand bottom. 

Sibulan Reef is a reef covered by a least depth of 2% fathoms, 
lying about % mile 10° (8° mag.) from Sibulan Island; this reef is 
about *4 raile long northwest and southeast and y g mile wide. These 
are the only detached dangers near the recommended track into Port 
Sibulan. 

Taguisian Point, the eastern extremity of Olutanga Island, is a 
long, narrow neck of land projecting in a southeast direction. It is 
low, heavily wooded, about 3 miles long, and varies in width from 
iy 2 miles to % mile. Narrow belts of mangroves fringe its north- 
eastern and southwestern sides. Cliffs, having a greatest height of 
40 feet and a white sand beach, mark the southeast extremity of the 
point. The large trees, which cover the point, grow up to the very 
edge of the cliffs and present a definite and abrupt profile when seen 
in a northeast or southwest direction. The cliffs do not show up 
well when seen from offshore, being largely covered with overhang- 
ing bushes. The point is fringed by coral to a distance of % mile 
with good water at a distance of % mile. 

Coayan Bay, situated between Comot and Cambulong Points, about 
2y± and 3% miles, respectively, northwestward from Taguisian 
Point, has not been sounded out. Both of the entrance points are 
low and heavily wooded and fringed with mangroves. The entrance 
to the inner and western extremity of the bay is marked by two 
small detached rocky islets. The northeastern and larger of these 
two islets is covered with brush and rises to a height of 30 feet; the 
southwestern islet is also covered with brush and is 15 feet high. 

The reef surrounding Cambulong Point has a depth of only 1 
fathom at a distance of % mile eastward from the point. The 5- 
fathom curve is about % mile from the shore at this point, outside 
of which the water deepens rapidly. From Cambulong Point the 
coast trends in a general northwest direction for 8y 2 miles to Suman- 
gul Point, the northern extremity of Olutanga Island. 

Sibulan Island, situated 5 miles northwestward from Taguisian 
Point and slightly less than 2 miles 110° (108° mag.) from Suman- 
gul Point, is a small, heavily wooded island with steep rocky sides. 
It rises to a height of 65 feet and forms an excellent landmark for 
vessels bound into Port Sibulan. There is no channel between it and 



164 MINDANAO. 

Olutanga Island. Good water is found northeastward from the 
island, but at a distance of y± mile northwestward the bottom is foul, 
and slightly less than y 2 mile in that direction there is a rock covered 
by y 2 fathom, with fair depths on all sides. 

Sibulan Eiver discharges about y 3 mile southwestward from Sibu- 
lan Island ; the western side of its mouth is defined by rugged cliffs, 
while a low point outlined by a curved sandy beach marks the eastern 
side. 

Sumangul Point, one of the most important points in Port Sibulan, 
is situated about 7 miles northwestward from Taguisian Point. It 
is very conspicuous when seen from the eastward and can be readily 
identified from off the entrance. It terminates in a narrow neck of 
land about 100 yards wide, which projects about 350 yards in a north- 
west direction. The point is wooded and rises to a height of 54 feet. 
A low saddle, rising only slightly above sea level, extends entirely 
across the point about 350 yards from its northwest extremity ; this 
depression is very plain when seen from an easterly or westerly 
direction. 

Taledom Rock, situated about y 2 mile 48° (46° mag.) from Suman- 
gul Point, is a lone dark rock, with bushes on the top, which rises to 
a height of 31 feet. From an east or west direction the rock shows 
up well, but not when seen from northward. At low water a sand 
spit bares to a distance of 200 yards north and west from the rock. 
Shoal water (less than 1 fathom) extends nearly % mile northward 
from the rock, with the 5-fathom curve % mile farther to the north- 
ward. 

Tumalung Bay, the entrance to which lies between Sumangul Point, 
Olutanga, and Marek Point, Mindanao, is the largest indentation in 
Port Sibulan. It is nearly 2 miles wide at the entrance and extends 
about 5 miles southward. Its bottom is very irregular and there 
are numerous detached patches of coral and sand throughout the 
northern part of the bay. The southern half of the bay shoals 
gradually to within about 1 mile from the head, where there are 
extensive mud flats, bare at low water. The entire shore line is 
fringed with mangroves. Good anchorages in 5 to 10 fathoms are 
found on the eastern side of the bay southwestward from Sumangul 
Point. Water may be easily obtained from a small stream about % 
mile southward from Sumangul Point. At high water a boat can 
be filled directly from a bamboo pipe line over the high-water shore 
line; at low water a boat can get within 50 yards of the pipe. 

Lapinigan Islands, two in number, are situated in the western side 
of Tumalung Bay and mark the northern side of the entrance to 
Canalizo Strait. They are low, heavily wooded, and almost entirely 
surrounded by mangroves. Cliffs of an average height of 30 feet 
outline the northeast extremity of the eastern and larger island. On 
the smaller island two 15-foot cliffs at the northern extremity are 
the only points showing clear of the mangroves. Irregular bottom 
with shoal water in places extends a long way eastward of the 
islands, and they should not be approached on that side within a 
distance of 1 mile. 

Marek Point, situated 1% miles 310° (308° mag.) from Sumangul 
Point, is about 330 yards wide and projects % mile southward, form- 
ing a small bay westward from it, into which the Modoc Eiver dis- 
charges. The western side of the point is fringed with mangroves, 



POET SIBULAN. 165 

while its southern extremity is composed of a sand beach and low, 
perforated, rocky cliffs. On the eastern side of the point there is a 
reddish-brown eroded bank which rises to a height of 65 feet ; part 
of this bank is bare and forms one of the prominent landmarks of 
Port Sibulan and is visible from the entrance to the port. 

Saong Bay, between Marek and Tantanang Points, is about 2 miles 
wide and extends about iy 2 miles westward. Mangroves and coral 
fringe the shores and project well off the southern entrance point. 
The Panagan Biver discharges into the head of the bay, and a small 
strip of sandy beach situated northward from the mouth of the river 
may be seen from the entrance to the bay. 

Tantanang Bay, extending northward into Mindanao from Port 
Sibulan, is nearly 3 miles wide at the entrance between Tantanang 
and Kaladis Points and extends over 2 miles northward. This bay 
shoals gradually from its mouth to its head, affording good sheltered 
anchorage in any desired depth. Between Tantanang Point and the 
northeast corner of the bay the entire shore line, with one exception, 
is fringed with mangroves. From the northeast corner of the bay 
to Kaladis Point there are no points or indentations of any promi- 
nence. What small points there are are low, heavily wooded, and 
composed of low, reddish-brown cliffs, and every indentation is 
fringed with a narrow belt of mangroves. 

Tantanang Point is a low, densely wooded point terminating in low 
cliffs about 15 feet high. A pile of rocks, bare at half tide, lies 200 
yards 116° (114° mag.) from Tantanang Point. About % mile 10° 
(8° mag.) from Tantanang Point there is a low cliff about 10 feet 
high showing clear of the mangroves. This cliff itself is not im- 
portant, but the small point which it forms is covered with large trees, 
the prominence of which is increased by the growth of smaller trees 
on either side. A pile of rocks, awash at high water, lies about 330 
yards 73° (71° mag.) from the above-described cliffs. 

Kaladis Point is composed of a low, red cliff about 15 feet high. 
Although not very prominent, this point is, nevertheless, the most 
prominent point on the northern side of Port Sibulan above Tegol- 
ting Point. Chinkang (Naganaga) lies about % mile northward of 
Kaladis Point. It is the location of a sawmill and wharf. 

From Kaladis Point the coast trends southeastward for 2*4 miles 
to Tegolting Point. This section of the coast is composed of man- 
groves, low cliffs, and sandy beach. It is fringed by a reef, narrow 
at the northwest end and gradually widening to a distance of y 2 mile 
from the coast at Tegolting Point. 

At a distance of 1 mile southward from Kaladis Point and the 
same distance westward from the shore is the northern end of Pandan 
Beef, a large detached coral reef that is nearly bare at low water. 
This reef is of irregular shape, about l 1 /^ miles long north and south, 
nearly y 2 mile wide in places, and separated from the shore reef by a 
very narrow channel with a least depth of 5 fathoms in it. Two 
mounds of white sand, covered at half tide, surmount this reef and 
greatly assist the eye in locating it. Kaladis Point, bearing 18° (16° 
mag.), clears the western side of this reef, and the north point of 
Letayen Island, bearing 92° (90° mag.), clears the south side. 

Tegolting Point is the second point on the northeast side of the en- 
trance to Port Sibulan and forms the western side of Balangan Bay. 
It is heavily wooded and rises to a height of 126 feet about % mile 



166 MINDANAO. 

northwestward from its southern extremity. The western and south- 
western sides are composed of a sand beach and low cliffs, while the 
eastern side is fringed with mangroves, at the southern end of which 
there is a prominent reddish-brown cliff about 40 feet high. This 
point is surrounded by shoal water to a distance of y% mile. 

Balangan Bay, between Tegolting and Lapat Points, is nearly 2 
miles wide at the entrance and extends 1% miles northward. The 
head of the bay northward of the parallel of Tegolting Point is shoal. 
This bay affords anchorage sheltered from all winds except those from 
south and southeast. The entrance is from the southeastward between 
the reefs which surround Letayen Island and Lapat Point. This 
channel has a least depth of 10 fathoms in the middle and is free from 
danger. Good anchorage will be found in 8 fathoms, muddy bottom, 
about y 2 mile northeastward from the middle of Letayen Island. 
There is also a narrow channel from the westward between the north- 
west point of Letayen Island and the reefs which extend from Tegol- 
ting Point about two-thirds of the way to the islands. 

Letayen Island, situated in the entrance to Balangan Bay, % mile 
southeastward from Tegolting Point, is the largest and most impor- 
tant island in Port Sibulan. It is % mile l° n g northwest and south- 
east, y^ mile wide, heavily wooded, and surrounded by reefs which 
extend to a distance of 1% miles in a southeast direction. 

A 3-fathom sounding is shown on the chart iy s miles 222° (220° 
mag.) from the northwest point of Letayen Island. Depths of 3% 
to 5 fathoms are shown about % mile northwestward from the 
3-fathom patch. 

Lapat Point, situated between the entrances to Balangan and Du- 
manquilas Bays, is low, heavily wooded, and fringed with a narrow 
belt of mangroves. Low cliffs of an average height of 20 feet outline 
a small part of the southern extremity of the point. Lapat Point is 
surrounded by reefs which extend about 1 mile southward and 2 
miles eastward from it. 

Directions. — Vessels entering Port Sibulan should round Tagui- 
sian Point at a distance of not less than 1 mile and steer 309° (307° 
mag.) to clear Sibulan Island by a distance of from y± to % mile, 
and when Taguisian Point bears 180° (178° mag.) the dome-shaped 
hill, Labatan, should appear between Sibulan Island and the north- 
ern coast of Olutanga. This course will carry a vessel over the south- 
ern end of Middle Beef in 2>y 2 to 5 fathoms of water and nearly mid- 
way between Sibulan Island and Sibulan Beef. If bound to Tan- 
tanang Bay, the course may be changed to 340° (338° mag.) when 
Sibulan Island bears 180° (178° mag.) and the vessel proceed to an 
anchorage in any desired depth. 

To enter the anchorage in Tumalung Bay, the 309° (307° mag.) 
course should be continued until Sumangul Point bears 180° (lf8° 
mag.), when the course should be changed to 216° (214° mag.), and 
when Sumangul Point bears 90° (88° mag.) change again to 196° 
(194° mag.) and proceed cautiously, as the water is always muddy 
and the dangers can not be seen. 

DTJMANQtTILAS BAT 

(chart 4651) is about 11 miles wide at the entrance between Lapat 
Point westward and Dumanquilas Point eastward and extends about 



DUMANQUILAS BAY. 167 

14 miles northward. It affords good shelter and holding ground 
among the islands and in the bays that it incloses. The general depth 
is from 8 to 16 fathoms, with 5 fathoms near the shore. The bottom 
in the vicinity of Lapat Point is rocky and irregular, and this side 
of the entrance should be avoided. The best channel in the bay will 
be found by keeping within a mile of the points on the eastern side. 

Arayat Shoal has already been described. A shoal covered by a 
least depth of 6 fathoms lies about 3 miles eastward from Arayat 
Shoal. Liscum Bank, covered by a least depth of 8 fathoms, lies 
on the bearings: Lutangan Point 272° (270° mag.) and Taguisian 
Point 318° (316° mag.) . A shoal covered by a least depth of Sy 2 fath- 
oms lies about &y 2 miles southeastward from Taguisian Point on the 
bearings: Cambulong Point 308° (306° mag.) and Lutangan Point 
255° (253° mag.). Breeches Shoal is a large, rocky, coral shoal, 
extending about 1% miles in a northeast and opposite direction, lying 
about 8 miles southward from Triton Island. The least depth on this 
shoal is 5 fathoms. From the eastern edge of this shoal the highest 
part of Dumanquilas Point bears 16° (14° mag.). A small rocky 
shoal, covered by a depth of 4^4 fathoms, lies 5 miles 164° (162° 
mag.) from Triton Island. A small shoal, covered by a depth of 5 
fathoms, lies 5 miles 183° (181° mag.) from Triton Island, and two 
small shoals, covered by 3 fathoms, lie 6^4 miles 196° (194° mag.) and 
4 miles 225° (223° mag.), respectively, from the same point. Aeha 
Rock is a small circular patch of coral and sand, steep-to and covered 
by 2% fathoms of water. From the center of the patch Dumanquilas 
Point bears 87° (85° mag.) distant 5% miles and Triton Island 
68° (66° mag.) distant Zy 2 miles. There is considerable foul ground 
between Acha Rock and Lapat Point. 

Muda, Dacula, and Paya are three small islands lying on the western 
side of the bay. They are clean and steep-to on their eastern sides. 

Piratas Rocks are a group of rocks lying 1 mile eastward of 
Dacula, the middle island, and nearly 2 miles westward of a line 
drawn between Igat and Carabuca Points. They are steep-to and 
always visible except at extremely high tides. 

Cherif Islands are three small islands, clean and steep-to, lying 2 
miles northeastward of Dacula Island and dividing the channel into 
two passages. The two larger islands rise to a height of 220 and 100 

Malangas has been selected as the shipping point for the coal mines 
of the Sibuguey district. The National Coal Co. has a temporary 
wharf with 25 feet of water at its end and is now building a perma- 
nent coal wharf and railway to connect it with the mines. 

Dayana Island, lying 2% miles northward of the largest Cherif 
Island, is small and clean. 

A shoal, 200 yards long in a northeast and opposite direction and 
covered by a least depth of 1% fathoms, lies about i/ 2 mile 337y 2 ° 
(335V 2 ° mag.) from the largest Cherif Island. A shoal, covered by a 
least depth of 1% fathoms, lies about midway between Dayana Island 
and Igat Point; from it the northwest point of the largest Cherif 
Island is in line with the highest point of Dacula Island and Putili 
Islet is in range with the south side of Dayana Point. A shoal, about 
U, mile in extent, covered by a least depth of 1% fathoms, lies about 
1 mile southeastward of Putili Islet. The channel between Igat 
Island and this shoal is 1% miles wide and has depths of 15 and 



168 MINDANAO. 

17 fathoms. A large shoal of white sand, which uncovers at low- 
water springs, lies in the middle of the bay southward of Igat Island. 

Fatima Islands are two small islands lying close together on the 
southern edge of the bank which fills the head of the bay. They are 
clean and steep-to on the southern side. The bank northward of 
them nearly dries at low water. The Cumalarang River, practicable 
for small craft at high water, discharges iy 2 miles northward of 
Fatima Islands. 

Cabo or Gatas Island is a small round island lying close to the shore 
southeastward of Fatima Islands. 

Igat Bay, a large inlet on the eastern side of Dumanquilas Bay, is 
Sy 2 miles wide at the entrance between Dayana and Igat Points and 
extends 5 miles southeastward, forming a safe and commodious har- 
bor. Putili Islet, lying in the middle of the entrance, is very small 
and steep-to; the shoal lying southeastward of Putili Island has 
already been described. 

Igat Island, 735 feet in height, forming the southwest side of Igat 
Bay, is separated from the mainland by a narrow channel near the 
eastern part of which there is a good watering place. Igat Point, the 
western extremity of Igat Island, is clean and steep-to. The bay 
formed by the south side of Igat Island and the mainland is 2y 2 
miles wide at the entrance, between Igat and Carabuca Points, and 
extends iy 2 miles eastward. It is clear with the execption of the 
shoal previously described. 

The coast between Carabuca Point and Dumanquilas Point, 7 
miles southeastward, consists of low hills covered with high trees. 
Carabuca Point, 2y 2 miles southward of Igat Point; Buca Point, l 1 /^ 
miles southward of Carabuca Point; and Labucan Point, 1% miles 
southeastward of Buca Point, are clean and steep-to, and may be 
passed within y 2 mile. Between Labucan Point and Dumanquilas 
Point, &y 2 miles southeastward, the coast line recedes eastward, 
forming a bay which is foul toward the head. 

Triton Island, situated about midway between Labucan and Duman- 
quilas Points and y 2 mile outside of a line drawn between them, is 
a small, rocky, wooded island which rises to a height of 158 feet. It 
is steep on the south side but sloping on the northern side ; it is sur- 
rounded by a reef, narrow on the southwest side and wider on the 
northeast side. 

Dumanquilas Point is the southern extremity of a high, bold promon- 
tory forming the eastern entrance point to Dumanquilas Bay. It 
is clean on the southern side but is fringed on the western side by a 
reef gradually widening on the shores of the bay northward. 

Mount Botetian, the summit of the promontory which terminates at 
its southern part in Dumanquilas Point, is 735 feet high and being 
practically detached from the remaining high land is very promi- 
nent; it is visible from seaward under ordinary conditions from a 
distance of over 20 miles. From a distance it appears as an island 
but is connected with the mainland by an isthmus of low land 1^4 
miles wide. 

Directions foe Dumanquilas Bat. — Vessels bound into Duman- 
quilas Bay should approach Dumanquilas Point with Mount Bote- 
tian bearing between 0° (358° mag.) and 320° (318° mag.). If 
bound for Malangas, give Dumanquilas Point and Triton Island a 
berth of about 1 mile and head for Muda Island on a 325° (323 



o 



DUMANQUILAS BAY. 169 

mag.) course; pass *4 mile eastward of Muda, Dacula, and Paya 
Islands, continuing northward until the wharf at Malangas bears 
295° (293° mag.), when it may be steered for. 

If bound for Margosatubig, give Dumanquilas Point, Triton 
Island, Labucan, and Buca Points a berth of about 1 mile and Cara- 
buca and Igat Points and the north side of Igat Island a berth of 
about y% mile and anchor according to draft close to the old stone 
pier on the south side of Igat Bay. There is a small shoal extending 
about 300 yards eastward from the point northwestward from the 
pier ; elsewhere deep water can be carried close to the beach and the 
bottom is even and muddy with good holding ground. This anchor- 
age is perfectly landlocked and one of the best in Mindanao. Sound- 
ings on the above-described track decrease from 35 fathoms off Du- 
manquilas Point to 9 fathoms y 2 mile westward from Igat Point, in- 
crease to 17 fathoms off the northeast side of Igat Island and then 
decrease gradually toward the head of the bay. 

Margosatubig is a small settlement close to the stone pier previously 
mentioned. Fort Margosatubig, an old Spanish fort, is situated 
about y± mile southwestward from the pier. A wooden extension to 
the pier, practicable for vessels of 10 feet draft at any stage of the 
tide, has been constructed; vessels approaching this wharf should not 
go over 50 feet westward of it because of shoal water. A fixed red 
light, which should be seen immediately after rounding Igat Island, 
is maintained by the military authorities on the roof of the shed on 
the pier. 

About 400 yards eastward from the above-mentioned stone pier 
there is a wooden wharf about 200 feet long with a depth of 18 feet 
at its end. This wharf belongs to a sawmill, and the larger class of 
coastwise vessels go to it to load lumber. 

Maligay Bay (chart 4652), lying between Dumanquilas Point and 
Baganian Peninsula, is about 5 miles wide at the entrance and ex- 
tends some Sy 2 miles northward. The entire shore line is fringed by 
a reef bare at low water and varying in width from y$ to iy± miles. 
A shoal bight about 1 mile in extent, blocked with mud flats, makes 
off in an easterly direction from the head of the bay. The shores of 
the western part of Maligay Bay are rocky, interspersed with man- 
groves, while the entire northeastern and eastern shores are fringed 
with mangroves excepting for a stretch of 1 mile at the base of Mount 

Panaga. .-.*•■,. -r, 

Mount Panaga, situated on the eastern shore of Maligay Bay, rises 
to a height of 515 feet, is covered with cogon grass, and presents a 
green appearance when seen from the sea. 

In the eastern half of the entrance to Maligay Bay there are a 
number of dangerous rocky patches covered by a least depth of 2 
fathoms. In case a vessel is bound into Maligay Bay she should 
bring the middle of Maculay Island to bear 0° (358° mag.) and steer 
for it to avoid these reefs. 

Maculay Island is a small,, rocky, wooded island, 293 feet high, 
lying on the shore reef close to the land in the northwestern part of 
the bay. It is % mile long in a northwest and opposite direction 
and % mile wide. Good anchorage, well protected, may be found in 
from 20 to 25 fathoms northeastward from Maculay Island; this is 
the only sheltered anchorage to be found in Maligay Bay during the 
southwest monsoon. 



170 MINDANAO. 

Lunqui Islet is a small, rocky, wooded islet, 284 feet high, lying on 
the shore reef in the northern part of the bay. It is 600 yards long 
east and west and 250 yards wide. 

Baganian Peninsula, situated between Dumanquilas and Illana 
Bays, extends about 13 miles in a southeast direction and has a gen- 
eral width of about 5 miles. It is traversed throughout its length 
by a range of hills, the highest of which is Mount Flecha. The base 
of the peninsula between Maligay Bay and Port Sambulauan is low 
and only about 2 miles wide. Mount Flecha, situated about 4 miles 
northward from the south end of the peninsula, is extremely flat- 
topped, heavily wooded, rises to a height of 1,126 feet, and is visible 
from a long distance seaward. 

The West coast of Baganian Peninsula is fringed by a steep-to 
coral reef, bare at low water, varying in width from 1 mile at the 
northern part to 200 yards in the vicinity of Flecha Point. Between 
Maligay Bay and a small bay which makes into the coast about 2% 
miles northwestward from Flecha Point the coast is fringed with 
mangroves ; thence to Flecha Point the shore is a rocky ledge about 
15 feet high, broken by stretches of sand beach. 

Flecha Point, the southern extremity of the peninsula, terminates 
in a rocky ledge about 15 feet high, back of which the land rises 
gradually to Mount Flecha. The point is heavily wooded and very 
prominent. There is an anchorage westward from Mount Flecha in 
about 20 fathoms. Anchorage may also be had on the sandy flat 
which extends'nearly 1 mile off Flecha Point in 10 to 20 fathoms, but 
in strong winds a heavy sea sets around the point. 

Paniquian Island, lying 5 miles 280° (278° mag.) from Flecha 
Point and about 2 miles from shore, is low, sandy, and sparsely 
wooded with high trees. It is surrounded by reefs, partly baring at 
low water, which on the southern side extend to a distance of about 
% mile. This reef shows green, and its edges drop off almost per- 
pendicularly to depths of over 100 fathoms. About y^ mile 160° 
(158° mag.) from the island is a hemi spherically shaped clump of 
trees, about 50 feet high, growing on the reef, which from its shape 
and color is more easily picked up from seaward than the trees on 
the island. The channel between Paniquian Island and Baganian 
Peninsula is deep and clear. 

Tambulian Point, the southeastern extremity of Baganian Penin- 
sula, situated about 4 miles 74° (72° mag.) from Flecha Point, is 
low and wooded and not very prominent unless viewed from a north- 
east or opposite direction. The Baganian River, a small unimpor- 
tant stream, discharges through the mangroves at the head of the 
bight between Flecha and Tambulian Points. 

ILLANA BAY 

is included between Tambulian Point and Tapian Point, distant 39 
miles 110° (108° mag.). It is separated from Panguil Bay, on the 
northern side of Mindanao, by an isthmus 7y 2 miles wide. The tidal 
currents in Illana Bay run with considerable velocity, especially the 
ebb, near and eastward of Flecha Point. Vessels bound from Zam- 
boanga to Malabang and Cotabato will often find on nearing the 
eastern side of the bay that they have been set appreciably south- 
ward. Near Flecha Point the currents run with great velocity and 



ILLANA BAY. 171 

cause a heavy sea when there is any wind. Due allowance must 
always be made for the tidal currents, and great care exercised in 
coasting in this vicinity, especially in the night time. 

The eastern coast of Baganian Peninsula from Tambulian Point 
northward is more irregular than the western. The land along this 
coast line rises gradually toward Mount Flecha and is densely 
wooded and sparsely inhabited. It is fringed by a coral reef, bare at 
low water, which northward from Limbug Cove gradually widens 
until Gasacan Point is reached, where it extends to a distance of over 
1 mile. There are no large rivers along this section of the coast, the 
Bubuday, which discharges about iy 2 miles southward from Gasacan 
Point, being the largest. There are no off-lying dangers in this 
vicinity, with the exception of Rios Rock, and the eastern side of 
Baganian Peninsula may be safely navigated at a distance of 1 mile. 

Tambatan Point, situated about 3% miles northward from Tam- 
bulian Point, is low and not prominent unless seen in a northerly or 
southerly direction". 

limbug Cove (chart 4652), about 3% miles northwestward from 
Tambatan Point, is about % mile in extent. It is fringed by reefs, 
and reefs extend from both entrance points, narrowing the channel 
to a width of about 250yards.- The cove is fringed by reefs, leaving 
an anchorage area about % mile in diameter and 10 fathoms deep. 
About 1,200 yards southeastward from the entrance to the channel 
there is a bare bluff, which shows white in the sunlight and forms a 
good landmark for picking up the cove. 

Rios Rock is a dangerous reef about % mile in extent and covered 
by a least depth of 1 fathom. It is situated 5 miles 99° (97° mag.) 
from the northeastern Bacauayan Hill and the same distance 5° (3° 
mag.) from Tambatan Point. Tambulian Point, just closed in be- 
hind Tambatan Point, will clear the western side of Rios Rock, and 
the eastern tangent to the land northward, bearing 0° (358° mag.), 
leads well eastward of it. 

Port Sambulauan (chart 4652), situated about 7% miles northwest- 
ward from Tambatan Point, is of little importance, being merely a 
narrow tortuous break in the reefs. The entrance between Gasacan 
and Pisan Points is 1*4 miles wide, but reefs from both sides reduce 
the navigable channel to a width of % mile. The port is fringed on 
all sides with reefs, on which there are rocks and coral heads, bare at 
low water, and there are dangerous detached patches in the channel. 
The water is generally dirty yellow and the dangers are difficult to 
locate except at low water. The tidal streams follow the channel, 
producing strong currents and eddies at its mouth. From the middle . 
of the entrance channel Sambulauan Hill bears 306° (304° mag.), 
but as the reefs overlap no courses can be steered. Contracted, an- 
chorage may be found near the head of the port in 4 to 5 fathoms, 
muddy bottom, but no directions can be given, and in. the absence of 
anv aids to navigation this is an extremely dangerous place to navi- 
gate. 

orasacan Point, the southern entrance point to Port Sambulauan, is 
low and fringed with reefs which extend nearly iy 2 miles eastward 
from it. At a distance of y 2 and % mile southward and southwest- 
ward from the point are situated the Bacayauan Hills, which form 
prominent landmarks for the entrance to Port Sambulauan. The 

33452°— 21 12 



172 MINDANAO. 

northeastern hill is 405 feet high and well wooded ; the southwestern 
hill is 360 feet high, bare, and covered with grass. 

Sambulauan Hill, lying about y% mile northwestward from the head 
of Port Sambulauan, is about 300 feet high and covered with grass. 
It is much lower than the mountains behind it, which attain altitudes 
of almost 2,000 feet, but, owing to the fact that it is covered with 
cogon grass, it stands out prominently, especially on a clear day. 

The town of Dinas, situated about 2 miles northward from the 
head of Port Sambulauan, on the Dinas Kiver, which discharges on 
the western side of Pisan Island, is not visible from the sea. It 
has a population of about 2,000, several Chinese stores, and a market. 

Pisan Island, forming the northeastern side of Port Sambulauan, 
is low, unimportant, and ill defined,, consisting mainly of mangroves. 
It is irregular in shape, about 3 miles long northwest and southeast 
and has a general width of 1 mile. It is separated from the mainland 
by the Dinas and Panaldan JRivers. 

Pisan Point, the southern extremity of Pisan Island, consists of 
mangroves and is surrounded by reefs, baring at low water, which 
extend to a distance of iy 2 miles southeastward and 2y 2 miles east- 
ward from it.- 

Malubug Bay, included between Pisan Point and Malubug Point, 
&y 2 miles northeastward from it, ir nearly blocked with reefs, the 
greater part of which are awash at low water, leaving narrow 
channels between them; The entire shore line is composed of man- 
groves, back of which the land rises gradually to the mountains. 
Two large rivers, the Panaldan and Tuludan, discharge into Malubug 
Bay ; their delta forms a network of small streams through the man- 
groves. Two small villages, Calipapa and Dansalan, lie on the 
shore of the bay, 

In addition to the reefs blocking Malubug Bay, there are a number 
of detached reefs covered by a least depth of 2 fathoms lying in the 
entrance to the bay. They lie in a northeast and southwest direction 
on a line between the reef extending eastward from Pisan Point 
and Sagarayan Island. The channel between their northeast ex- 
tremity and Sagarayan Island is nearly % mile wide, deep-and clear. 
The middle of Sagarayan Island kept bearing nothing eastward of 
2° (0° mag.) will clear all dangers in the approach to Malubug Bay. 

Sagarayan Island, lying about 1 mile southward from Malubug 
Point, at the northeastern entrance to Malubug Bay, is a small prom- 
inent well-wooded island about % mile in extent. It rises to a 
height of 375 feet in the southwestern part and is surrounded by 
reefs which partly bare at low water. There is no channel between 
it and the mainland. Good protected anchorage may be found about 
14 mile westward from the western extremity of Sagarayan Island in 
16 fathoms, muddy bottom. This is the best anchorage in this vicinity. 

Ticala Islets are three small, wooded islets lying between Malubug 
Point and Sagarayan Island. The two southern islets lie on the same 
reef as Sagarayan Island and immediately northward from it. The 
western of these two rises to a height -of 185 feet and the eastern one 
to a height of 170 feet; the northern islet lies on the shore reef sur- 
rounding Malubug Point and riseg to a height of 120 feet, 

A small coral reef about 14 mile in extent, covered by a least 
depth of 4% fathoms and surrounded by deep Water, lies about % 
mile eastward from the southeastern Ticala Islet on the bearings: 



ILLANA BAY. 173 

Southeast tangent to Sagarayan Island 232° (230° mag.) and the 
northern Ticala Islet 300° (298° mag.). 

From Malubug Point the coast trends northerly and then north- 
westerly for 7y 2 miles to Dupulisan Point. This section of the coast 
is bold and rises very rapidly to heights of from 1,400 to 1,600 feet. 
The shore line is rather irregular, being indented by a number of 
small coves, at the heads of which small streams discharge through 
the mangroves ; all of these coves are blocked by reefs and are of no 
value of navigation. The small villages of Dinapan, Culacion, 
Tagalo, and Nupulan lie on this stretch of coast. The points Pang- 
pang, Tucabadoc, Quiramat, and Tagalo are poorly denned, and 
from all positions offshore the coast appears very rounded. All 
the points are fringed by reefs to a short distance. 

Tagalo Point, the northeastern extremity of the land in this vicinity, 
is a bold, round headland, which rises to a height of 800 feet at a 
distance of % mile inland ; it is fringed by a very narrow reef and 
can be passed in safety at a distance of % mile. 

About 2y 2 miles northeastward from Sagarayan Island is the 
southern extremity of a large reef which extends nearly 1 mile in a 
north and south direction and is about % mile wide. This reef is 
covered by a least depth of 2 fathoms and its presence is plainly 
marked by discolored water. There is a channel nearly 1 mile wide 
between "it and the shore reef. The southeast tangent to Sagarayan 
Island bearing 225° (223° mag.) and the tangent to the land north- 
ward bearing 348° (346° mag.) clears the southeastern and eastern 
sides, respectively, of this reef. 

About 1 mile northward and iy 2 miles northeastward from the 
above-described reef and \y 2 and 2 miles eastward from Tucabadoc 
Point are two small rocky patches covered by 4% and 5% fathoms, 
respectively. The southeast tangent to Sagarayan Island bearing 
215° (213° mag.) and the tangent to the land northward bearing 
332° (330° mag.) clears the eastern side of these reefs. The channel 
between these reefs and the land is 1 mile wide, deep, and clear. 

At a distance of 1% and 2% miles eastward from Tagalo Point 
are the Tagalo Reefs, two in number. They consist of two small 
rocky patches each covered by a least depth of 2*/4 fathoms with a 
deep channel between them. The western reef lies on the bearings : 
Dupulisan Point 302° (300° mag.) and summit of Sagarayan Island 
204° (202° mag.). The eastern reef lies on the bearings: Dupulisan 
Point 296° (294° mag.) and summit of Sagarayan Island 210° (208° 
mag.). The channel ketween them and Tagalo Point is deep and 
clear. 

Pagadian Bay (chart 4652), situated in the northwestern part of 
Illana Bay, is about 9 miles wide between Tagalo and Calibon Points, 
extends about 5 miles northwestward, and includes the anchorages of 
Dupulisan and Pagadian. The land on the western side of Pagadian 
Bay rises gradually toward the mountains, while the land on the 
northern side is low and flat. Near the middle of the entrance is the 
southeastern limit of the Boca Reefs, a chain of reefs which extend 
nearly to the shore about 4 miles northwestward. Parts of these 
reefs are always awash, parts awash at low water, and the remainder 
covered by very little water. There are several channels between 
these reefs and there is also a channel between them and the shore 



174 MINDANAO. 

northwestward, but the better channel into Dupulisan and Pagadian 
Anchorages is between them and Tagalo Point. The southeastern 
limit of these dangers lies on the bearings: Dupulisan Point 273° 
(271° mag.) and Calibon Point 45° (43° mag.). 

Dupulisan Point, about 3 miles northwestward from Tagalo Point, 
is about 40 feet high, coveredwith cogon grass and stands out clear 
from the wooded background which rises to a height of over 700 
feet at a distance of less than 1 mile inland. It is fringed by a nar- 
row steep-to coral reef. 

Dupulisan Anchorage, immediately westward from Dupulisan Point, 
is nearly \y 2 miles wide at the entrance and extends about 1 mile 
southwestward. The shores of the bight are fringed with coral, but 
the middle is clear and good anchorage may be found in 15 fathoms, 
muddy bottom. 

Pagadian Anchorage, northward from Dupulisan Anchorage, is 
fringed with reefs, and in the northern part there are several reefs 
awash at low water. The remainder is clear and affords a large area 
of good anchorage in any desired depth. The village of Balangasan 
lies on the shore at the northwestern part of the anchorage and the 
village of Pagadian lies between the mouths of the Pagadian and 
Talapacan Eivers on the eastern shore. 

About % mile 70° (68° mag.) from the northern entrance point to 
Dupulisan Anchorage there is a small reef covered by a least depth 
of y 2 fathom. 

Dumagui Islet is a small wooded islet 190 feet high lying close to 
the shore on the western side of the entrance to Pagadian Anchorage. 
It may be safely passed on its eastern side at a distance of *4 mile, 
lampaqui Islet is a small, low, flat, wooded islet lying on the shore 
reef at the head of the anchorage. Good anchorage may be found 
midway between Dumagui and Lampaqui Islets in 14 fathoms, mud 
bottom, or in the same depth between Lampaqui Islet and Pagadian. 
In approaching the latter anchorage care should be taken to avoid 
the foul ground lying about y 2 mile southeastward from Lampaqui 
Islet.' 

Suanbato Point, on the eastern side of Pagadian Anchorage, is low 
and flat, covered with mangroves and fringed by reefs which extend 
over y 2 mile southward. This point is not readily made out from 
the southward but shows up well when seen from the westward or 
eastward. 

From Suanbato Point to Calibon Point the coast trends 80° (78° 
mag.) with a curve northward for about 8 nliles, and is low and 
fringed with mangroves. From Suanbato Point to within iy 2 miles 
of Tucuran River, reefs extend to a distance of about y 2 mile ; here 
the reefs terminate and the remaining stretch of coast is very steep-to. 
The valley between Calibon Point and the eastern shore of Pagadian 
Anchorage is drained by a number of rivers and is the richest and 
best cultivated tract of country on the shores of Illana Bay. Marum, 
Muricay, Maliang, Balaniug, Tanagun, Labangan, Giel, Bayon, and 
Tucuran are small villages lying on the shores of this section of the 
coast. 

Tucuran, at the mouth of the river of the same name, consists of 
three houses and some old barracks on the hill. The governor's 
house is near the blockhouse on the beach. Anchorage may be had, 



ILLANA BAY. 175 

300 or 400 yards from shore, in 20 fathoms, muddy bottom, by stand- 
ing in with the blockhouse near the beach bearing 355° (353° mag.). 
This anchorage should be approached cautiously, as the water shoals 
suddenly. The sea in this vicinity is much discolored at times by 
muddy water from the river. 

Calibon Point, situated about 1 mile eastward from the mouth of 
the Tucuran River, is fringed by a narrow very steep-to coral reef, 
The land back of the point rises rapidly to heights of over 1,000 
feet, which are covered with cogon grass and small timber. This 
ridge is the only mountain of this description on the north shore 
of the bay and is easily distinguished as far as Flecha Point by its 
green appearance. 

Dugolaan Point, about 6 miles eastward from Calibon Point, is 
surmounted by a hill 335 feet high and is clean and steep-to. The 
greater part of the shore line between Calibon and Dugolaan Points 
consists of mangrove swamps with flat, heavily wooded land behind 
them. Coral reefs, which partly bare at low water, fringe this sec- 
tion of the coast to a distance of % of a mile in some places. 

A chain of dangerous detached reefs, covered in places by as 
little as iy 2 fathoms of water, begins at the shore reef about 2 miles 
eastward from Calibon Point and extends in a southeast direction 
for about 7 miles to within a little over a mile from Semaruga Point. 
These reefs are steep-to on their seaward sides. Channels between 
the reefs are frequent and under favorable conditions it is an easy 
matter to pass inside of them. 

There is no anchorage westward from Dugolaan Point inside the 
reefs, as in most cases they join the shore reef, but good clear an- 
chorage may be found eastward from Dugolaan Point, in Caromata 
Bay, in about 20 fathoms, muddy bottom. 

Caromata Bay, between Dugolaan Point and Semaruga Point, 5 
miles southeastward from it, is clear with the exception of a coral 
patch covered with a least depth of 2 fathoms lying about % mile 
from shore with Semaruga Point bearing 165° (163° mag.) distant 
2 miles. Elsewhere the water shoals gradually toward the shore, 
affording anchorage in any desired depth. Dato Rock is a large 
rock awash, lying about 1 mile northward from Semaruga Point and 
300 yards from shore. 

Semaruga Point, the eastern entrance point to Caromata Bay, is a 
small well-wooded promontory, 130 feet high, connected with the 
mainland by a low isthmus. It is clean and steep-to. 

Sigayan Bay, lying between a point about % mile eastward from 
Semaruga Point and Sigayan Point, is about 2 miles wide and ex- 
tends 1 mile northeastward. The shores of Sigayan Bay rise gradu- 
ally to an elevation of 100 feet and then abruptly to a ridge about 
1,000 feet in elevation. Sigayan Bay is deep and clear, and an- 
chorage, well protected from northerly winds, may be found near its 
head in 20 fathoms, sandy bottom. 

Sigayan Point, the southeastern entrance point to Sigayan Bay, is 
over 100 feet high, well wooded, clean, and steep-to. 

About y% mile southward from Sigayan Point there is a reef cov- 
ered by a least depth of 3% fathoms with a deep channel between it 
and the point. 

From Sigayan Point the coast trends 107° (105° mag.) with a 
curve northward for 13 miles to Lapitan Point and is clean and 



176 MINDANAO. 

fairly steep-to. It consists of a number of small, bold points with 
small bays between them. There are a number of small villages scat- 
tered along this section of the coast, but no ports of any importance. 
Viewed from seaward the land appears very mountainous, but none 
of the peaks are very prominent except Mount Iniaoan, situated about 9 
miles northward from Magapu Point. Mount Iniaoan is fairly conical 
in shape, well wooded, and easily distinguishable and attains an ele- 
vation of 5,204 feet. 

Selungan Point, situated about 2% miles eastward from Sigayan 
Point, is steep and rocky and rises to a height of 370 feet at a dis- 
tance of x /z mile inland. The shore between Sigayan and Selungan 
Points is mostly sand beach, back of which there is a large valley, 
partly cultivated but mostly grown up with cogon grass and scragly 
trees. 

Magapu Point, lying about 5 miles eastward from Selungan Point, 
consists of three small steep-to headlands and is very abrupt, rising 
to a height of 1,094 feet at a distance of 650 yards inland. This is 
a very prominent headland and forms a good landmark. The shore 
between Selungan and Magapu Points is alternately sandy and rocky. 
There are no rivers of any size between these two points. About % 
mile westward from Magapu Point there is a small rocky islet about 
75 yards in extent, round in shape, 44 feet high, and topped by a few 
trees. 

Subuan River is a small stream discharging about iy 2 miles east- 
ward from Magapu Point. It is about 50 yards wide at its mouth 
and has about 1 foot of water on its bar at low water. This river 
drains a large flat valley between Magapu and Lapitan Points, which 
is cultivated to quite an extent and inhabited by Moros. Between 
Magapu Point and Tuca Bay the coast line is regular, almost straight, 
and the beach is sand. 

Tuca Bay, lying just northwestward from Lapitan Point, is small, 
being only about % mile in extent. The head of this bay is fringed 
with mangroves, and reefs make out from both sides. The small vil- 
lage of Tuca stands on the bluff adjacent to the eastern side of the 
bay. 

In most places along the coast between Sigayan and Lapitan Points 
the water is too deep for anchorage, the depths increasing rapidly 
from 2 fathoms. Anchorage may be found close in, in 20 fathoms of 
water, off the Subuan River and also westward from Magapu Point. 
Good anchorage may be found from 1 to 2 miles westward from 
Selungan Point. The flood tide runs northwestward, parallel with 
the coast, and the ebb tide in the opposite direction. 

lapitan Point is rather low and flat and mostly covered with cogon 
grass. The shore is rocky with low rocky bluffs. Immediately back 
of the point the land rises to an elevation of 400 feet and then slopes 
gradually back to the mountains, which have a general elevation of 
about 2,500 feet. The small village of Damitan lies on the right 
bank of a small stream of the same name between Lapitan Point and 
Port Baras; from here a valley extends some distance inland. 

From Lapitan Point to Port Baras, about 2 miles eastward, the 
shore is irregular and is composed of alternate sandy beaches and 
low, rocky points, behind which it is somewhat hilly and covered 
with grass and trees. 



ILLANA BAY. 177 

Port Baras (chart 4652) is about % mile in extent; the middle of 
the bay is deep but the head and eastern part are shoal. About 3 
miles back from Port Baras are high, heavily wooded hills, between 
which and the shore the land is low and wooded. 

Ibus Island is a small island covered with coconut trees and bushes 
forming the eastern entrance point to Port Baras. It is 115 feet 
high to the tops of the trees; the southern part is high with a rocky 
shore, while the northern part is low with a sandy beach. Shoal 
water exists between the island and the mainland. 

From Port Baras the coast trends southeasterly for about 3 miles 
to the mouth of the Mataling River and is low and sandy and cut 
into by a number of small streams. It is lined with trees and bushes 
and for some 3 miles inland is low. The Mataling River is nearly 
dry at its mouth at low water. 

Malabang lies on the Malabang River, which discharges about y% 
mile southeastward from the mouth of the Mataling. It is about % 
mile from the beach, is very small, and owes its slight importance to 
the fact that it was formerly a military post. There is a poor sandy 
road from the beach to the town. The river is only navigable by 
small pulling boats. The telegraph cable to Parang starts from a 
cable box on the beach 880 yards southeastward from the northern 
blockhouse and is laid southwestward for 2 miles ; thence southeast- 
ward. The Bureau of Posts also has a radio station at Malabang. 

Landmarks. — Good landmarks in this vicinity are the Dos Her- 
manos Peaks, the fort at Malabang and two white blockhouses. The 
Dos Hermanos Peaks are two round-topped peaks connected by a 
saddle lying about 6 miles northeastward from the mouth of the 
Malabang River. These peaks lie about % mile apart in a north- 
westerly and southeasterly direction and rise to heights of 2,671 and 
2,707 feet, the southeastern one being slightly the higher. The fort 
at Malabang is prominent and shows up well from seaward. The 
northern blockhouse, a white stone tower, is situated about 160 yards 
from the beach, on the right bank of the Malabang River; the north- 
ern blockhouse and fort when in line bear 47° (45° mag.). The 
southern blockhouse lies about y 2 mile southeastward from the north- 
ern and about 440 yards from the beach.., The only danger north- 
ward of the usual approach to Malabang is a small shoal patch 
covered by a least depth 3^4 fathoms lying 2y 2 miles 269° (267° 
mag.) from the southern blockhouse. 

The usual anchorage for Malabang is in 12 or 15 fathoms, about 
600 or 800 yards southwestward from the northern blockhouse. 

Dangers in the approach. — Buford Reef, covered by a least depth 
of 2 fathoms, is over l/ 2 mile lon g northwest and southeast and i/ 2 mile 
wide within the 10-fathom curve. From the center of the reef the 
southern blockhouse bears 22° (20° mag.) distant 5 miles and Tuga- 
pangan Point 132° (130° mag.). There is a detached patch, covered 
by a least depth of 3i/ 2 fathoms, lying about % mile 9° (7° mag.) 
from Buford Reef. . 

Pinatayan Shoal is about y 2 mile long east and west, of irregular 
shape, and covered by a least depth of li/ 2 fathoms. From the center 
of the shoal the southern blockhouse bears 349° (347° mag.) and 
Barrel Rock, off Matimus Point, 105° (103° mag.) distant 2i/ 2 miles. 
The eastern edge of Pinatayan Shoal is marked by a red and black 



178 MINDANAO. 

horizontally striped buoy. The channel between Pihatayan Shoal 
and Matimus Point is 2 miles wide, clear and deep. 

A small dangerous shoal nearly % mile in extent, covered by a 
least depth of 1% fathoms, exists 2% miles 188° (186° mag.) from 
the southern blockhouse and nearly iy 2 miles from the shore. The 
extreme western edge of this shoal is marked by a red and black 
horizontally striped buoy. There is a small detached patch of 5y 2 
fathoms lying nearly 14 m il e northeastward from the 1%-fathom 
shoal. There is a good channel % mile in width between the 1%- 
fathom shoal and the shore reefs. 

From the mouth of the Malabang River the coast trends south- 
easterly for about 9 miles to Tetian Bay and is mostly sand, lined 
with trees and bushes. It is fringed by a steep-to reef, which in some 
places extends to a distance of over y 2 mile. About 3 miles southeast 
of the Malabang River is a rocky point with a few outlying rocks 
bare at low water; on the southeast side of the point are a few 
coconut trees. Southeast of this point is the mouth of the Lalabuan 
River, nearly bare at low water. Lalabuan, consisting of a few 
native houses, lies on the right bank. 

Salauang Point is Ioav and sandy and covered with trees and fringed 
by reefs to a distance of y 2 mile. The Balabagan River empties about 
iy 2 miles southeastward from Salauang Point. The land for about 
3 miles inland is low and wooded; back of this, in the interior, are 
high mountain peaks attaining an elevation of about 4,000 feet. 

Tetian Bay, about 1 mile in extent, affords good anchorage, espe- 
cially in the northern part. The northern shore is low and sandy, 
while the eastern shore is composed of alternate sandy beaches and 
rocky points. The Matimus River, with a village of the same name 
at its mouth, discharges near the head of the bay ; its mouth is nearly 
bare at low water. 

Matimus Point, 8y 2 . miles south-southeastward from Malabang, is 
322 feet high and wooded and the shores are rocky with low rocky 
bluffs fringed by a narrow reef. 

Barrel Rock, the largest of three rocks lying about 100 yards from 
Matimus Point, is 24 feet high and very steep ; a lone tree stands on 
top of it. These rocks form the western entrance point to Tetian Bay 
and may be passed in safety at a distance of 250 yards. 

At a distance of y^ and y 2 mile from the shore, about 1 mile 
southward from the 322-foot hill on Matimus Point, are two shoal 
spots covered by y^ and 4 fathoms, respectively. 

Lalabugan Bay, between Matimus and Tugapangan Points, is about 
\y 2 miles wide and extends about 1 mile eastward. In the northeast 
and southeast parts of the bay are two small bights, the southeastern 
being somewhat the larger. At the heads of these bights are sand 
beaches and a few houses. Between the bights and northward from 
them the land is high, and covered with grass and trees. The shore is 
somewhat rocky and fringed by a coral reef. The southern shore 
of the bay is composed of alternate sand beaches and rocky points. 
The water of the bay is deep ; the bay is open westward and does not 
afford any good anchorage. 

Tugapangan Point, about 4% miles southeastward from Matimus 
Point, is clean and steep-to, and may be rounded at a distance of 14 
mile. It is 350 feet high, rocky, with low rocky bluffs, and covered 
with grass and trees. 



POLLOC HARBOR. 179 

Bongo Island, off the entrance to Polloc Harbor, is nearly 6 miles 
long northeast and southwest, from 1 to 1% miles wide, and heavily 
wooded throughout. The northern part is low, but toward the south- 
ern end it rises to a height of about 300 feet. It is fringed by reefs 
which on the northeast, north, and the northwest sides extend to a 
distance of y 2 mile. On the northwest side of the island foUl ground 
extends iy 2 miles beyond the edge of the shore reef, and this side of 
the island should be given a wide berth. There are several small 
islands lying 50 to 200 yards from the southeast side of the island. 
The channel between the reef extending from the northeast point of 
the island and Tugapangan Point is 4 miles wide and free from 
danger. limbayan Island is a small island lying on the edge of the 
reef about 150 yards from the south end of Bongo Island; it is 28 
feet high and forms a prominent landmark when seen from an east 
or west direction. 

A small coral shoal, covered by a least depth of 3^ fathoms and 
surrounded by deep water, exists about 3 miles northwestward from 
Bongo Island on the bearings: North end of Bongo Island 82%° 
(80i,| o mag.) and south end of same island 148° (146° mag.). 

A small coral shoal, covered by a least depth of 4 fathoms and 
surrounded by deep water, exists about 4 miles northwestward from 
Bongo Island on the bearings : North end of Bongo Island 83° (81° 
mag.) and south end of same island 139° (137° mag.). 

Directions between Malabang and poets southward. — Vessels 
leaving the anchorage at Malabang should steer out southwestward 
until Tugapangan Point is well open of Matimus Point, bearing 
about 143° (141° mag.). From this position steer for Matimus 
Point, passing westward of the buoy on the 1%-fathom patch and 
eastward of the buoy on Pinatayan Shoal. When drawing up to- 
ward Matimus Point haul off to give it a berth of about y 2 mile in 
passing and then steer to give Tugapangan an equal berth. 

Polloc Harbor (chart 4654), between Tugapangan Point northward 
and Marigabato (Red Rock) Point southward, is an excellent harbor, 
well sheltered, with an easy entrance, but with a considerable depth 
of water. It is open westward, but it is protected from winds from 
that quarter by Bongo Island. On the north side it contains the bays 
of Quidamak and Sugut, and on the south side a wider bay, in which 
are the anchorages of Polloc and Parang. A steep coral reef fringes 
the shore ; on the north side it is very narrow ; on the south side it 
extends 400 to 700 yards from the shore, and south of Sugut Bay it 
projects nearly 2 miles to the southwest. The depth at the entrance 
is over 40 fathoms ; within it ranges from 15 to 25 fathoms and along- 
side the fringing reef about 5 fathoms. There is a small detached 
hill at the head of the bay, which serves as a good mark for vessels 
bound for Parang. 

Parang lies on the side of the hill on the eastern shore of the har- 
bor, 150 to 200 feet above the sea, and is very prominent. From the 
foot of the hill an old stone mole with wooden extension extends in 
a southwest direction. Vessels of moderate size can be berthed across 
the end of the wharf, where there is said to be a depth of 26 feet at 
low water. There is good anchorage for large vessels about V4 mile 
from the end of the wharf in 14 or 15 fathoms of water. The tele- 
graph cable from Malabang lands in a small cove on the north side 



180 MINDANAO. 

of the mole. The town is also connected with Cotabato by road and 
trail. A fixed red light, which should be visible from a distance of 
7 miles, is exhibited from a white wooden-framed structure erected 
on a hill about 400 yards 103° (101° mag.) from the end of the wharf. 

Polloc Island is a small, irregular-shaped island on the south side 
of Polloc Harbor. It is separated from the mainland by a narrow 
channel called Sampinitan Creek, having less than 2 feet of water in 
it at low water. The northern and eastern sides of the island are 
fringed with reefs and shoals and should be given a berth of not less 
than % mile. Marigabato or Red Rock Point is clean and steep-to 
on all except the northern side, where a rocky ledge, uncovering at 
low water, extends to nearly 200 yards. 

Polloc is a small town lying on the eastern side of the island. A 
long stone mole extends off from the northern part of the town. 
There is an iron-framed beacon bearing 80° (78° mag.), distant about 
300 yards from the end of the mole, from which a light was formerly 
exhibited. On the south side of the mole, at the inner end, there is a 
small dry dock said to have a depth of 6 to 7 feet over the sill. 

Anchorage for large vessels may be found on a prolongation of the 
line of the mole and about % mile from the end of the mole in 17 
fathoms, muddy bottom. Small vessels can anchor farther to the 
southward and westward, not going much inside of 14 fathoms, as the 
banks on the south side of the harbor are very steep. 

There is anchorage in 8 fathoms on the eastern side of Quidamak 
Bay. Sugut Bay is half filled by a reef. There is a village on its 
western side. 

Winds in Polloc Harbor. — During the first months of the year, 
when the wind is well established from the northeast, there are often 
squalls in the afternoon from the north, accompanied with much 
lightning, wind, and rain. Before the squall begins the wind blows 
from the northwest and west, and after it is over the land breeze sets 
in until the following morning. During the southwest monsoon the 
wind freshens after midday and varies from the southwest to west 
and northwest; rain falls in abundance and heavy thunderstorms 
■occur. 

Tides. — There are two tides in the day, with some rare exceptions, 
which take place in the quarters of the equinoxes when the moon is 
at her greatest declination. The mean establishment is 6 h 16 m - 
Springs rise 7 feet, neaps 4% feet. The tidal stream turns at high 
and low water in Polloc Harbor and at all the ports on the coast be- 
tween Zamboanga and Polloc. On the coast, with a rising tide, the 
stream sets north, northwest, and west according to the local con- 
figuration. At Polloc Harbor, with rising tide, the stream sets east- 
ward on the shore and follows the bend of coast southward and west- 
ward ; the ebb stream sets in the reverse direction. 

From Marigabato Point, the western extremity of Polloc Island, 
the coast trends southerly with a slight curve eastward for about 5 
miles to Panalisan Point, the northern entrance point to the Cota- 
bato entrance to the Mindanao River. This stretch of coast is low, 
intersected by a number of small streams and fringed by a reef 
which in some places extends to a distance of % mile. 

Anchorage for vessels desiring to communicate with Cotabato may 
be found on the edge of the reef northwestward from Panalisan 
Point ; this anchorage is not to be recommended for large vessels. In 



MINDANAO RIVER. 181 

attempting to anchor here several vessels have got ashore and it 
should be approached with great caution unless the mariner is fa- 
miliar with the locality. The best anchorage will be found nearly 
1 mile from shore, in 5 to 20 fathoms, muddy bottom, with Mount 
Cabalata open westward of Timaco Hill bearing 199° (197° mag.) 
and the south end of Bongo Island bearing 277° (275° mag.). A 
black can buoy has been placed as a guide to this anchorage in 4 
fathoms, muddy bottom, with the lighted beacon at the mouth of the 
river bearing 170° (168° mag.), distant about 1 mile. The recom- 
mended anchorage is northwestward from the position of this buoy. 
The beacon is a white steel-framed structure on a concrete base on 
the southern point of the Cotabato entrance to the Mindanao River, 
from which there'is exhibited, at an elevation of 25 feet above high 
water, an automatic acetylene light showing one white flash every 5 
seconds. 

Mindanao River (charts 4654 and 4655), the largest river in the 
island of Mindanao, discharges 5 to 10 miles southward from Polloc 
by two large and several small mouths. It is navigable by the 
northern entrance by small seagoing vessels for 5 miles, to the town 
of Cotabato and for vessels of 3% feet draft for 60 miles farther. It 
flows through a beautiful, fertile valley, about 30 miles in width, 
which scarcely shows any change of level. The course of the river 
lies northwesterly for 45 miles between its mouth and Liguasan 
Marsh, out of which it seems to flow; from the other side of the 
marsh the direction of the river is south-southwest from its source 
in the Sugot Mountains. At 21 miles from its mouth the river 
divides into two arms, which enter the sea about 4% miles apart 
and between them form a great delta. These branches communi- 
cate by a number of small channels. The northern arm is the wider 
and deeper and is navigable for small steamers. The southern arm 
is narrow and has a depth of only y 2 fathom on its bar at low water. 
Near the mouths of the Mindanao and sometimes well out to sea 
are found numerous small floating islands composed of grass and 
floating debris of all kinds, and logs and trunks of trees of consider- 
able size are frequently seen. The river currents are felt well off- 
shore, and at times discolored water extends to Bongo Island and 
Polloc Harbor. The bars at the entrances are subject to change 
during freshets. 

Timaco Hill, lying close to the shore, between the main entrances to 
the river, is the summit of a rounded heavily wooded island. It 
rises to a height of 603 feet and is very conspicuous, being sur- 
rounded by low land. Its western point is very rocky and rugged 
v, ith low rocky cliffs 50 feet high. Several rocks lie off its northern 
and western shores. Between the Cotabato entrance to the river 
and Timaco, shoal water extends to a distance of 1 mile from the 
coast. 

Mount Cabalata, another excellent landmark, is situated about 4% 
miles southward from Timaco Hill and 1% miles back from the 
shore. It is a sugar-loaf-shaped mountain, which rises to a height 
of 2,3#5 feet; its slopes are covered with grass. From here an 
elevated range of volcanic mountains, dominated by the central peak, 
Dilafungan, extends some 70 miles southeastward, nearly parallel to 
the river. 



182 MINDANAO. 

Cotabato (chart 4654) is a small town lying on the south bank of 
the northern arm of the Mindanao River about 5 miles from the 
sea. The river in front of the town is narrow, and because of the 
strong current there is considerable difficulty in turning with an 
ebb tide. There is a small wharf that can accommodate any vessel 
that can cross the bar. Cotabato Hill is a small conspicuous hill 
rising from level ground to a height of 185 feet, about y 2 m ^ e south- 
ward from the wharf. 

Directions. — Vessels bound for Cotabato should bring the light 
at the entrance to the river to bear about 154° (152° mag.) and steer 
for it ; when nearly up to it they should haul eastward and favor the 
southern shore until abreast of the low mangrove covered islet about 
% mile eastward from the light; from here a 30° -(28° mag.) course 
will carry the best water across the bar, about 7 feet. After crossing 
the bar the usual rules for river navigation should be followed. 

South Entrance. — The south entrance to the Mindanao -River is 
situated about iy 2 miles southwestward from Timaco Hill, between 
Gardoqui and Bulusan Points. It is very shoal and used only by 
small native craft. Shoal water extends to a distance of over y 2 mile 
westward of a line drawn between the entrance points. There are 
no aids to navigation. Tamontaca, 5 miles up the river from the 
entrance, has a well-planned location but only a few houses. It is 
connected with Cotabato by a good dirt road. 

From Bulusan Point the coast trends south by west for 1% miles 
to Linek and is low, generally fringed with mangroves and cut into 
by several small streams. The land eastward is low and covered 
with coconut trees and bushes. This stretch of coast is faced by a 
reef to a distance of about y 2 mile with deep water at its edge. 
Linek, situated near the beach, consists only of nipa houses and is 
rather small. From here the coast trends in a west-southwest direc- 
tion for about &y 2 miles to Tapian Point and in places is fringed 
by a narrow steep-to coral reef awash at low water. The land back 
from the beach for *4 m il e an d i n some places nearly 1 mile is low and 
covered with bushes, coconut trees, and grass. Back of this, a range 
of hills, which attains elevations of 1,600 and 1,700 feet, extends in a 
northeasterly and opposite direction. 

Tapian Point is low for about y 2 mile back from the shore, sandy, 
and wooded. It is fringed by a reef to a distance of about 300 yards. 

Tapian Reef, covered by a least depth of 2y 2 fathoms, lies less than 
1 mile northwestward from Tapian Point. It is about % mile in 
extent within the 10-fathom curve, and between it and the shore reef 
around Tapian Point there is a deep channel over 1/2 m il e wide. 

From Tapian Point the coast trends southwest and south for 20 
miles to Quidapil Point. The land adjacent to this stretch of coast 
is broken and mountainous, there being only small areas of lowland 
at the mouths of the Kinomick and Landassan Rivers and at the head 
of Resa Bay. Mount Binaca, 3.350 feet high, is the highest mountain 
in the coastal ridge. Its summit is wooded, but its sides are covered 
with cogon, bushes, and clumps of trees. The coastal mountains in 
general are covered with cogon and bushes, while the shore line is 
fringed with trees overhanging the beach of rock, sand, or gravel. 
The country is sparsely inhabited by Tirurayes and JMoros, who raise 
some hemp as well as corn, sweet potatoes, and hill rice during the 



COTABATO TO LINAO BAY. 183 

rainy season. The Matabal Biver and the Lapacon River can be 
entered by whaleboat at half tide, but the channels frequently change 
during the rainy season. 

Mount Blik, 4,021 feet high, is near the northern end of the higher 
inland range of mountains and forms an excellent landmark for 
approaching this coast. Northward of this hlountain lies the broad 
valley of the Mindanao River, and southward the land between Mount 
Blik and the mountain southeastward of Port Lebak appears com- 
paratively low. The latter is frequently cloud-capped. 

A continuous northerly current of small strength is felt offshore, 
with a reverse current close inshore along the reef line. The water 
deepens abruptly, the 50- fathom curve being usually less than y 2 mile 
from shore. A sand and bowlder reef, about 350 yards in .diameter 
and having a depth of 2 fathoms of water over it, lies about % mile 
215° (213° mag.) from Logung Point. All the other dangers to 
navigation are less than y 2 mile offshore, and all of them are steep-to 
from seaward. Manangula Point and Tenotungan Point are low. 
Between the latter point and the 3-fathom shoal % mile northward 
small vessels can anchor in an open anchorage in 10 to 12 fathoms of 
water, sand bottom, opposite a short stretch of sand beach. Logung 
Point and Tagata Point are fairly prominent, the former having a 
grass-covered knoll 320 feet high. 

Resa Bay lies between Tagata Point and Liess Point, 2 miles south- 
ward. The Lassak River and the Lapacon River empty into the 
head of the bay. Four sand and rock shoals, each about 125 yards in 
diameter, having depths of 3. 5, 8, and 3^4 fathoms of water over 
them, lie off the mouth of the Lassak River, the outer one lying 
y 2 mile offshore. The best anchorage is about y 2 mile northward of 
the mouth of the Lapacon River in IT to 23 fathoms of water, sand 
bottom. It is open to westward and only tenable in fair weather. 

Quidapil Point is a prominent landmark, appearing as an island 
when first seen from northward or southward. It is formed by a 
narrow ridge, 350 feet high, covered with grass and bushes. The 
shore is steep and rocky with large loose rocks and coral reef exposed 
at low water. Mount Corobong, 2y 2 miles back from the point, is a 
prominent cogon-covered peak, 2,350 feet high. 

Linao Point is rocky with large loose rocks on the coral reef ex- 
posed at low tide. Sadam Bay, northward of the point, is almost en- 
tirely bordered by coral and mangrove. There is, however, a break 
in the reef on the western side of the bay, where small boats can find 
a good landing in rough weather. 

Huidobro Reef lies 2"miles 240° (238° mag.) from Linao Point, is 
y 3 mile long north and south, about 300 yards wide, and has a general 
depth of 4 to 5 fathoms with one bowlder near the center, having a 
least known depth of 3% fathoms of water. The outer rim is com- 
posed of live coral with dead coral and white sand spots inside. It 
is readily visible from a safe distance. A wide, deep channel lies 
between it and Linao Point. 

Linao Bay is open to southwest. The three reefs near the head of 
the bay are each about 250 yards in diameter with depths of 11/4, 2, 
and 1 fathoms of water on them. The shore of the bay is sand and 
hard mud, with bushes and trees at the high-water line. The best 
anchorage is off Mati behind the 1-fathom reef in the northern part 



184 MINDANAO. 

of the bay in 7 to 11 fathoms of water. In heavy southwest weather 
the seas roll in and render even this anchorage uncomfortable, Mati 
is the name given by the Moros to the small collection of houses at the 
head of the bay. Tran is a small town on Kalingmomo Point at the 
mouth of the Tran Grande River. This river can be entered at any 
stage of the tide by small boats. 

Between Linao Bay and Port Lebak the country is low and flat, the 
coastal mountains being from 3 to 4 miles back from the shore. The 
entire country is wooded ; the rivers are small and of no importance. 
This coast is clean and there' are no dangers to navigation. A rocky 
reef, about 100 yards in diameter, with two bowlders awash at low 
tide, lies % mile off the rocky point 1 mile north of Lebak Point. A 
clear deep channel, about 200 yards wide, exists between the reef and 
the shore. Lebak Point is high and rocky, rising to an elevation of 
340 feet % mile back from the point. 

Port Lebak (chart 4653) affords the best protected anchorage in this 
part of Mindanao. It is easy of access and the water shoals gradually 
from 45 fathoms at the entrance to 12 fathoms, mud bottom, V 2 m ^ s 
from its head, where there is ample swinging room for good-sized 
vessels. This anchorage is open to the west, but protected anchorage 
may be had in 16 to 18 fathoms eastward of Tubotubo Island, and 
northeast of Lebak Island in 14 to 16 fathoms, mud bottom. Lebak 
Island is a small rock islet, 37 feet high, lying near the outer edge 
of the reef extending from Lebak Point. Tubotubo Island, 110 feet 
high, lies on the south side of Port Lebak. It is connected with the 
shore by a reef that bares at half tide. The reef extends about 200 
yards northward of the island. The shores of Port Lebak are man- 
grove, fronted by a coral reef 100 to 300 yards wide. Talamasig and 
Lebak are two small settlements, the latter the location of a saAvmill 
exporting considerable .lumber. 

Between Port Lebak and Tuna Bay, 10 miles southward, the coast 
is much indented and the land rises steeply from the shore and is 
heavily wooded. The only low land lies northward of Sangay Point 
along the valley of the Sangay Eiver, which leads to the coastal 
mountains. 

Mount Syniop, 1,730 feet high, is the most prominent peak near 
shore. It is conical in shape near the summit and is heavily wooded. 
All these mountains merge into the higher mountains in the interior. 

Donauang Shoals is the name applied to a series of 7 shoals ex- 
tending for 4 miles in a northwest and southeast direction along 
this coast. The northern and outer shoal lies 2 miles 282° (280° 
mag.) from Nara Point. It is about 380 yards in diameter and has 
a least known depth of 4% fathoms, sand and coral. A clear, deep 
channel separates this shoal from the two shoals lying about 1 mile 
west of Pitas Point, and a clear channel y 2 mile wide separates this 
latter shoal from the group of four shoals lying over 1 mile north 
of Donauang Island. All the reefs are steep-to on all sides, and 
a deep passage % mile wide lies between the reefs and the mainland. 

Basiauang Bay (chart 4653) lies between Basiauang Point and 
Donauang Island. Its great depth makes anchoring difficult, though 
Small boats and launches can find some protection on either the 
north or south side of the bay. Donauang Island is about 300 feet 
high, thickly wooded, and makes a good landmark for vessels ap- 



PORT LEBAK TO TAYTAYEN ISLAND. 185 

proaching from either north or south. It is surrounded by a reef 
200 yards wide on the south and west sides, reaching out 380 yards 
on the north. A deep channel, 220 yards wide, separates it from 
the mainland. This channel is used by coasting steamers going to 
Port Lebak. Vessels not calling at these ports should keep about 5 
miles offshore, thus avoiding all the dangers described above. 

Tuna Bay (chart 4653) is open to southward and a heavy swell is 
felt at the anchorage during the southwest monsoon. Moderate- 
sized vessels can anchor near the head of the bay in 18 to 20 fathoms, 
mud bottom, protected from all except southerly weather. Tuna 
Point, the western entrance point, is a prominent rocky point with a 
narrow rocky shelf, on which there are several rocks awash at high 
tide. The western shore of the bay is bordered by a coral reef of 
varying width, the widest part being marked by a small island, 20 
feet high, which is connected to the mainland by a mangrove swamp. 
The eastern shore is mainly sand beach with a few patches of rock 
and gravel. 

From Tuna Bay the coast trends southeast and east-southeast for 
75 miles to Sarangani Bay. High, heavily wooded mountains extend 
along the coast, their summits being from 2 to 4 miles back from 
the shore. Two cone-shaped peaks north of Bacud Point are very 
prominent when seen from west or southeast. The water deepens 
rapidly, the 100-fathom curve being less than 2 miles offshore. 
Following the general direction of the coast line a vessel can safely 
coast at a distance of 5 miles, the outer danger being less than 3 
miles offshore. A continuous current of y% to 1 knot sets to the 
southeastward with a current in the opposite direction close inshore. 

Taytayen Island, 7 miles southeast of Tuna Bay, lies close to the 
shore, the channel between it and the shore having barely enough 
water to float a rowboat at low tide. It is 120 feet high, with small 
trees growing on top. The west side is clean and steep-to, but rocks 
bare 200 yards southward. 

From Taytayen Island to Balonga, 2 miles eastward of Pola Point, 
a chain of reefs lies from % to 2 miles offshore. They lie on the edge 
of the bank near the 100-fathom curve, having depth of 4% fathoms 
to bare at half tide and are steep-to on all sides. A shoal, with a 
least depth of 3% fathoms of water, lies 1% miles southward of Cadis 
Point and % mile offshore. Canipan Reef, a large shoal area with 
a 1-fathom patch near its southern end, lies 1 mile westward of this 
reef, the channel between them having a depth of 32 fathoms. 

Palimban Point is low and rounding. Pola Point is 460 feet high 
with a conspicuous rocky bluff. The point shows up prominent when 
seen from westward and southeastward. Anchorage in 9 to 10 fath- 
oms, mud bottom, may be had off the town of Balonga and in the 
channel between the reefs and the shore in 15 to 20 fathoms of water. 
The channels between the reefs and between the reefs and the shore 
are deep and clear, but the reefs are hard to pick up, on account of 
the discolored water from the rivers in the vicinity. A moderate cur- 
rent, little affected by tide or weather, sets northwestward along the 
shore, but offshore the strong southeasterly current setting toward 
Sarangani Strait is encountered. 

Maculi Point is low and rounding, the Craan River emptying near 
the end of the point. The shore from the Balonga River to Pinol 



186 MINDANAO. 

Point. is composed of sand and gravel and is wooded to the high- 
water line. A convenient anchorage may be had 2 miles eastward of 
the Craan River mouth in 14 to 20 fathoms of water 14 mile offshore. 
From Pinol Point to the next point southeastward the shore is bor- 
dered by an uneven coral reef 150 yards wide, and the land rises 
steeply from the water's edge. • Pinol Point is a point 220 feet high, 
with a prominent yellow cliff 70 feet high. This point is easily 
identified, though not so prominent as Pola Point. 

. Pagang Point, 9 miles southeastward from Pinol Point, is a sharp, 
rocky point 70 feet high. Its sea face is a vertical rock face, undercut 
by the sea; its land side drops off rapidly to the level of the beach. 
The foreshore along this stretch of coast is low and flat, with numer- 
ous unimportant rivers emptying into the sea. Some of the rivers 
can be entered by whaleboats at half tide, and fresh water can be 
obtained at low water, or a short distance upstream from their 
mouths, 

Bacud Point (called Kiamba by the natives) is fronted by a reef 
about 200 yards wide, on the outer edge of which lies a rock 26 feet 
high. The point itself is made up of cliffs 40 feet high, rising to a 
rather flat-topped peak 760 feet high. The cone-shaped peaks, 1,700 
and 1,810 feet high, lying northward of the point, are prominent 
from seaward and, readily picked up when seen clear of the higher 
mountains in the interior. 

Bacud Reef lies 4 miles southeast of Bacud Point and 2% miles off- 
shore. From the reef the 1,810-foot cone peak over the eastern edge 
of the flat-topped peak on Bacud Point bears 337° (335° mag.). It is 
about 550 yards long by 380 yards wide within the 10-f athom curve, 
rising out of a depth of about 100 fathoms. The shoalest water is 1 
fathom on a distinct cone covered by broken shell and coral, with flat 
rocks on the deeper parts of the reef. No warning of its existence, is 
given until actually over it: This constitutes the only offshore dan- 
ger in the vicinity. Two rocks, each having a depth of 5 fathoms, 
rising out of 30 fathoms, lie about % mile off the mouth of the Key- 
batis River, but. are practically out of the route of coastwise naviga- 
tion. 

Clin consists of half a dozen houses at the mouth of the Clin 
River. A palm grove extends eastward along the shore for a few 
hundred yards. A number of houses were noticed scattered over the 
coastal plain, which seems to be very productive. Rice, corn, camotes, 
hemp, and coconuts are the principal products. Most of the country 
is heavily wooded. Many of the rivers can be entered at half tide by 
small boats, but are of.no particular commercial importance. 

Bual Point is clean outside the shore reef, which extends about 200 
yards offshore. The point is low and wooded. Matil Point consists 
of coral rock and sand. It is low and flat, and the tree line is about 
100 yards back from the point. The present survey stops about 1 mile 
westward of Matil Point. 

There is a reef 2 miles long and 1 mile wide, covered by 5 fathoms, 
lying about 31/2 mile,s 240° (238° mag.) from Bulaluan Point. A 
report states that there are a number of dangerous reefs between 
Bulaluan Point and this 5-f athom reef, on which the least sounding 
obtained was 1% fathoms. ; 



TAYTAYEN ISLAND TO SAKANGANI BAY. 187 



SARaNGANI BAT 



has a width of about 6 miles between Bulaluan and Sumban Points. 
Its' sides are very steep and the water is deep. Anchorage may be 
found in the bights of its coast line, but very close in, and with a 
■line out to the snore to prevent the anchor from slipping into deep 
water. The chart shows a coral reef extending 1 mile out, surround- 
ing Bulaluan Point and bordering the western and northern shores 
of the bay. 

Mutul anchorage is in the northwest angle of the bay, in 15 
fathoms, with moorings to the shore. Good water can be obtained 
from Mutul Biver. 

Mount Matutum, situated 32 miles northward from Bulaluan Point, 
the western entrance point to Sarangani Bay, rises to a height of 
7,554 feet and forms a very prominent landmark. 

Canalasan Cove (chart 4653), though steep, is the best anchofage in 
Sarangani Bay during the southwest monsoon: It is situated east 
of Sumban Point, before the town of Glan. Anchorage may be 
had in 11 to 13 fathoms with a hawser to the shore, but it is not ad- 
visable to anchor before the mouth of the Glan Biver, which flows 
into the eastern part of the cbve. The town of Glan stands on the 
left bank of the river, near its mouth. 

Sumban Point is high and steep, with but little vegetation upon it. 
It is surrounded by a reef extending 500 yards west and north. 

The southern peninsula of Mindanao, between Sarangani Bay and 
the Gulf of Davao, is high and has several prominent peaks upon it. 
The southern hill, 1,670 feet high, and in reality round'^ looks some- 
what like a pyramid when seen on an east-southeast or west-north- 
west bearing. There is a saddle peak, 3,600 feet high, 5 miles north- 
northeast of this round-topped hill; and 9 miles north-northeast of 
this saddle peak there is a high range, the highest peak of which, 
4,520 feet, has a conical top when viewed from southward. 

From Sumban Point to Tinaca Point, the southern extremity of the 
peninsula, the coast is generally clean, except near Bluff Point, where 
the reef extends out nearly 1 mile. Tucapanga Point is rocky, high, 
and steep. A reef follows the coast from it around the south end of 
the peninsula as far as Butulan Cove. There is a shoal,, covered by 
414 fathoms, shown on the Spanish chart about midway between 
Sumban and Tueapanga Points 2 miles offshore. 

Batulaque Gove, between Pampat and Tinaca Points, is about % 
mile wide and % mile deep. The shores are fringed by a reef which 
considerably reduces the anchorage space. Small vessels find good 
shelter here in the northeast monsoon in &y 2 to 7 fathoms. 

Tinaca Point, the southern extremity of Mindanao,, consists of two 
headlands connected by a semicircular beach. The whole gives the 
idea of a volcanic crater at an angle of 45° half above and half below 
water. It is clean and steep-to southward, and may be passed at 100 
yards distance. An automatic acetylene light, showing one white 
flash every 3 seconds, visible 15 miles, is exhibited, 140 feet above 
high water, from a white concrete beacon erected on Tinaca Point. 
Southeastward of the point there is a large shoal of sand and rock, 
covered by £>y 2 - fathoms. 

Balangunan Cove, about 2 miles northeasterly from Tinaca Point, 
affords very indifferent anchorage, being exposed to the sea. 



188 k MINDANAO. 

Malavinuan Cove, about 1 mile eastward from Balangunan Cove, is 
similar in size and shape to Batulaque Cove and affords sheltered 
anchorage in the northeast monsoon in 12 to 16 fathoms. 

Glial Point, the most southeasterly part of the peninsula, is low 
and sloping, with a little reef off it. Camalian Cove, immediately 
north of Gual Point, offers a deep, bad anchorage. Camalian Point, 
on the northern- side of the cove of the same name, is foul, as is the 
coast from here to Silacay Point, which forms the southern entrance 
to Butulan Cove, 2 miles northeasterly from Camalian Cove. 

Butulan Cove is situated northward of Silacay Point; it is semi- 
circular in form, nearly 1 mile wide and y 2 mile deep. It offers 
temporary anchorage out of the swell of the sea, but exposed to the 
sea that sets in from cross tides. The depth is great, with 14 fathoms 
almost touching the shore and 10 fathoms at the mouth of the river. 

The coast northward is clean and sloping and almost straight to 
Banos Point, which is 72 feet high and peaked. From here it runs 
about 13° (ll° mag.) to Calian Point, which is broad and rather 
prominent. There is good anchorage off Calian Point, either north 
or south of it. 

Tides. — It is high water, full and change, at Tinaca Point at 7 
hours. Springs rise 6 feet. The flood stream sets westward and the 
ebb eastward between Tinaca Point and the Sarangani Islands. 
On the coast northward and eastward it is said that the flood stream 
sets northward and the ebb southward, the latter being less violent 
than the flood : also that northward of Calian Point the tide streams 
are weaker. Strong tide races and violent eddies are prevalent off 
Banos Point. 

SARANGANI ISLANDS 

consist of two islands and a sand cay, situated 7 miles from the 
south point of Mindanao. The Islands, Sarangani and Balut, are 
separated by a deep channel 1% miles wide, reduced by reefs on both 
sides to a navigable passage % mile wide. In this channel the tidal 
streams acquire great velocity, the flood stream setting north and 
the ebb south. A shoal covered by 7 fathoms lies nearly in mid- 
channel. 

Balut Island, the westernmost of the two, is the larger, higher, and 
better cultivated. In the center is a volcano, from which smoke 
sometimes issues, having an elevation of 2,775 feet; seen from the 
northwest it appears between two peaks. Near the southwest point 
there is another volcano and in the southeast part a hill 1,083 feet 
high. The north and east coasts are bordered by a reef, which in 
some places extends out over 1 mile, while on the south and west sides 
the fringing reef does not extend out to any distance. Off the south- 
west point is a rock 40 feet high. Lajan Point, the northeast point 
of the island, is low and covered by mangroves. About iy 2 miles 
southward of the point there is anchorage in 13 fathoms, sheltered 
from the southwest, but exposed to the seas from the northeast. This 
is the only anchorage in the island. There is a hot spring here, cov- 
ered at high water. 

Sarangani Island is composed of small undulating hills, 490 to 820 
feet in height, covered with vegetation. There are three well-shel- 
tered inlets on the west coast; the east coast is very foul. Port 



SARANGANI BAY AND ISLANDS. 189 

Patuco (chart 4653), close to the northern end of the island, offers 
sheltered anchorage for small vessels in 8 fathoms; the stern should 
be secured to the shore. The entrance may be recognized by a cliff 
of red earth a little northward of it. The channel is narrowed by 
reefs on both sides. Tiain Point, situated 1 mile southwest from 
the entrance to Port Patuco, may be recognized by white lime stains 
upon it. It can be approached with safety. There is a detached 
patch with 27 feet over it, lying 352° (350° mag.), distant y 2 mile 
from Tiain Point and westward of the entrance to Port Patuco. 
Port Tumanao (chart 4653), situated 1 mile south of Tiain Point, 
has 25 fathoms at the entrance, diminishing to 9 fathoms in the east- 
ern part of the port. Good anchorage for small vessels may be found, 
in 15 fathoms about y± mile from the head of the port. This place 
was formerly a Spanish military post. The northern entrance, which 
is bordered by a reef to ^4 mile, may be recognized by a conspicuous 
white mark in the rocky bluff. Water can be obtained from a small 
rivulet in the southeast part of the port. Port Bolay (chart 4653), 
situated 1% miles southward of Port Tumanao, is small and only fit 
for very small craft. Neither wood nor water can be obtained here. 
Olanivan Island is a small flat cay, about % mile across, lying 1 
mile northward of the north end of Sarangani Island. It is about 
60 feet high and has trees upon it. It is surrounded by a coral reef 
with 7 fathoms off its southwest edge. Between this reef and that 
fringing the north point of Sarangani Island there is a narrow chan- 
nel which appears navigable. 

DAVAO GULF 

has its entrance between Calian Point westward and Cape San Agus- 
tin eastward, some 30 miles apart, and extends about 70 miles north- 
ward. Samal and Talicud Islands largely occupy the northern part 
of the gulf. The waters of the middle of the gulf are deep and 
clear. The shoals which fringe the western shores do not extend 
to a distance of over iy 2 miles, while in the eastern part of the gulf, 
between Arena Point and Sigaboy Island, there are a number of 
dangerous detached shoals and reef s lying from 3 to 4 miles from the 
coast and much foul ground at a lesser distance. 

From Calian Point the coast trends in a general north-northwest 
direction for about 25 miles to Tubalan Head. Tahigutan, Lais, 
Malita, and Lacaron lie on this stretch of coast, nearly all of which is 
still unsurveyed. Very little is known in regard to it, but from Lais 
northward it is reported to be mostly sand with mangroves in places 
and clean with the exception of the points that send off reefs. The 
survey at the present time terminates at a perpendicular bluff about 
40 feet high, about 1% miles southward from Tubalan Head, be- 
tween which two points there is a fine sand beach with a few isolated 
rocks at the low-water line. 

Lais Malita, and Lacaron are ports of call for the riiail steamers. 
There 'are small wharves at Lais and Malita. The bottom is reported 
foul southward from the wharf at Lais and the recommended anchor- 
age is northeastward of the wharf. At Malita the bottom is foul 
northward of the wharf and vessels should anchor southeastward of 
this wharf. There is a radio station of the Bureau of Posts at Malita. 



190 MINDANAO. 

Tubalan Head, forming the eastern side of the port of the same 
name, is a prominent landmark, being a gently rounded hill which 
rises to a height of 558 feet; the isthmus connecting the hill with 
the mainland is low, giving it the appearance of an island when seen 
from a distance. 

The northeastern and eastern sides of the headland are clean and 
steep-to, and there are no outlying dangers. Off the northwestern 
part of the headland, the reef extends to a distance of about 300 
yards. 

The coast from Tubalan Head trends in a general west-northwest 
direction for about 13 miles to Colapsin Point at the entrance to 
. Malalag Bay, and is by far the most indented section of the coast line 
in Davao Gulf. The numerous points present no headlands of im- 
portance except Tubalan Head. From 1 to 3 miles inland are numer- 
ous and usually sharp peaks 600 to 1,400 feet high. Several miles 
farther inland and usually separated by pronounced valleys are peaks 
ranging in height from 1,600 to probably 4,000 feet; these interior 
peaks are generally covered with clouds. The whole system presents 
no definite ranges or formation but a more or less jumbled and con- 
fused mass, which makes it difficult to select particular peaks. The 
whole area is heavily Wooded, but with timber of no great value. 

Port Tubalan is over % mile wide at the entrance between the 
northwest extremity of Tubalan Head and Botak Point. The middle 
of the bay is deep, and the shores are fringed with coral. Basol Islet 
is a steep rocky bluff with a few bushes on top lying on the reef in 
the southeastern part of the bay. 

The best anchorages in Port Tubalan are in the western corner of 
the bay, about y± mile from shore, in 20 or 22 fathoms, muddy bot- 
tom, and in the southeast corner in 22 to 24 fathoms, muddy bottom, 
with Basol Islet bearing 115° (113° mag.) distant about 14 mile. 

Botak Point, the northern entrance point to Port Tubalan, is 361 
feet high and slopes quickly to a rocky bluff, 40 feet high, at the ex- 
tremity. The sides of the point are fringed by narrow reefs, but 
the end is clean and steep-to. 

Between Botak Point and Sigarin Point, 2^4 miles west-northwest- 
ward, there are two indentations formed by Minaban and Babak 
Points which are of no particular value to navigation. They contain 
no obstructions except the fringing shore reefs. 

Sigarin Point, the southeastern entrance point to Basiauan Bay, 
comes down in a gentle slope notched by five hills lying close to the 
gulf side and ends in a bluff about 80 feet high. Sigarin Point is 
fringed by a coral reef with foul ground beyond it to a distance of 
nearly y± mile. 

Basiauan Bay is 214 miles wide at the entrance between Sigarin and 
Sibalatan Points and extends 1% miles southwestward. The middle 
of the bay is deep and clear, but the shores are fringed by reefs which 
extend to a distance of % mile in some places. The town of Basiauan 
lies at the head of the bay. 

The best anchorage in this vicinity is found at the head of Basia- 
uan Bay, northeastward from the town, in 14 to 16 fathoms, muddy 
bottom, sheltered from all winds except those from north to north- 
northeast. The reef from Tambalan Point, which extends to a dis- 
tance of nearly % mile, is bare at low water, but the reefs on both 



DAVAO GULF. 191 . 

sides of the anchorage have about 1 foot of water on them at low 
water and show mostly of a dark brown color. The approach to the 
anchorage is free from danger with the exception of the shore reefs. 

Sibalatan Point, the northwestern entrance point to Basiauan Bay, 
is not prominent from up or down the gulf, but is easily recognized 
from northeastward, the point ending in a ridge over 200 feet high 
that terminates in a curving embankment pointing southward. The 
point is fringed with a coral reef with foul ground outside of it, 
which extends to a distance of about ^4 mile. 

A small shoal, covered by a least depth of 2 fathoms, lies nearly 
l 1 /^ miles northeastward from Kabalantia Point on the bearings: 
Sibalatan Point 163° (161° mag.) and Kulungan Point 300° (298° 
mag.). 

Kulungan Point, situated nearly 3y 2 miles 321° (319° mag.) from 
Sibalatan Point, is easily recognized fay a sharp tongue of bare, rocky, 
yellow bluff running several hundred yards northward down to the 
water edge. The point is fringed with coral, but may be rounded 
in safety at a distance of y± mile. 

Between Sibalatan and Kulungan Points there is a wide bay, 
divided into two smaller bays by Kabalantia Point. Monkiaua Bay 
is the eastern bay and Kulungan Bay the western. The center of 
Monkiaua Bay is clear, but the shores are fringed with coral. Kulun- 
gan Bay is foul, containing a number of shoals, some of which are 
awash at low water. All of the shoals lie inside of a line drawn from 
Sibalatan Point to Kulungan Point; and as this bay is. of no value 
to navigation, it is not necessary to describe them. 

From Kulungan Point to Colapsin Point, about 4 miles northwest- 
ward, the shore is bold and rocky, with stretches of sand beach and a 
fringe of coral 30 to 350 yards wide. Cliff Point, situated nearly 
midway between the two above-mentioned points, is 390 feet high and 
is clean and steep-to. 

Colapsin Point, the northeastern extremity of the peninsula, form- 
ing the northern side of Malalag Bay, rises to a height of 265 feet, is 
well wooded and fringed by a narrow coral reef, which extends to a 
distance of about 350 yards. 

There is a small coral shoal covered by a least known depth of 
Zy 2 fathoms lying % mile from Colapsin Point on the bearings: 
Colapsin Point 207° (205° mag.) and Mount Piapi 271° (269° mag.). 
This shoal should be avoided, as there may be coral heads on it with 
less water. 

Mount Piapi is a lone heavily wooded hill, 640 feet high, lying close 
to the beach, about 3 miles 282° (280° mag.) from Colapsin Point. 
It forms a good landmark, being distinguishable from a considerable 
distance. 

Piapi Reef is a coral reef which bares about 1 foot at low water, 
lying about 1% miles 78° (76° mag.) from the point at the foot of the 
eastern slope of Mount Piapi, and there is a small detached iy 2 - 
fathom patch about % mile eastward of Piapi Beef. 

Malalag Bay (chart 4649), situated in the southwest part of the 
gulf, is about 4 miles long southeast and northwest and 1 mile wide. 
The eastern entrance point, situated about y 2 mile west-southwest- 
ward from Colapsin Point, rises to a height of 189 feet and is sur- 
rounded by a coral reef, the western extremity of which lies about 
% mile 240° (238° mag.) from the point. The western shore of the 



192 MINDANAO. 

entrance is fringed by mangroves, beyond which shoal water extends 
to a distance of from y 2 to % mile, leaving a channel 1 mile wide into 
the bay. The entrance is clear and deep with the exception of Bolton 
.Reef , a small reef which lies in the middle of the channel. 

Malalag Bay is surrounded by high hills, and on the west side and 
also at the head of the bay are extensive mangrove swamps. The 
western part of the bay is shoal, and there is considerable shoal 
ground at the head of the bay, the western edge of which is marked 
by an islet 60 feet high. 

Bolton Reef is a small reef covered by a least depth of y 2 fathom. 
It lies in the middle of the entrance and divides it into two channels, 
of which the western one is the wider and better. It is very small in 
extent and is surrounded by deep water. From the position of least 
depth Mount Piapi bears 299° (297° mag.) and Colapsin Point 74° 
(72° mag.). Bolton Reef is marked by a concrete beacon which 
stands in 11 feet of water and rises to a height of 17 feet above the sea. 

The town of Bolton lies on the south shore of the bay; it is small 
and of little commercial importance. The usual anchorage in 10 
fathoms, about y± mile northward from the town, is bad in northerly 
winds, which have a long sweep down the gulf, and even with south- 
erly winds there is some sea here. About 1 mile eastward from the 
town, just around a bluff rocky point, is a fine sand beach which for 
a short distance has no coral off it and deep water close-to. Ships of 
any size can anchor close in here. A fixed red light, visible 7 miles, 
is exhibited 32 feet above high water from a white pole on the eastern 
side of the mouth of the Malalag River. Immediately under the 
lantern there is a large white triangular daymark that can be seen 
from outside the reefs at the entrance to the bay. 

Directions. — Vessels entering Malalag Bay should bring the light 
to bear 193° (191° mag.) and steer for it. This course should carry a 
vessel about % mile eastward of the reefs off Mount Piapi and % mile 
westward from the beacon on Bolton Beef. Having passed the latter 
reef, there are no other dangers. 

Anchorage in 10 fathoms, muddy bottom, will be found in front of 
Bolton about % mile from shore or eastward of the rocky point pre- 
viously described. Vessels entering for shelter will find good pro- 
tected anchorage between the islet near the head of the bay and the 
north shore in about 20 fathoms. 

From Mount Piapi the coast trends 17° (15° mag.) with a curve 
westward for 14^4 miles to Malusi Point, thence 41° (39° mag.) with 
a curve northwestward for 15 miles to the mouth of the Davao 
River. The land in the immediate vicinity of the shore is low, but 
rises rapidly to a mountain range culminating in Mount Apo. This 
section of the coast is heavily wooded and intersected by a number 
of small streams, none of which are navigable by steam launches. 
At low water they are difficult to enter even with a pulling boat. 
The shores are fringed with reefs, and in some places there are de- 
tached reefs lying about 1 to \y 2 miles from the coast. The anchor- 
ages are poor and in many cases rendered difficult of access by the 
off-lying reefs. 

TJmbakanan River discharges about iy 2 miles northward from 
Mount Piapi. Between these two points the shore is low, flat, and 



DAVAO GULP. 193 

heavily wooded inland, with a hill here and there, and a flat sandy 
beach overlying coral with an indefinite shore line and mangroves. 
These sandy flats extend to a distance of about y 2 mile to the limits 
of the coral reefs and are nearly bare at low water Padada River, 
emptying iy 2 miles northward from the Umbakanan, is the largest 
river in this vicinity. A town of the same name lies on the left: 
bank of the river about y 2 mile inland. On the shore reef about 
midway between the mouths of the Umbakanan and Padada Rivers 
there is a clump of mangroves which form an island at low water. 
They are about 400 yards from the shore and form a prominent 
landmark. 

From the mouth of the Padada River the coast trends northward; 
with a curve westward for about 4 miles to Digos Point. This sec- 
tion of the coast is fronted by a fine sand beach fringed with coral, 
nowhere exceeding y± mile in width. The Digos and Bulatakay 
Rivers discharge about 1 and 2% miles, respectively, south-south- 
westward from Digos Point. 

Digos Point is low, flat, and wooded, fringed with mangroves, and 
surrounded by a steep-to coral reef, which bares at low water to a 
distance of nearly 14 mile. Digos Point is fairly prominent when 
seen from northward or southward. The channel between the point 
and the reefs lying eastward from it is about y s mile wide and has a 
depth of from 7 to 13 fathoms. 

Digos, which is a small town of little importance, lies on the north 
bank of the river of the same name about y 2 mile inland. A large 
iron warehouse, situated on the beach about 14 m ile southward from 
the mouth of the Digos River, forms a good landmark, being visible 
from a long distance offshore. 

Digos Islet is a white coral sand cay about 2 feet above high water, 
on which there are a few bushes growing. It stands on a reef about 
1 mile southward from Digos Point and about 700 yards eastward 
from Digos warehouse. The reef on which this islet stands, part of 
which bares at low water, extends about 300 yards eastward from the 
islet. 

About 1% miles southward from Digos warehouse and % mile 
from shore there is a small detached shoal covered by a least depth 
of 3 fathoms. 

Anchorage may be found southward from Digos Islet with the 
warehouse bearing 317° (315° mag.), distant % mile, in 12 or 15 
fathoms, or northward from the same islet with the warehouse bear- 
ing 249° (247° mag.), distant about % mile, in 11 or 12 fathoms. 
Small vessels may anchor between the islet and the warehouse. 

Digos Beefs are a number of reefs lying northeastward, eastward, 
and southeastward from Digos Point. Parts of them bare at low 
water, but the area baring is very small compared with the total 
extent of the reefs. A north and south line passing iy 2 miles east- 
ward from Digos Point will lead well clear of them. There is a 
narrow, deep channel between the shore reefs and Digos Reefs arid 
several channels between the reefs, but in the absence of local knowl- 
edge and any aids, navigation must be conducted with caution. 
Digos Outer Eeef, the southeastern danger in this vicinity, is awash 
at high water. From the center of the reef Digos Point bears 341° 
(339° mag.) and Digos Warehouse 302° (300° mag.). This reef is 



194 MINDANAO. 

steep-to on the eastern and southern side, but on the western side 
foul ground extends to a distance of nearly y 2 mile. 

Directions for Digos. — There is a good, deep channel between 
Digos Outer Eeef and the next reef northward, but in the absence of 
any aids, to navigation strangers are advised not to attempt it but to 
pass southward and westward of Digos Outer Eeef. "When the 
warehouse at Digos bears 332° (330° mag.) distant iy 2 miles or 
Digos Point bears 2° (0° mag.) distant 2 miles, either of them may 
be. steered for. These courses will carry a vessel well clear of the 
foul ground extending westward from Digos Outer Reef. If intend- 
ing to anchor northward from Digos Islet it should not be rounded 
too closely, because of the reef extending eastward from it. If in- 
tending to anchor southward from the islet it should be brought to 
bear 0° (358° mag.) and steered for until the warehouse bears 317° 
(315° mag.), when the warehouse should be steered for and anchor- 
age taken up as previously recommended. Should Digos Outer Reef 
be visible, vessels from the northward may pass northward of it by 
bringing the warehouse at Digos open of Digos Islet on a 285° (283° 
mag.) bearing and steering for it. This course will carry a vessel 
through a channel about 400 yards wide and 11 to 23 fathoms deep. 

Tagabuli Bay, the southern entrance to which is 2 1 / 4: miles north- 
ward from Digos Point, is not readily made out from seaward, the 
shore line being all mangroves. It extends about % mile northwest- 
ward and has a general width of about 14 mile. The head and sides 
of the port are fringed with coral, which bares at extreme low water. 
Anchorage, protected from winds, except those from east-southeast, 
may be found in the middle of the bay in 16 to 20 fathoms, muddy 
bottom, where there is a width of about 400 yards between the edges 
of the reefs. 

Santa Cruz Point, lying 2% miles northeastward from Tagabuli 
Bay, is low and wooded. The shore between these two points is 
fronted by reefs covered with white coral sand, which can be seen 
from a considerable distance. A fixed red light, visible 7 miles, is 
shown at a height of 28 feet above the sea from a white framed 
structure on the south side of Santa Cruz Point. 

About iy 2 miles northward from Santa Cruz Point are two con- 
spicuous patches of cogon grass extending in a horizontal line at 
an elevation of from 600 to 800 feet, and about 3 miles west-northwest 
from Santa Cruz, at an elevation of 1,200 to 1,500 feet, there is 
another patch of cogon grass. These patches can be seen from a 
considerable distance and form good landmarks, especially for ves- 
sels bound into Santa Cruz. 

Santa Cruz is a small town lying on the point of the same name. It 
is obscured from seaward by trees. Vessels usually anchor about 
300 or 400 yards southeastward from the light in 7 to 20 fathoms of 
water. Better-protected anchorage may be found in a cove about 1 
mile northeastward from Santa Cruz in 17 or 18 fathoms, muddy 
bottom, back of a reef which bares at half tide. This anchorage is 
protected from all except strong southeast winds. 

Mount Apo, situated about 13 miles 317° (315° mag.) from Santa 
Cruz Point, rises to an elevation of 9,610 feet and appears as a peak 
with steep slopes and a rounded summit. There is reported to be a 
small crater in the summit. On the south side and about 1,000 feet 



DAVAO GULF. 195 

below the summit a part of what was evidently once a crater seems 
to have been blown away. There are several fissures from which 
sulphur steam was constantly issuing at the time of the survey. 
Mount Apo and the surrounding peaks were constantly enveloped in 
clouds from March to June. 

From Santa Cruz Point the coast trends northeastward for about 
3 miles to Malusi Point, forming a bay the shores of which are 
fringed with coral. There is very little lowland encircling this bay 
and the land in the interior rises rapidly to heights of 2,500 feet 
within 1 mile from the shore. Facing this bay there are a number 
of reefs between which and the shore anchorage may be found. 

Malusi Point is low and rounding and not very prominent. 

Two small shoals, covered by depths of 4% and 3*4 fathoms, lie 
nearly % m ii e 169° (167° mag.) and 191° (189° mag.), respectively, 
from Malusi Point, on a bank about y 2 mile long in an east and west 
direction, inside the 10-fathom curve. There is deep water between 
this bank and the point. 

Between Malusi Point and Tagulaya Point, 3% miles northeast- 
ward, the shores are solid except for a little mangrove near Astorga. 

Astorga is situated about 2 miles northeastward from Malusi Point. 
Along this mangrove-covered section and for ^ mile on either side 
of it there is a fringe of broken coral thrown up by the sea, but the 
remainder of the low-water area is fine sand beach, 10 to 20 yards 
wide, which is extensively traveled as a road. All the interior in 
this vicinity is heavily wooded and the mountain sides are furrowed 
by deep valleys. 

In the bay on which Astorga is situated there are a number of de- 
tached shoals, and a little more than y 2 mile outside of a line drawn 
between Malusi and Tagulaya Points there is a broken chain of shoals 
covered by depths of from 1 to 4 fathoms. The shoals begin about 
iy 2 miles southwestward from Tagulaya Point and extend for a dis- 
tance of about 2 miles in the same direction. They are composed of 
sand and coral and are generally visible. 

Tagulaya Point is low and wooded and fringed by a narrow gravel 
beach. 

At a distance of 1% miles 25° (23° mag.) from Tagulaya Point, 
and % mile from shore, there is a small shoal covered by a least depth 
of 4 fathoms and surrounded by deep water. 

From Tagulaya Point to the mouth of the Siraoan Eiver, 4 miles 
northward, the shore is wooded to a broad sandy beach. Daron lies 
on the shore about 1 mile northward and may be recognized by a 
large, prominent, greenish-white house with a galvanized-iron roof 
which is visible from a distance of 8 to 10 miles. The Siraoan River 
has 5 or 6 feet of water on its bar at low water but is not navigable 
for a ship's launch for more than % mile. Siraoan is very small, 
having not more than 200 people in it. 

Daliaon, situated at the mouth of the river of the same name, about 
iy 2 miles northeastward from Siraoan, is the most prominent settle- 
ment in this vicinity. It has a church, several stores, and a few good 
wooden houses. A fixed red light is maintained by the municipality. 

The usual anchorage is in 7 to 10 fathoms with the light bearing 
283° (281° mag.). 

Daliaon Reefs are two coral reefs which extend over 1 mile in a 
north and south direction. The northern reef, which begins about 
■" .,-.;k rni-fiTiTTT'jT.d from Daliaon. is nartly bare at low water; on the 



196 MINDANAO. 

southern reef there is a rock awash at low water near the northern 
end and the remainder is covered with very little water. Between 
these reefs and the shore there is a deep channel about 150 yards wide 
at the narrowest place. 

There is a small detached shoal covered by a least depth of 4% 
fathoms lying nearly y± mile northward from the north end of 
Daliaon Reef and over % mile from the beach. 

From Daliaon the coast trends northeast, east, and southeast to 
Dumalag Point, forming a large bay which is deep and clear. 
Lipadas, Dumuy, and Matina lie on the shores of this bay. There are 
a number of small unimportant streams entering the bay. The land 
is low, level, heavily wooded, and covered with jungle to the water's 
edge. The shore is generally fringed with sandy beaches and there 
is very little coral. 

Dumalag Point is the most conspicuous point in this vicinity, pro- 
jecting as it does nearly 1 mile from the general shore line. It is 
mostly low and well wooded. Dumalag Island, forming the southern 
end of Dumalag Point, is about % mile long and separated from the 
rest of the point by an opening only passable by small boats. The 
southern extremity of the island is fringed by coral, which bares 
to a distance of about 200 yards. 

About %.mile 160° (158° mag.) from the southern extremity of 
Dumalag Island there is a small shoal covered by a least depth of 
514 fathoms, and about % mile 107° (105° mag.) from the same point 
there is another small shoal of 4 fathoms. With the exception of the 
above-described shoals, Dumalag Point may be rounded in safety at 
a distance of ^4 mile. 

From Dumalag Point the coast trends northeastward for about 3 
miles to the mouth of the Davao River and is low and swampy and 
bordered by a sandy beach. Shoal water extends to a distance of 
about y± mile, beyond which the water deepens very rapidly. 

Davao River has a depth of only 2 or 3 feet on its bar at iow water 
and the channel changes frequently in freshets. In 1907 the channel 
was along the south shore and was marked by stakes. The sandy 
point at the south side of the entrance was being rapidly cut away 
and was being deposited mainly on the north side and forming a 
large flat of lodged tree trunks and minor drifts. 

Davao is a small town of rising importance situated on the north 
bank of the Davao River, close to its mouth. It is the principal ship- 
ping point for this region and maintains regular steam communica- 
tion with Manila and other ports of the Archipelago. The bureau of 
posts has a radio station at Davao. The anchorage off Davao is very 
bad, the water being deep close to the bar at the mouth of the river. 

An iron frame, on which a red light was formerly exhibited, has 
.been left standing on the northern side of the entrance to form a lead- 
ing mark for the anchorage. Vessels desiring to anchor off the mouth 
of the river should bring this beacon to bear 0° (358° mag.) and 
stand in slowly for it, anchoring as soon as 17 fathoms, mud and sand 
bottom, is obtained. This is the only place where a vessel can anchor 
and have sufficient swinging room to clear the bank. 

About 1 mile northeastward from the mouth of the river there is 
a wharf about 800 feet long by 20 feet wide, with a depth of from 
20 to 28 feet at the end. The main part of the wharf runs about east 



DAVAO GULF. 197 

and west, and at the end there is an L 150 by 30 feet projecting south- 
ward. Between the wharf and the town there is a good road. 

A fixed red light, which should be visible from a distance of 7 miles, 
is exhibited from a wooden-framed structure at the southern end of 
the L. Vessels from the southward should not bring this light to 
' bear northward of 332° (330° mag.) when in its immediate vicinity. 

From the northern entrance point to the Davao River the coast 
trends in a general northeasterly direction for 4y 2 miles to Lanang 
Point. The country immediately back from it is low and heavily 
wooded. All of this stretch of coast is sandy and has broad sand 
flats exposed at low water, the outer edges of which are steep-to. 
Along the last 2 miles the underlying coral is exposed at low water 
along the outer edge of the sand flat and there is a rocky detached 
shoal, with as little as 2 fathoms over it in places, lying nearly y 2 
mile from the nearest point of the beach. 

Samal Island lies near the head of the gulf and close to the western 
shore, from which it is separated by Pakiputan Strait. It is about 
18 miles long between Bassa Point at the northern end and Paet 
Point at the southern and has a greatest width of about 8 miles be- 
tween Linao and East Points, the western and eastern extremities of 
the island. It is rough, hilly, and well wooded. The highest hills 
are in the eastern part of the island, and the greatest elevation is 
about 1,700 feet near the east coast and about 3 miles southward from 
East Point. It is very sparsely inhabited, no villages being found 
on the east coast and very few on the west. There are a few small 
streams, and these are found only on the western side of the island. 
The eastern coast of the island is clean and steep-to ; on the western 
side, near the middle of the island, shore reefs extend to a distance of 
about y 2 mile and there are also several detached shoals in this 
vicinity none of which are over \y 2 miles from shore. The principal 
cultivation on the island is between Bassa and East Points, where 
there are some hemp plantations worked by the natives. The only 
good anchorage off Samal is in from 9 to 12 fathoms, muddy bottom, 
in the bay between Pohun Point and the mouth of the Binulin River ; 
here shelter may be found from northeast winds. The fishing village 
of Peiiaplata is situated at the head of this bay. 

Malipano Anchorage, on the west side of Samal Island, is well pro- 
tected from wind and sea by Malipano Islet and its surrounding 
rocks and reefs. It is of no commercial importance and is very small 
and difficult of access, the entrance having a width of only about 100 
yards between the 3-fathom curves; there are also a number of 
sunken reefs in the approach. 

Directions. — To enter this anchorage bring the northern part of 
Malipano Islet to bear 90° (88° mag.) and steer for it; when within 
y 2 mile of the rocky islet of the northwest point of Malipano Islet, 
steer for it and round the north side of Malipano Islet at a distance 
of about 180 yards and continue around the eastern point ; anchor in 
about 13 fathoms, muddy bottom, when the eastern point bears 304° 
(302° mag.) and the northwest side of Talicud Island is just open 
of the small islet off the south end of Malipano Islet. 

The Cruz Islands, two in number, lie off the northern coast of Samal 
Island, with a deep channel nearly 1 mile wide between the south end 
of Big Cruz and Samal Islands. Both are small and heavily wooded. 



198 MINDANAO. 

Big Cruz Island is about 1 mile long in a north-northwest and oppo- 
site direction and 45 to 220 yards wide. On the north end is a knoll 
80 feet high ; the southern end has an elevation of about 90 feet, but 
here it is mainly cliffs, much underworn by the sea. The shore line 
in some places is fringed by a narrow coral reef. 

Little Cruz Island lies nearly % mile north-northwestward from Big ' 
Cruz Island. It is about 700 yards long north and south and has an 
average width of 110 yards. Near the northern part it rises to a 
height of 42 feet. The western side is sand beach ; from the northern 
point reefs, partly bare at low water, extend to a distance of about 
y± mile northward; the eastern side is fringed by a reef, narrow at 
thenorthern end and widening to 160 yards at the southern end. 

In the channel between the two islands there is a small coral 
patch, bare at low water, and much broken ground. The best water 
in this channel, &y 2 to 7y 2 fathoms, is immediately southward of 
this patch. The greater part of this channel is foul and there seems 
to be no necessity for using it. 

About i mile northward from Little Cruz Island there is a shoal 
composed of coral rocks and sand. This shoal, which is covered by 
a least depth of 2 fathoms, is about % mile in extent and surrounded 
by deep water. Nearly 14 mile northward from this shoal there is 
another small shoal with about 6 fathoms of water over it. 

Talicud Island lies westward from the south end of Samal Island, 
from which it is separated by a deep navigable channel about % mile 
wide. It is reported to lack fresh water and to be uninhabited. It 
is of oval shape, about 4 miles long in a northwest and southeast 
direction, and 2 miles wide. It is fringed by a narrow coral reef 
which, on the north side, extends to a distance of about y 2 mile. The 
only detached danger in the vicinity of Talicud Island is a shoal 
covered by a least depth of 214 fathoms lying y 2 mile 249° (247° 
mag.) from the southern point of the island and about % mile from 
the shore. The island is heavily wooded and rises, in a position 
northward of the center, to a height of 475 feet. 

Pakiputan Strait, west of the northern part of Samal Island and 
separating it from the main coast, is y 2 mile wide and 19 fathoms 
deep in the narrowest part. It should not be taken by a sailing 
vessel; unless the wind is free and strong enough to enable her to stem 
the current, which has at times a velocity of 2y 2 knots. The flood 
tide sets northward and the ebb southward. The strait is too narrow 
to work in and there are several dangers in the approaches. 

The only danger in the southern approach is the rocky detached 
shoal previously mentioned as lying off the main coast. It is covered 
by a least depth of 2 fathoms and lies 2 miles 56° (54° mag.) from 
the northern entrance point to the Davao River and y 2 mile from 
the shore. 

The dangers in the northern approach are a small detached reef 
covered by a least depth of 1^ fathoms, lying a little over % mile 
from the main coast ; Arboles Island and its surrounding reefs ; and 
a large reef about 1 mile southward from Arboles Island. Arboles 
Island, the most prominent landmark in the strait, is the sand and 
broken coral-covered summit of a coral reef about 1 mile long north 
and south by % mile wide, upon which three or four mangrove trees 
are growing which show very prominently and furnish a good range 
for navigating the strait when approaching from the southward. 



DAVAO GULF. 199 

The island is entirely covered at high water. The reef surrounding 
the island is covered with bright coral sand and shows up well even 
where there is 2 or 3 fathoms of water. There is a narrow channel, 
having depths of from 7 to 9 fathoms, between Arboles and Samal 
Islands, but nothing would be gained by using it. The most danger- 
ous shoal in the northern part of the strait lies about \y 2 miles 188° 
(186 p mag.) from the mangroves on Arboles Island and almost y 2 
mile from the Samal shore. This shoal has several heads with very 
little water over them, and near the middle of it are two small areas 
in which numerous coral heads uncover at the lowest tides. 

Arboles Island, kept just open off Linao Point, clears the shoal 
in the southern approach, and Arboles Island, in range with Bassa 
Point, clears the dangerous shoal southward from Arboles Island. 

The best anchorage in the strait, with both northerly and south- 
erly winds, is about 1 mile northeastward from Linao Point, where 
the water is moderately deep close in to the narrow fringing reef. 

Directions. — To enter Pakiputan Strait from the southward bring 
Arboles Island almost tangent to Linao Point and hold this range 
until about y 2 mile from the latter; then follow along the Samal 
shore until Arboles Island is in range with Bassa Point; hold this 
range until Linao Point bears 196° (194° mag.) and then steer 
northward, passing about y 2 mile westward from Arboles Island. 
When Bassa Point is abeam, the course may be set for any part of 
the head of the gulf, the only known off -lying danger northward of 
the parallel of Bassa Point being the previously described shoal 
northward from Little Cruz Island. 

From Lanang Point the coast trends in a general northeast direc- 
tion with a curve northward for about 18 miles to the mouth of the 
Hijo River, thence southward with a curve westward for 14 miles 
to Pangasinan Point. There is no good anchorage in this part of the 
gulf, the shores being fringed by mud flats, bare at low water, shoals, 
and patches of coral, all of which are too steep-to to afford anchor- 
age with swinging room. There are no known off-lying dangers 
with the exception of the small shoal about 1 mile northward from 
Little Cruz Mand, and the head of the gulf may be safely navi- 
gated at a distance of 1 mile. The general appearance of the coast 
is low and flat, with heavy timber and jungle growth to the' water's 
edge. The country is a low alluvial plain which extends northward 
as far as the eye can reach, forming a broad valley, 30 to 40 miles 
wide. Westward, this valley rises to a range which at the southern 
end culminates in Mount Apo and eastward to the range along the 
eastern coast of Mindanao, in which the Agusan River rises. This 
stretch of coast is intersected by a number of rivers, none of which 
are of any importance to navigation. The Tagum and- Hijo Rivers 
are the largest, the others being mere drainage streams. 

The following is a detailed description of the shores and waters 
of the head of the gulf between Pakiputan Strait and Pangasinan 
Point on the eastern shore of the gulf. 

The Bunauan River, which discharges about 7 miles northward 
from Lanang Point, and the Lasang, which discharges 2 miles north- 
eastward from the Bunauan, have formed points at their mouths, the 
delta of the Lasang being much the larger. The Tuganay and 
Tagum Rivers empty about 12y 2 miles northeastward from Lanang 



200 MINDANAO. 

Point. This section of the coast line is practically all mangrove, a 
part of the distance tending to more or less solid beach, but it all 
overflows at very high tides. There is an exception to this in the 
broad bight northward from the mouth of the Lasang River, where 
for 2 miles the shore line is straight and solid with banks from 2 to 
5 feet high and with a narrow fringe of sand beach. The land back 
from the beach seems drier than elsewhere along this shore. From 

1 mile southward of the Bunauan River to the broad coral point 

2 miles southwestward from the Tagum River, a distance of about 
7 miles, the shore is bordered by a mud flat which bares at low water 
to a distance of from 150 to 600 yards. From the coral point above 
mentioned to the mouth of the Tagum River there is a broad sand 
beach 300 to 550 yards wide at low water. 

Midway in the bight between the Bunauan and Lasang Rivers is a 
coral reef, % mile long and % mile wide, which is awash at the 
lowest tides. It lies about 300 yards from the shore and has mud 
inshore' from it. 

There is a fringe of coral over 200 yards wide at the broad man- 
grove-covered point 2 miles southwestward from the Tagum River. 
About y 2 mile northeastward from this point there is a circular shoal 
about 300 yards in diameter and 700 yards from shore which bares 
at extreme low water. This is practically the only danger in this 
vicinity. 

Excepting the Tuganay and Tagum, the rivers in general are small 
and unimportant. The Bunauan and Lasang afford entrance and 
navigation several miles for launches drawing 2 to 3 feet. They 
have shifting bars at their mouths, and the channels are hard to find. 

The Tagum River is the best known and most important river in 
the gulf. It has about 6 feet of water on its bar at low water, deeper 
water inside, and is reported to be navigable for 25 miles. For the 
first 10 miles it has a uniform width of about 60 yards. The Tuganay 
empties about 200 yards westward of the Tagum, so that at high 
water they present a far different appearance from that at low. Be- 
tween the two openings is a broad point of land that shifts with 
the channels. Large quantities of driftwood are constantly being 
brought down. With a flood tide there is a little current, but with a 
falling tide it runs with a velocity of from 2 to 4 knots. The banks 
of both rivers are 2 to 4 feet high, generally solid and heavily wooded 
upstream. The bars of both rivers drop off suddenly into deep water. 
A poor anchorage may be found off the bar of the Tagum River in 
15 to 20 fathoms, muddy bottom. It is reported that the bottom in 
this vicinity is quicksand, and that vessels have lost their anchors here. 

From the mouth of the Tagum River to Mansaca Point, 3 miles 
northeastward, the shore line for the first mile is mud flats, bare at 
low water ; the remainder is a broad sand beach. Mansaca Point is 
low and heavily wooded and may be easily recognized by an immense 
dome-shaped tree, which rises high above the jungle and is visible 
from a long distance. 

From Mansaca Point to the mouth of the Madaum River 2 miles 
northeastward and thence 1% miles eastward to the mouth of the 
Hijo River the shore line is solid sand beach 150 to 600 yards wide at 
low water. The Madaum and Hijo Rivers are the only ones of any 
consequence in this vicinity; the others are small streams not over 



DAVAO GTJLF. 201 

10 or 20 feet wide. The Madaum has 3 feet of water on the bar at 
low water and 12 feet inside. While apparently it is a river of im- 
portance, it is hardly more than a slough. On the eastern side of its 
mouth is a small coral point covered with mangroves. 

The Hijo River is unimportant ; it is shallow both at its mouth and 
inside. A small launch can ascend to a distance of about y 2 mile, but 
no farther. From Hijo River and down the eastern shore of the head 
of the gulf to Mugnuga Bay, a distance of about 12 miles, there is 
along the coast a low expanse of land from y± mile wide at the north- 
ern end to 3 or 4 miles wide at Mugnuga Bay. This low land rises 
rapidly in foothills and ranges to nearly 2,000 feet; then numerous 
valleys and east of that are ranges and peaks that go up to about 
4,000 feet. The land is all heavily wooded to the water's edge. 

Pandasan Island, lying about 4 miles southward from the Hijo 
River and close to the shore, presents the same features as the mam 
land and is hard to distinguish from a distance. It is less than y^ 
mile in extent, fringed with coral and separated from the main land 
by a narrow channel blocked at the northern end. This channel has 
a width of about 100 yards and depths of from 3 to 5 fathoms and 
forms an excellent harbor of refuge for small craft. The entrance, 
from the southward, has depths of 10 and 12 feet over muddy bottom. 

From the Hijo River to JPandasan Island the shore line is nearly 
all mangroves with here and there a little solid beach. With the ex- 
ception of about 1. mile of muddy shore in the extreme corner of the 
gulf, there is a fringe of coral 100 to 300 yards wide. 

Copia Island lies southwestward from Pandasan, from which it is 
separated by a channel about % m ^e wide. It is about 1 mile long 
north and south and y s mile wide. It is about y 3 mile from shore 
and is low and well wooded on the outside. Nearly y 2 mile 170° 
(168° mag.) from the south end of Copia Island and % mile from 
shore is a small round shoal covered by a least depth of 3% fathoms. 

A fair anchorage, sheltered from winds from northeast to south- 
east, in 12 to 15 fathoms, muddy bottom, may be found y 2 mile north- 
ward from Pandasan Island and y s mile from shore. 

Good anchorage for small vessel may be found inshore of Copia 
Island by rounding the island at a distance of about 300 yards and 
anchoring in midchannel in 6 to 9 fathoms abreast of the middle of 
the eastern side of the island. The bottom in the channel between 
Pandasan and Copia Islands is foul and should not be attempted by 
a stranger. 

There is good anchorage for all classes of vessels with shelter from 
winds from north-northwest to east-southeast southward of Copia 
Island with sufficient swinging room to clear the 3%-fathom shoal 
previously mentioned. 

The shore line from Pandasan Island to Gill Point, 2 miles south- 
ward, and for 1 mile beyond Gill Point is solid and steep-to with only 
a very narrow fringe of beach, that around Copia Island being coral. 
The beach at Gill Point is white tide-washed coral and gravel and is 
very narrow. From 1 mile southward of Gill Point to 3 miles south 
of the same the shore is bordered by mangroves full of coral points 
and heads, with several deep channels leading into the mangroves. 
The shore reefs in some places extend to a distance of 600 yards. 
From the southern limit of the mangroves to Mugnuga Bay the shore 
is steep-to coral beach. Mugnuga Bay is only a slight indentation 



202 MINDANAO. 

in the coast; From here to Pangasinan Point,' 2l/ 2 miles southeast- 
ward, the shore is sand beach and presents no unusual features. The 
country around the head of the gulf is very sparsely populated and 
only five small settlements of about a dozen houses each are found. 
They are called Madaum, near the river of the same name, Copia on 
Copia Island, Mampissin, and Tugnanang on the mainland opposite, 
and Mugnuga on Mugnuga Bay. The site of the village of Hi jo has 
only three or four shacks. 

From Pangasinan Point the coast trends in a general south-south- 
east direction for 54 miles to Cape San Agustin. Between Pangasinan 
and Piso Points the coast is a low, flat, heavily wooded plain extend- 
ing inland several miles to foothills that rise rapidly into ranges and 
peaks of about 4,000 feet elevation. Near Piso Point the high land 
comes out to the shore again, the first peak of the range here having 
an altitude of 2,720 feet. At this point the plain disappears, the hills 
rising right from the water. The high mountains extending from 
the head of the gulf are interrupted in the vicinity of Piso Point and 
their places are taken by a rather flat section of country that extends 
eastward to the Pacific coast. This valley is by no means open, but, 
on the contrary, is broken up by hills from 500 to 2,000 feet high, 
which; however, appear low in comparison with the mountains oi 
4,000 to 6,000 feet elevation northward and the equally high, if not 
higher, peaks that lie between this valley and Cape San Agustin, 
reaching their greatest elevation about 23 miles northward from the 
extremity of the cape. The rivers which discharge on this section of 
the coast are small and of little value to navigation. The few villages 
are small and unimportant. Vessels can find anchorage nearly any- 
where along the coast in fine weather, but nowhere can shelter be 
obtained from southwest winds. 

Pangasinan Point is low, heavily wooded, and fringed with a coral 
and sand beach. 

About 4 miles southeastward from Pangasinan Point there are a 
number of reefs which are bate at low water, but being inside of the 
general direction of the shore line they are not dangerous to navi- 
gation, provided a vessel keeps at a distance of % mile from shore. 

Piso Point, about 6 miles southeastward from Pangasinan Point, 
stands out boldly, the hill forming the point rising to a height of 775 
feet at a distance of less than % mile from the water. Part of the 
shore of the point is rocky and has a fringing reef 60 to 100 yards 
wide and the remainder is mangroves with mud exposed to- a distance 
of 50 or 60 yards at low water. 

Between Piso Point and Arena Point, about 7y 2 miles southward, 
the coast curves eastward, forming Mapanga Bay. This bay appears 
to be deeper than it really is, the effect being due to the mangroves 
which form the shore line for 3 or 4 miles. The mouth of the Piso 
River, which discharges about 4 miles southeastward from Piso 
Point, is not prominent, but can be recognized by a small reef near 
it, which bares at low water. It is nearly closed by a bar and can 
only be entered by pulling boats. The Mapanga River, which en- 
ters the sea about y 2 mile southward from the Piso River, is a salt 
slough with a fine sandy bottom ; it can be entered by a ship's launch 
at high water. The Kabatan River, which discharges about -2% miles 
southward from the Piso River, is similar to the Mapanga, but is 
smaller and only 2 or 3 feet deep ; the mouth is not prominent. 



DAVAO GULF. 203 

Mount Galintan, situated about 6 miles east-southeastward from the 
mouth of the Piso River, is a symmetrical cone-shaped peak which 
rises to a height of 1,710 feet; beingnearly always free from clouds, 
it forms a prominent landmark. Back from Mount Galintan the 
country is rolling and higher. 

There are a number of reefs in Mapanga Bay, of which three are 
awash at half tide, and others which are covered with depths of from 
y± to 5 fathoms. 

Mapanga Reef, lying about 2 miles 160° (158° mag.) from Piso 
Point, is partly bare at low water; this reef, within the 5-fathom 
curve, is about y 2 mile in extent. About y 2 mile southwestward 
from the part which bares there is a small spot covered by 2% 
fathoms. 

Piso Reef is a small reef which bares at low water, lying about 1% 
miles 187° (185° mag.) from Mapanga Eeef and about the same 
distance westward from the northern entrance point to the Piso 
River. 

Between Mapanga and Piso Reefs and the shore there are a num- 
ber of small, dangerous reefs, whose positions will be best under- 
stood by reference to the chart. They consist of coral and white 
sand and show up well when the light is favorable. Piso Point, 
bearing 2° (0° mag.), will clear the western side of all dangers in 
this vicinity. 

Arena Point is low, flat and rounding, and heavily wooded. From 
both north and south it appears as a sharp point extending far out 
from the general coast line. It is bordered by a fine sand beach 
and is clean and steep-to, a depth of 10 fathoms being found at a 
distance of 250 yards from its western extremity. The Lupon River, 
an unimportant slough, follows the beach for about 1 mile in a north- 
erly direction and enters the sea about 1^4 miles southward from 
Arena Point. 

From Arena Point the coast trends southeastward for 4J/ 2 miles 
to Sumlug Point and is low and heavily wooded. This stretch of 
coast line is straight and bordered by a fine sand beach. Between 
these two points snoal water extends in some places to a distance of 
% mile. 

Sumlug Point is prominent partly because of a dry sand bar off the 
mouth of the Sumlug River, which discharges through the point. 
There are a number of native houses standing on the beach, which 
are of assistance in recognizing the point. 

About iy 2 miles 255° (253° mag.) from Sumlug Point there is a 
small detached reef covered by a least depth of y 2 fathom. From 
here to the parallel of Sigaboy Island, about 13 miles southward, 
there is a chain of dangerous detached reefs, some of which bare at 
low tide and others which are covered with very little water. The 
two outlying reefs, Talisay and Burias, will be described ; the posi- 
tions of the others will be best understood by reference to the chart. 
In the area between these reefs and the land there are a number of 
small, dangerous, detached shoal patches, and the waters of this 
vicinity must be navigated with caution. 

Between Sigaboy Island and Cape San Agustin there are no known 
dangers more than 1 mile from shore and this section of coast can 
be safely navigated at a distance of \y 2 to 2 miles. 
33452°— 21 14 



204 MINDANAO. 

From Sumlug Point the coast trends eastward and then southward 
to Bato Point, forming Cuabo Bay, which is about 4 miles wide at the 
entrance and extends about iy 2 miles northeastward. Cuabo is situ- 
ated at the mouth of the Cuabo Kiver, about 2i/ 2 miles eastward 
from Sumlug Point. It is small and unimportant ; its site is marked 
by a few coconut trees. There are a number of small detached shoals 
in the center of Cuabo Bay, which are covered by very little water. 

Bato Point, situated about 4 miles southeastward from Sumlug 
Point, is the abrupt end of a ridge about 400 feet high and iy 2 miles 
long in a northeast and opposite direction. The western edge of this 
ridge comes steeply down to the beach. 

From Bato Point the coast trends southward with a curve eastward 
for about 3 miles to Bitaugan Point, and for 1 mile southward from 
Bato Point is fringed with coral to a distance of about y s mile, 
thence tapering to the coast about % mile northward from Bitaugan 
Point. 

The extremity of Bitaugan Point is low and usually shows a bar 
of shingle, nearly covered at high water, at the mouth of the Bitau- 
gan River, which discharges through the point. Less than y 2 mile 
back from the point the land attains an elevation of 400 feet. The 
Bitaugan Eiver carries a depth of from 3 to 4 feet for only about % 
mile and then changes to a shallow mountain stream falling over 
bowlders and containing good fresh water. 

From Bitaugan Point the coast trends southward and eastward 
for about iy 2 miles to the northern entrance point of Talisay Bay. 
This stretch of coast shows mostly as mangroves, behind which there 
is a sandy beach. Midway between the above two points there is a 
narrow strip of cogon grass, which extends directly inland for nearly 
3 miles and is notable for its smooth, level appearance, the country 
on either side being very rough. 

Talisay Bay is about iy 2 miles wide at the entrance and extends 
about y 2 mile eastward. The shores of this bay are fringed with 
coral to a distance of about y 4 mile, and the land around the bay is 
low and swampy and thickly covered with jungle growth. On the 
north side of the bay, about % mile back from the beach, there is a 
very prominent hill — covered with cogon grass — which rises to a 
height of 393 feet. 

Talisay Reef, partly bare at low water, lies about 3% miles west- 
ward from the summit of the 393-foot hill previously described as 
lying northward from Talisay Bay and 3 miles from the shore. It 
is nearly 1 mile long in a north and south direction, y 8 mile wide, 
and is surrounded by deep water. 

About y 2 mile south-southeastward from Talisay Beef there is a 
cluster of rocks surrounded by a small reef, which bares at low 
water. 

Burias Eeef is situated 2 miles southward from Talisay Reef and 
nearly 4 miles 255° j(253° mag.) from Duas Point, the southern 
entrance point to Talisay Bay. Near its northern part there is a 
shifting heap of white coral sand about 2 feet high and from 4 to 
20 yards in diameter ; the remainder of the reef is nearly bare at low 
water and shows a number of scattered coral heads. Within the 10- 
f athom curve this reef is about y 2 mile long in a northeast and oppo- 
site direction, y 8 mile wide, and surrounded by deep water. 



DAVAO GULF. 205' 

The remainder of the reefs in this vicinity are covered by 1,4 
fathom or more, and, being composed of coral and white sand, are 
easily picked up when the light is favorable. 

Duas Point, the southern entrance point to Talisay Bay, is promi- 
nent, being bare vertical cliffs 50 to 100 feet high, the slope being 
toward the point. About y 2 m il e southeastward from the point and 
about ^4 mile from shore there is a hill about 800 feet high, on the 
south side of which there is a valley separating it from a more promi- 
nent hill, 910 feet high, situated over y 2 m il e southward from the 
first-mentioned hill. 

From Duas Point the coast trends southward for about 2 miles to 
the northern entrance point to Baksal Cove. The shore line for the 
first % mile southward from Duas Point is rocky and the remainder 
is sandy. From Duas Point to the mouth of the Uafigon Creek, 1% 
miles southward, there is very little reef fringing the shore, but it 
begins southward from the creek, widens to a distance of about 350: 
yards at the entrance to Baksal Cove, and then narrows in to the 
coast at the head of the cove. Part of the reef between Uafigon Creek 
and Baksal Cove bares at low water and about y 2 mile southward 
from the creek there are some mangroves growing near the outer 
edge of it. There are a number of detached shoals lying y 2 and % 
mile from this stretch of coast. La Union or Uafigon, as it is called 
by the natives, lies on the beach near the mouth of the creek of the 
same name. When the survey was made it had a population of about 
50, most of whom were Filipinos. 

Baksal Cove is a semicircular cove about iy 2 miles wide at the en- 
trance and about y 2 mile deep. The northern entrance point, south- 
ward from the mouth of the Mabua Biver, is fringed with a narrow 
reef upon which there are mangroves growing. 

At a distance of less than ^4 m ^ e from shore, at the head of 
Baksal Cove, there is a small rock awash and there are several de- 
tached reefs in the middle of the cove covered by depths of from \y 2 
to 2 fathoms. Off the entrance to the cove there is a chain of small 
detached reefs extending for a distance of about 1 mile in a north and, 
south direction. 

Bais Point, southward from Baksal Cove, is a low, rounding point, 
showing mainly as mangrove, though there are very few mangroves 
on it. The mouth of the Timbo Biver, on the northern part of the 
point, is fairly prominent, the beach being higher there. Between 
the Timbo River and the western extremity of the point the timber 
gives way to cogon grass in places, affording pasturage for a large 
number of cattle. 

Sigaboy, situated on the western extremity of Bais Point, had a 
population of 383 in 1908, when the survey was made. It is the most 
important village on the eastern shore of Davao Gulf and contains 
a church of more than ordinarily durable construction, age, and size. 

From Bais Point the coast trends in a general 165° (163° mag.) 
direction for about Zy 2 miles to Borot Cove. This section of the 
coast is fringed by a narrow reef and faced by a chain of detached 
reefs lying from % to i/ 2 mile from shore. 

Sigaboy Island, situated nearly iy 2 miles southward from Sigaboy 
Village and about % mile from the shore, is a small island about 14 
mile long east and west and less than % mile wide. It is rocky, has 
steep cliffs, and has two round grass-covered hills on it, the eastern 



206 MINDANAO. 

and higher one rising to a height of 250 feet. There is a blunt pin- 
nacle about 150 feet high at the western end and a sandy point ex- 
tends 60 to 100 yards from the eastern end. The navigable channel 
between it and the main has a width of about 400 yards and a depth 
of 6y 2 fathoms in the middle. Sigaboy Island shows up well only 
from the northward. From other directions it is projected against 
the background of hills and mountains and does not show except in 
a favorable light. 

Borot Cove is about % mile wide at the entrance between Borot 
and Salun Points, the northern and southern entrance points, and 
•extends nearly % mile northeastward. It is readily identified, the 
approaches on either hand being steep, rocky bluffs. Both entrance 
points and the head of the cove are fringed with reefs, leaving a con- 
tracted anchorage space about 400 yards in extent in the northern 
part of the cove. Monserrat, consisting of some 15 houses scattered 
among the coconut trees, lies at the head of the cove. 

Borot 'Reei, the center of which lies about y 2 mile westward from 
Borot Point, is a circular reef about x /4 mile in diameter and covered 
with very little water; near its southern edge there are rocks awash. 

From Borot Cove the coast trends southward for Zy 2 miles to 
Padada Point, thence southward and eastward for 41^ miles to Bati- 
kual Point, the southern entrance point to Nangan Bay. The bluff 
at Lilisan Point, about 1 mile southward from Borot Cove, is steep 
and about 100 feet high ; it stands out prominently. From this point 
southward to Nangan Bay the beach is sandy and presents no fea- 
tures of note. This section of the coast is fringed in some places by 
a narrow reef and faced by a number of small detached reefs, none 
of which, however, are more than 1 mile from shore. 

Padada Point is low, flat, and rounding, but from both north and 
south appears as a distinct point. Magdug lies on the beach about 1 
mile northward from the point and Luzon about iy 2 miles southward 
from it. 

In the rough country along this part of the coast there are no peaks 
of much importance except Mount Bilbogan. It lies 1 mile east-south- 
eastward from Lilisan Point and is a landmark that is recognizable 
for miles, especially from north or south. Seen from either of these 
directions its summit appears as a serrated ridge of three small peaks. 
Seen from the west it appears as a sharp peak, from which, a little 
below the summit, protrudes a sharp thumb when one comes abreast 
of it and a few miles offshore. The peak attains a greatest elevation 
of 2,450 feet, is pyramidal in form, and wonderfully regular in out- 
line. Situated less than 1 mile from the shore line, towering above 
the hills around it, its isolation from the high inland peaks makes it 
an object of reference for the whole eastern part of the gulf. It is 
rarely in clouds even when the peaks inland are heavily covered. 

Batikual Point is low and wooded and fringed by a reef which bares 
to a distance of % mile. Tiblauan (Ascencion) is situated at the 
mouth of Tiblauan Creek, about 1 mile northwestward from the 
point. 

Nangan Bay, southward from Batikual Point, is % mile wide at the 
entrance between Batikual and Kagan Points and extends about % 
mile inland. The shores are low and wooded and in the northern 
part are fringed with reefs. 



DAVAO GULF. 207 

Anchorage, protected from all winds except those from south and 
west, may be found in Nangan Bay in 22 to 28 fathoms, muddy bot- 
tom, about 300 or 400 yards from the shore. 

From Kagan Point the coast trends in a general 162° (160° mag.) 
direction, with a deep curve eastward for 4 miles to Kaganuhan 
Point, forming Abag and Tagabili Bays. The shore line is regular 
and smooth, with a sandy beach and narrow fringing reef, and can 
be safely approached to a distance of ^4 mile. The small and unim- 
portant villages of Nazaret or Sirup and Kulaguhan are situated on 
this stretch of coast, y 2 and 3 miles, respectively, southeastward from 
Kagan Point. 

Anchorage, sheltered from southerly and easterly winds, may be 
found in Tagabili Bay, northward from Kaganuhan Point, in 23 or 
24 fathoms, muddy bottom, about 300 yards from shore, with the 
extremity of the point bearing 238° (236° mag.). 

Kaganuhan Point is prominent from both north and south, mainly 
because of six hills that rise in an ascending series from the point; 
when viewed from southward, only four hills are visible. The ex- 
tremity of the point is low and flat and fringed by a reef and foul 
ground to a distance of about 600 yards. This point should be given 
a berth of at least y 2 mile in passing. 

From Kaganuhan Point the coast trends. in a general 155° (153° 
mag.) direction with a curve eastward for 8 miles to Cape San 
Agustin. Along this stretch of coast the foothills come down to the 
shore line which, as a result, is more or less broken up. The bluffs 
and ledges are composed of fossil coral, and as such are very difficult 
to travel over. In this vicinity there are very few sand beaches and 
the shore is fringed in some places by coral reefs which extend to a 
distance of ^ mile. 

Tagbanao Cove,, situated about 2 miles southeastward from Kaganu- 
han Point, is a secluded bight, Tagbanao Point, on the south side of 
the entrance, being rather high and shutting out the view to the 
southward. Good anchorage may be found in the middle of Tag- 
banao Cove in 18 or 20 fathoms, muddy bottom. 

Pundaguitan Anchorage, on the south side of Lakga Point, about Y 2 
mile southward from Tagbanao Cove, may be recognized by the 
cogon grass growing on the steep hillside on the north side of a 
small valley, in which two or three native houses are located. A fine 
sand beach shows up prominently here. 

Kanikian Point, about 2 miles southward from Lakga Point, is 
low and wooded and terminates in a cliff about 15 feet high. It is 
fringed by a reef to a distance of about 300 yards. 

Lavigan Anchorage (chart 4653), on the north side of Lima Point, 
nearly 2 miles northward from the extremity of Cape San Agustin, 
is simply a break in the reef and too small to afford anchorage for 
anything larger than a small launch. 

Lima Point and Talisay Point, the latter about midway between Lima 
Point and the cape, are both fairly conspicuous. 

Cape San Agustin is the southern extremity of the long peninsula 
which forms the eastern side of Davao Gulf. The entire promon- 
tory is mountainous; the northern part is cut into by deep valleys, 
but the southern part, for 5 miles northward from the extremity of 
the cape, is a continuous backbone of hills running down the middle 



§08 MINDANAO. 

of the long narrow strip which terminates in the cp.pe. These hills 
decrease gradually in height from 1,120 feet, 5 miles northward 
from the cape, to a rocky bluff 15 to 20 feet high at its extremity. 
The Pacific side of the cape, to a distance of about 2 miles north- 
ward, is a succession of sandy beaches separated by rocky bluffs, 
which, however, are passable on foot at any stage of the tide. 
' A rock, 18 feet high, fringed by a reef which connects it with 
the land, rises about 20 yards southward from the cape; when seen 
from an east or west direction it is very prominent. 

About y± mile south-southwestward from Cape San Agustin is 
the northern edge of San Agustin Reef, a large dangerous reef 
nearly % mile long in a south-southwesterly and opposite direction 
and over 14 mile wide. This reef, which is covered by depths of 
from iy 2 to 5 fathoms, breaks heavily at times. There is a good 
channel between it and the cape, which may be found by steering 
on a 115° (113° mag.) or opposite course to give the 18-foot rock 
off the pitch of the cape a berth of about 300 yards. This channel 
is only a little more than 200 yards wide and should be used with 
caution because of the strong and irregular currents which are ex- 
perienced in this vicinity. 

SURIGAO strait. 

Surigao Strait, the only passage for large vessels from the Pacific 
to the interior waters of the Archipelago, Avith the exception of San 
Bernardino Strait, is famous for having been traversed by Magellan 
when he crossed the Pacific and discovered the Philippine Islands 
in 1521. This strait is less frequented by sailing vessels than that 
of San Bernardino, which is more to windward in the northeast 
monsoon. It is, however, more direct and safer than that strait, 
but it obliges sailing vessels that take it, if they are bound for Manila, 
to work up the west coasts of Negros and Panay and the east coast 
of Mindoro. It is of advantage to vessels going to the southern 
Philippines or to the Sulu Sea and is sometimes used by steamers 
from Australia that wish to escape the full force of the northeast 
monsoon. The northern entrance is between Suluan and Dinagat 
Islands; the southern entrance between the south end of Panaon 
Island and Bilaa Point, the northern extremity of Mindanao Island. 
Surigao Strait is deep and safe and the shores of the islands that 
border it are steep-to. 

Hinatuan Passage. — The Hinatuan or Eastern Passage, as it is 
sometimes called, connects the Pacific with the southern part of 
Surigao Strait. The western end is narrow and tortuous and the 
tidal currents run with great velocity. It is used by steamers trad- 
ing to the east coast of Mindanao and occasionally by sailing vessels. 
A description of this passage will be given in its proper order. 

Winds in Surigao Strait. — At the mouth of the strait the north- 
east monsoon begins toward the end of September and blows through- 
out October and November; in December northeast winds alternate 
with northerly gales. In January winds blow from northeast to 
east-northeast, accompanied by heavy rain. In February and 
March easterly winds prevail. In April, May, and June the pre- 
vailing wind is southeast, with occasional gales called collas from 
the south. . In July, August, and September collas from the south- 
west are frequent. 



SURIGAO STRAIT. 209 

The northeast winds, though strong, cease during the night ; but 
winds from southeast, south, and southwest continue to blow. It 
generally rains with north-northeast and east-northeast winds. The 
rains cease and the weather clears with east winds and more so with 
southeast winds. With southwest winds it remains clear, unless a 
gale arises, which sometimes brings rain. In general there is no very 
bad weather in this part of the Archipelago, unless a typhoon should 
occur. The season of the year when a typhoon might occur is from 
the end of October to the beginning of January. They begin to blow 
from the northwest and finish from the southeast, having passed 
through northeast or southwest; when they haul through northeast 
they blow stronger and more rain falls. Typhoons are, however, of 
very rare occurrence in this locality, there being no record of any 
having been experienced for many years, and the best authorities say 
that they never pass south of latitude 9°. 

ISLANDS NORTHEASTWARD FROM MINDANAO. 



at the northern entrance of the strait, has already been described in 
Part I, but as it is a prominent landmark for vessels entering Surigao 
Strait the description is repeated here. It lies 10 miles southeastward 
from Sungi Point, Samar, and 26 miles northeastward from the north 
point of Dinagat Island. Situated as it is — to windward during the 
northeast monsoon, at the entrance to Surigao Strait and being con- 
spicuous — it is a good point to make for when approaching the strait 
from the Pacific. It is over 2 miles long northwest and southeast and 
1 mile wide. Near the northwest point are two hills, 178 and 204 feet 
high, respectively, and the eastern side is formed by a high coral ridge 
which attains a greatest elevation of 410 feet. This ridge has the 
same characteristic features as the long ridges from Matarinao Bay to 
Sungi Point. The southwestern half of the island is a low plain 
covered with coconut groves. From the northwest point a reef, 
partly bare at low water, extends % mile in, a southwest direction and 
a similar reef, not so prominent, extends from the village of Granadas 
to the southern point of the island and has a general width of y 2 mile. 
The coast on the north and east sides of the island are free from dan- 
gers and a vessel may approach it with safety to a distance of y% mile., 
There are eight small islets, ranging in height from 7 to 163 feet, lying 
close to the main island, with which they are all, with the exception of 
the southern two, connected by reefs. Granadas lies on the western 
shore. A light, showing every 10 seconds a group of two white flashes, 
separated by an interval of 2% seconds, and followed by an interval 
of iy% seconds, visible 28 miles, is exhibited 438 feet above high 
water from a cylindrical concrete tower 37 feet high on the summit of 
Suluan Island, about y 2 mile northward from the southeastern point. 
The keeper's dwelling, of concrete, stands at the foot of the tower. 

The only partly sheltered anchorage is off the southwest coast in 6 
or 7 fathoms, sandy bottom, about y 2 mile southward of the 204-foot 
hill on the northwest point and the same distance westward from the 
village. This anchorage is protected from winds from northwest 
through north and east, to southeast. The best and about, only land- 
ing is oh the shore line inside of the above-mentioned anchorage. 



210 MINDANAO. 

DINAGAT ISLAND, 

forming the east side of Surigao Strait, is, including the smaller 
islands lying close to its south end, about 40 miles long north and 
south and has a greatest width of 10 miles. Its west coast is very 
irregular in outline, being indented by deep bays and faced by nu- 
merous islands, which afford good sheltered anchorages, while the 
east coast is more regular and contains few good harbors. A chain 
of mountains extends along the east coast, the highest of which, 
Mount Redondo, 3,066 feet in elevation, is situated 7 miles from the 
north end. Through the middle of the island extends a rather wide 
valley traversed by low ridges and hills, and on the west side there 
is another ridge rather flat in general and especially so at its highest 
part, which is about one-half as high as that on the east coast. 
There are no rivers of importance in the western part; on the east 
coast there are two large inlets, into which a number of rivers dis- 
charge, which are navigable for small vessels. Dinagat is generally 
wooded ; there is probably, little heavy timber except in the valleys, 
the growth on the higher slopes being mostly small and scraggly. 
The island is sparsely populated and contains no ports of com- 
mercial importance. The principal exports are hemp and copra. 

Desolation Point, the northern extremity of Dinagat Island, is a 
low, rocky, and rounding point ; it is bold and can be passed close-to. 
The land back from the point rises rapidly and attains an elevation 
of 1,420 feet at a distance of iy 2 miles inland. 

Kanamong, Kanpintak, and Panamauan Points, situated 1%, 2y 2 , and 
3 miles, respectively, southwestward from Desolation Point, are 
not prominent. They are low, composed of dark rock, heavily 
wooded, and are clean and steep-to. In the bays between these points 
are white sand beaches with coconut trees, a little cultivation, and 
occasionally two or three native houses. 

Babatnon Point, about 1% miles southward from Panamauan Point, 
is low and wooded. It forms the western side of Panamauan Bay, 
which is small and nearly blocked by reefs. Partially sheltered 
anchorage for small craft may be found here. Looc Bay, between 
Babatnon and Berrugosa Points, is Sy 2 miles wide at the entrance 
and extends about 2 miles southward. Its shores are fringed by a 
narrow steep-to reef, and there are no detached dangers with the 
exception of a small reef, bare at low water springs, lying about 300 
yards northward from the village of Loreto. Loreto and Santiago 
are small settlements at the head of the bay; small steamera from 
Cebu occasionally call here. 

Puyo Island, lying about y 2 mile from the eastern shore of Looc 
Bay, is about y 2 mile in extent, 120 feet high, and partly wooded. 
From a distance it is not readily distinguished from the land be- 
hind it. Fair anchorage may be found between Puyo Island and the 
land, but rather exposed to northerly winds. 

Kayasa Islets (Twin Islets) are two small rocky wooded islets, 115 
and 120 feet high, respectively, lying about 214 miles west-northwest- 
ward from Babatnon Point. They lie about y s mile apart in a 
north-northwest and opposite direction. There is a small rocky 
shoal, covered by a least depth of 1 fathom, lying a good y± mile 
northwestward from the northern islet and a rock awash lies about 



DINAGAT ISLAND. 211 

% mile westward from the southern islet. The tides run with great 
velocity in the vicinity of the Kayasa Islets and they should be given 
a good berth. 

Hibuson Island, lying about 4 miles northwestward from Berrugosa 
.Point, is about 3 miles long northwest, and southeast and V/ 2 miles 
wide. It is well wooded and rises to a ridge near the center, 620 
feet high. Its shores are fairly clean and steep-to and there are no 
off-lying dangers. The town of Hibuson lies at the head of Tinaga 
Cove, a small bay on the east side of the island. Anchorage may be 
found m front of Hibuson in 20 fathoms, protected from all except 
easterly winds. 

Little Hibuson Island, lying close to the southwestern part of Hibu- 
son Island, of which it appears to be a part, and Hibuson Island 
are practically one island, being connected at their extremities by 
reefs with a deep basin between them. The channel between them 
is merely a mangrove-lined slough, which can be used only by small 
craft. -The northern entrance is narrow and has many large bowlders 
in it, covered by 3 and 4 feet of water. Possibly 2 fathoms could be 
carried in when the light is good by avoiding the bowlders. The 
southern entrance is also almost blocked by bowlders, but can be 
entered at high water when the sea is smooth. 

Berrugosa Point, about 600 feet in height, is the northern end of a 
large peninsula between Looc and Tubajon Bays. This peninsula, 
composed mostly of hills about 600 feet high and covered with a 
thick scraggy growth, presents a coxcomb appearance when viewed 
from the westward. 

Tubajon Bay, between Berrugosa and Esconchada Points, is about 
4 miles wide at the entrance and extends 2 miles southeastward. 
Its shores are clean and steep-to. Tubajon and Santa Cruz lie at 
the head of the bay. Lisub Cove, a small indentation in the east- 
ern shore of Tubajon Bay, 2 miles south of Berrugosa Point, is 
small and the entrance is narrow and foul and could only be used 
by small craft drawing not more than 6 feet of water. For boats 
and small launches it affords perfect shelter from all winds. 

Esconchada Point is a steep, broad, partly wooded bluff over 250 
feet high, fronted by a narrow steep-to rocky beach. A large part 
of the central portion of the bluff has a steep rocky face of a dark 
reddish color 2 clear of timber, and presents a prominent appear- 
ance when viewed from offshore. The tide rips off Esconchada 
Point are marked and heavy, especially with the flood tide. 

From Esconchada Point the coast trends southward for 5 miles to 
Tamoyauas Point and is broken by four bays. 

Pagbabangnan Cove is a small indentation in the shore line about 2 
miles southward of Esconchada Point. It is very small and has a 
coral reef extending entirely across its entrance, which can only be 
crossed by a pulling boat at high water. Small craft can enter this 
cove at high water unless the sea is very choppy outside. 

Layauan Bay, immediately southward from Pagbabangnan Cove, 
from which it is separated by Tambungan Point, is about % mile wide 
at the entrance and extends about 1 mile eastward; from the north 
side of the bay, near its head, there is an arm extending about y 2 mile 
northward. Layauan Bay has a rocky shore all around, hidden by a 
narrow fringe of mangrove and faced by coral reefs to a distance of 



212 MINDANAO. 

50 to 100 yards. A depth of from 32 to 14 fathoms can be carried 
from the entrance to a point southward of the sand spit on the west 
side of the entrance to the north arm of the bay eastward from this 
point ; the bay is foul and filled with reefs. A channel 150 yards wide 
leads up the middle of the north arm carrying a depth of 10 fathoms, 
mud bottom, for about % mile beyond the entrance. In entering the 
north arm the sand spit on the west side should be passed close-to, it 
being steep and clear while reefs make well off the point on the eastern 
side. Layauan Bay is a great resort for fishermen, some coming even 
from Leyte. 

Anchorage, protected from all except westerly winds, may be found 
in the middle of Layauan Bay in 16 fathoms ; small vessels may enter 
the north arm, where they will find landlocked anchorage in 10 
fathoms. 

Little layauan Bay, a small unimportant bay, lies immediately 
south from Layauan Bay, from which it is separated by a steep, 
rocky bluff, which is prominent and bold. This bay is fringed by 
coral reefs which extend about 50 yards from the northern shore and 
160 yards from the southern shore. The best water is in the northern 
part of the bay. The point at the south side of the entrance to Little 
Layauan Bay is a steep, cultivated ridge about 80 feet high. 

Libjo Bay lies between Tamoyauas Point, which is high and gently 
rounding with rocky ledges at its foot and heavily wooded, and 
Pelotes Point. It is 2y 2 miles wide at the entrance and extends the 
same distance southeastward. The shores of the bay are fringed with 
reefs ; the center is deep and clear. The town of Libjo lies back of a 
cobblestone and sand beach at the head of the bay. 

Anchorage, fairly protected from all winds, may be found in 17 
fathoms ^ mile northwestward from Libjo. 

Pelotes Rocks lie about % mile northward from Pelotes Point. 
They are two in number but appear to be four or five^ the larger 
having four separate summits. The southern summit of the larger 
rock is 120 feet high ; the western rock is about 25 feet high. They 
lie on a bank about ^ mile in extent surrounded by deep water. 
They are steep-to and covered with a thick growth of small trees. 

Pelotes Point is the termination of Tabunan Peninsula, a wooded 
peninsula, 590 feet high, which extends about 2 miles northwestward 
from the coast. Pelotes Point is rocky, steep, and bold. About y± 
mile northeastward from it there is a steep rock, 58 feet high, with a 
tuft of bushes on its top. The isthmus connecting Tabunan Penin- 
sula with the mainland is about % mile wide and 100 feet high. 

Tabunan, an unimportant fishing settlement, lies on the western 
side of Tabunan Peninsula, about % mile southward from Pelotes 
Point. 

At Pelotes Point begins a series of groups of islets .and inlets that 
extends southward along the coast for a distance of 10 miles. The 
mainland itself is so broken into small haycock-shaped hills that re- 
semble the islands that the number of the latter appears to be almost 
innumerable. 

Tabunan Islets are a group of 11 small islets and four or five smaller 
rocks lying about y 2 mile southward from Pelotes Point and extend- 
ing about the same distance from the shore. They range in height 
from 50 to 210 feet and are all very steep and covered with light 
shrubbery. They are divided into two groups; the outer group of 



DINAGAT ISLAND. 213 

four are surrounded by deep water and are separated from the others 
by a narrow 23-f athom channel. The inner group all lie on the same 
reef and there is a channel between them and the peninsula passable 
by boats at high water. 

Binaliu Rocks, two in number, lie % mile west-southwestward from 
Pelotes Point. The largest one is about 120 feet long, 13 feet high, 
and flat topped; the other one is a pointed rock, 9 feet high, lying 
about 50 feet eastward from the larger. They are of limestone for- 
mation, much underworn by wave action, and the sea breaks over 
them in moderately heavy weather. 

Dayhangan Bay, between the south side of Tabunan Peninsula and 
Tagabaka Point, presents no special features; the village of Day- 
hagan lies on the north shore. 

Tagabaka Cove lies between the point of the same name and a long 
conspicuous point which extends % m il e northward and is composed 
of limestone hillocks resembling the numerous islands outside. There 
are a number of islets in the cove, the largest of which lies across the 
entrance. The channels at either end of this islet are foul, and only 
about 6 feet can be carried into the cove at high water. 

A small shoal covered by a least depth of 1% fathoms exists about 
% mile north-northwestward from the entrance point to Tagabaka 
Cove, and a shoal covered by a least depth of 3 fathoms and sur- 
rounded by deep water exists midway between the same point and 
Kanihaan Island. 

Kanihaan Island, the farthest off-lying island in this vicinity, is 
situated about 3 miles southwestward from Tabunan Peninsula and 
2% miles from shore. It is about y 2 mile long in a north-northeast 
and opposite direction and ^4 mile wide, covered with cogon grass 
and coconut trees, and rises to a height of 167 feet ; foul ground ex- 
tends about 400 yards north and south from it. 

A small, dangerous reef, covered by a least depth of 1 fathom and 
surrounded by deep water, exists about % mile westward from Kani- 
haan Island. The currents in this vicinity run with great velocity, 
causing heavy tide rips and overfalls, and this reef is hard to pick up. 

Currents. — During the survey in this vicinity currents were expe- 
rienced running southward off the points of Dinagat and around 
Kanihaan Island. When they did set northward there was, as a rule, 
little strength to them, while, on the other hand, those setting south- 
ward ran with great velocity around the north end of Kanihaan 
Island and the reef to the westward. 

Kayabangan Island, situated about % mile southwestward from the 
western entrance point to Tagabaka Cove, is small, rocky, wooded, 
and 220 feet high. The territory included within the group of islets, 
rocks, and reefs between Kayabangan Island and the shore is foul, 
and no vessels should venture into this area except under the most 
favorable seeing conditions. 

Lipata lies back of a sandy bench about 1 mile south-southeastward 
from Kayabangan Island. There is no good anchorage in the vicin- 
ity of Lipata. It is best approached northward from a small islet 
lying % mile northwest from it. When nearing the village care must 
be given to the fringing reef, which bares at low water and extends 
y 8 mile from the shore. Lipata can be approached from the west- 
ward by rounding the north end of Kanhanusa Island at a distance 



214 MINDANAO. 

of 100 yards and giving the islet eastward from it a berth of about 
200 yards. This will clear the reef, which extends about 400 yards 
southward from the islet lying northwestward from Lipata. The 
entrance to the cove southward of Lipata is blocked by a coral reef 
which can only be crossed by pulling boats at high water. 

Kanhanusa Island is a small irregularly shaped island, 325 feet high, 
lying 1 mile south-southwest from Kayabangan Island; Tamburay 
Island lies immediately southward from it. 

Kanhanusa Passage, between Kanhanusa and Tamburay Islands 
and the land, is navigable by coasting vessels. A coral sand reef 
about 50 by 200 yards in extent, which bares at low water, lies in the 
middle of the passage. There is deep water on both sides of this 
reef, and it can be left on either hand in passing. Care must also be 
exercised to avoid the fringing reef making off 100 yards from the 
point on the mainland just north of the channel reef and another 
making off 100 yards from the islet near the northern end of Kan- 
hanusa Island. 

Kayitan Bay, at the main entrance between Tamburay Island and 
Tungo Point, is about ^4 mile wide and extends nearly iy 2 miles 
east-southeastward. Dungoan Cove, the entrance to which is blocked 
by a coral reef bare at low water, is an irregularly shaped body of 
water making off from the south side of Kayitan Bay. 

A fairly good anchorage may be found in 21 fathoms, mud bottom, 
about 400 yards eastward from the entrance to the eastern arm of 
Kayitan Bay. Care must be taken to avoid a coral head, covered by 
a least depth of y 2 fathom, lying in the middle of the arm % mile east 
of the entrance. The north shore of the arm west from the coral 
head is fringed by a reef about 50 yards wide, while the south shore 
is practically clear. 

San Eoque is a small village about 2 miles southward from Tungo 
Point on the north side of San Roque Channel. Back from this vil- 
lage there is a 340-foot hill, which from northwest and southeast 
shows as a perfect cone and stands up very sharply. 

San Roque Channel (chart 4638), between Dinagat and Kotkot 
Islands, is narrowed by fringing reefs on either side to a navigable 
width of about 100 yards. In the middle of the channel, abreast of 
the village, there is a depth of about 5 fathoms, from which point 
the depths gradually increase north and south. A short distance 
eastward from the village the channel widens, forming a basin about 
300 by 400 yards in extent, where good anchorage may be found in 
from 22 to 25 fathoms. The north shore of this basin has two reefs 
extending some 220 yards from shore. The channel southward from 
this basin narrows and is almost closed by reefs, leaving a 9-fathom 
channel about 50 yards wide through the reef 80 yards eastward from 
Rabo Rock, the 22-foot rock west of Kakub Point. 

Kotkot Island, forming the southwest side of San Roque Channel, 
is nearly 1 mile long northtwest and southeast, dark and thickly 
wooded, and rises near the north end to a height of 170 feet. It is 
fringed by reefs which from the ends extend to a distance of about 
% mile. On the reef, extending from the southeast end, are situated 
Kasundalo Islet and several smaller islets and rocks. 

Hagakhak Island, lying about y 2 mile southward from Kotkot 
Island, from which it is separated by a deep, narrow channel, is 
wooded and 140 feet high. 



DINAGAT ISLAND. 215 

Tinao Islet is situated about 400 yards northwestward from the 
north end of Hagakhak Island. It is the outer one of a number of 
islets and rocks northwestward from Hagakhak; on its western end 
are two peculiar rocky columns, some 30 feet high. 

Little Hagakhak Island, situated about % mile southwestward from 
Hagakhak Island, is 110 feet high, wooded, and very prominent. It is 
small, composed of dark, smooth rocks having high cliffs on its north- 
east and southwest faces, and is clean and steep-to. From a steep 
bluff at its southeast extremity a bare rocky ledge, about 7 feet above 
high water, extends for 120 yards, and close to the end of this ledge, 
on top of it, a cluster of large bowlders, steep on the sides and under- 
worn around their bases, lie scattered. The highest of these bowlders 
is 40 feet high and has a few scrubby bushes on it. 

Kakub Point is a long point which terminates in a little hill 50 feet 
high and forms part of the eastern side of San Boque Channel. The 
shore line from Kakub extends % mile northward and thence iy± 
miles southward to Kanhatid Point, forming eastward from Kakub 
Point and the Kanhatid Islands a narrow, deep, unnamed bay the 
shores of which are practically a wall of coral from 10 to 30 feet 
high. 

Extending southward from Kakub Point for a distance of over 
% mile is a long reef, on which are situated the Kanhatid Islets, a 
number of small, partly wooded, rocky, and uninviting looking islets. 

About y± mile southwestward from the southern Kanhatid Islet, in 
the fairway to the southern approach to San Boque Channel, the 
Twin Islets, two small islets each about 60 feet high, lie on a reef 
surrounded by deep water. They may be left on either hand at a 
distance of 200 yards when approaching or leaving San Eoque 
Channel. 

Kabun Cove is a small indentation about 1 mile northward from 
Kanhatid Point. It is of no value to navigation, being nearly filled 
by an island the ends of which are connected with the snore by reefs. 

Kanhatid Point, forming the western side of Babas Cove, has a 
small islet off its extremity, about 50 feet high, the southern and 
eastern sides of which are clean and steep-to. 

Babas Cove, lying immediately eastward from Kanhatid Point, is 
% mile long north and south, % mile wide, and very deep. It af- 
fords anchorage for launches and small craft, a mid-channel course 
carrying a least depth of 17 fathoms to its head. 

Kambagio Point, the northwestern entrance point to Melgar Bay, is 
rocky and steep and is formed by the base of a little conical grass- 
covered hill about 200 feet high; it appears prominent from west 
and southwest. An extensive reef, bare at low- water springs, extends 
% mile southeastward from the eastern side of Kambagio Point, 
affording protection to the anchorage off Melgar from southwest 
winds. 

Melgar Bay is Zy 2 miles wide at the entrance between Kambagio 
and Kansadok Points and extends iy 2 miles northeastward. It is 
encircled by high hills lying about 2 miles back from the coast and 
is bordered with but little foreshore. About 2 miles northward from 
the head of the bay these hills reach over 1,000 feet in elevation and 
stand out prominently. Northeast from the bay is a rather broken 
series of ridges that culminate in Mount Tristan, on the eastern side 
of Dinagat. 



216 MINDANAO. 

Melgar is a small town lying eastward from Kambagio Point. It is 
built with one street on the beach and the other on the hillside. 

From Kambagio Point the coast trends northeastward for about 
2 miles and thence east-southeastward for about the same distance to 
Bilabid Point. This section of the coast is rocky around the points 
and in the bights. It is fringed with coral, which at one point 
extends to a distance of nearly ^ mile. 

About 14 mile south-southeast from Tamchagan Point, the first 
point northeastward from Kambagio Point, there is a reef composed 
of coral bowlders and covered by a least depth of 1 fathom. It is 
about 200 yards long northwest and southeast, 100 yards wide, 
steep-to on all sides, and usually shows plainly. 

Sibukauan Island, lying midway between Bilabid and Mahangin 
Points, 2 miles eastward from Kambagio Point, and in the entrance 
to three large inlets, known as Panikian, Tagabaka. and Tagbabui 
Coves, is of horseshoe shape with the convex side toward Bilabid 
Point. It is bold, over 100 feet high, heavily wooded, and easily 
recognized. Sibukauan is joined to Bilabid Point by a reef showing 
coral heads at low water. Its south side is fringed by a narrow 
steep-to reef, and between this reef and Mahangin Point there is a 
deep, clear channel about 400 yards wide. 

Panikian, Tagabaka, and Tagbabui Coves are large irregularly shaped 
inlets having a common entrance between Sibukauan Island and 
Mahangin Point ; they do not require any detailed description. They 
afford perfectly sheltered anchorage for moderate-size vessels. The 
only dangers requiring special mention are the reefs off the eastern 
points of Sibukauan Island, which are rather extensive and show 
coral heads at low-water springs. 

Mahangin Point, the southern entrance point to the above-mentioned 
coves, has a black rock beach and is bold and steep-to. The land 
rises rapidly from the point and attains a height of 430 feet at a dis- 
tance of about i/2 m il e inland. 

Kanayut Point, lying about % mile southwestward from Mahangin 
Point, has no beach, but instead a cliff face, about 30 feet high, which 
shows well from all parts of Melgar Bay. The peninsula terminat- 
ing in Mahangin and Kanayut Points is well wooded, 490 feet high, 
and very prominent. 

Kambay Cove is % mile wide at the entrance between Kanayut and 
Kansadok Points and extends about the same distance southeastward. 
It affords fair anchorage, although the depths are rather great. 

Kansadok Point, the southeastern entrance point to Melgar Bay, is 
low, rocky, and steep-to, and the land behind is steep and wooded. 

Unib Island is situated about 2 miles southward from Kambagio 
Point in the entrance to Melgar Bay. It is roughly triangular in 
shape and about % mile in extent. It is very rugged, heavily wooded, 
and rises in the center to a height of 650 feet. Its shores are gener- 
ally clean and steep-to. 

Sibanoc Island lies immediately southwestward from Unib Island, 
from which it is separated by a deep channel. It is about 2 miles 
long north and south, narrow, and rises to a height of 448 feet. It is 
the best-cultivated island in this vicinity and supports quite a popu- 
lation. The village of Bizal lies on the most eastern point. 

Baong Rocks are a cluster of rocks covering an area about 400 yards 
long east and west and 220 yards wide, situated westward from the 



DINAGAT ISLAND. 217 

southern part of Sibanoc Island, from which they are separated by a 
deep channel about 600 yards wide. The largest rock is of a dark 
color, about 10 by 15 feet in extent, and stands about 3 feet above 
the highest tides. 

About 150 yards west of this rock there is a rocky cluster uncover- 
ing at half tide, and about the same distance east-southeastward 
there is another cluster covered by 1 foot at low water ; between these 
dangers, depths of from 1 to 5 fathoms are found. With southwest 
and west winds the sea breaks heavily over these rocks and shoals. 

Viray Islet is a small islet lying about % mile southward from Unib 
Island; it is about y^ mile long north and south and very narrow. 
It is low in the middle and higher at the ends, the southern end being 
the higher (80 feet) and more wooded. It is surrounded by reefs, 
which from the northeastern side extend to a distance of nearly y 2 
mile and are partly bare at low water. 

Likoko Islet is a very small islet lying 14 mile from the east part 
of Sibanoc Island ; it is rocky and has a cluster of coconut trees on it. 
Eastward from Likoko and separated from it by a channel 120 yards 
wide is a large reef which bares in places at low-water springs. 
There is a narrow deep channel between this reef and the reef sur- 
rounding Viray Islet and also between Likoko and Sibanoc Island. 

Kalavera Point, about % mile southwestward from Kansadok Point, 
is surrounded by a rocky ledge with shoal water outside of it extend- 
ing to a distance of about y^ mile. It is 50 feet high and the one 
street of the village of Odok runs up over the hill. 

Matingbi Cove, at its entrance between Kamagong Point, situated 
y 2 mile south of Kalavera Point and Kanhinaud Point, is about iy± 
miles wide and extends about 1 mile eastward ; it is of no importance. 

Puyo Islet is a small islet lying in the middle of Matingbi Cove, 
which is barely distinguishable from the land behind it. 

Kanhinaud Point is the western extremity of a long peninsula lying 
between Matingbi and Masiub Coves. It is bordered by mangroves 
and fringed by a reef which bares at low water. This peninsula is 
very prominent, partly because of the scattered cultivated areas and 
partly because of the sharp hills with clumps of trees on them. A 
large clump of trees on a 390-foot hill near the middle of the penin- 
sula can easily be recognized from Little Hagakhak Island. 

Tagbayakao Islet is a small cone-shaped rock, 102 feet high, with 
bushes on top and mangroves on its inshore side, lying nearly 1% 
miles southeastward from Kanhinaud Point. It is connected with 
the peninsula northward by a reef, partly bare at low water, and 
foul ground extends % mile southwestward from it'. 

Masiub Cove is about 1 mile wide at the entrance between Tagba- 
yakao Islet and Masiub Point and extends north and then east for a 
distance of nearly 2 miles. It contains much foul ground and is of 
little value to navigation. 

Dinagat Point, situated % mile southward from Masiub Point, ter- 
minates in a promontory, 156 feet high, on the northern slope of 
which is situated the town of Dinagat. 

Dinagat (chart 4638) is a small town, consisting of two churches, 
tribunal, several Chinese stores, a schoolhouse painted white with 
an iron roof, and 70 or 80 nipa houses. The schoolhouse and church 
stand on high ground and are conspicuous from seaward. At the 



218 MINDANAO. 

back of the town is a perfectly sheltered pier, with 5 feet at its end, 
where small native craft and ship's launches mav dock. 

Capaquian Island, lying across the entrance to Masiub and Dinagat 
Coves, is about 2 miles long, northwest and southeast, and narrow. 
The southwest side is mostly black, rocky ledges ; the northeast side 
is bordered by mangroves and fringed by' a steep-to reef. It is well 
wooded and. rises in the northwest part to a height of 260 feet. 

A reef, part of which is awash, lies % to % mile southeastward 
from the south end of Capaquian Island. 

Dakit Rock, lying about % mile from the west side of Capaquian 
Island, is about 25 yards in extent, flat on top, stands about 4 feet 
above high water, and is conspicuous. Southward from Dakit Bock 
there are three shoals lying close together, the western and most dan- 
gerous being covered by only 4 feet of water. Over the larger part 
of these shoals there is a depth of from 2 to 3 fathoms, the 4-foot 
spot being found on top of a bowlder at the northwest extremity of 
the western shoal. 

Cabilan Islets are two small islets lying on the same reef nearly 1 
mile south of Capaquian Island. The western and eastern islets are 
138 feet high, respectively. The reef surrounding them is generally 
less than 200 yards wide and is steep-to. 

A small detached reef, covered by y± fathom, lies about % mile 
east-southeastward from the eastern Cabilan Islet. 

From Dinagat Point to the northern entrance to Gabo Channel, a 
distance of 4% miles, the coast trends southeasterly and forms the 
northern side of Awasan Bay. From this section of the coast, reefs 
with very little water over them extend to a distance of about % 
mile. From the entrance to Gabo Channel the coast trends west- 
ward along the northern shores of Awasan, Hanigad, and Sibale 
Islands, forming the southern shore of Awasan Bay, which is 
fringed by reefs about % mile wide. Between Awasan and Hanigad 
Island there is an unimportant bay filled with reefs and shoals. The 
head of this bay is connected with Kantiasay Bay, between Hanigad 
and Nonoc Islands, also of no importance, being blocked at the south- 
ern entrance by bowlders. Awasan Bay is about 40 fathoms deep at 
the entrance and shoals gradually toward the head. 

Sugbuhan Island is a small island covered with trees and grass lying 
close to the shore at the head of Awasan Bay. It is broken up into 
several small hills, which show conspicuous red bluffs to the south- 
westward; east from these bluffs is a sand beach with a small village 
on it, the remainder of the shore line being mangroves. 

Tagboabo Islet,'small and covered with trees and bamboo, lies imme- 
diately southeastward from Sugbuhan Island and marks the northern 
entrance to Gabo Channel. 

Awasan Island, lying close to the south end of Dinagat Island, from 
which it is separated by Gabo Channel, is 2y 2 miles long in a north- 
northeast and opposite direction, 1^4 miles wide, well wooded, and 
mountainous, rising near the south end to a height of 560 feet. Its 
shores are all mangrove except at the northwest point, where there 
is a short sand beach and the only house on the island. Its south 
side is separated from Nonoc Island by a shoal mangrove-bordered 
channel which connects Kantiasay Bay with Gabo Channel. • 

Hanigad Island, lying westward from Awasan and Nonoc Islands, 
is nearly 4 miles long in a north-northeast and opposite direction, 



DINAGAT ISLAND. 219 

and has ah average width of 1 mile. Hanigad Island is mountain- 
ous, the eastern half heavily wooded, the southwest part lightly 
covered with trees, bushes, some grass, and scattering dead trees, 
with patches of red soil showing. The shore line is mostly man- 
groves, but there are conspicuous sand beaches and coconut groves 
on the western side and near the village of Hanigad. On the north : 
end the fringe of mangrove is very narrow with bushes and high 
land immediately back from them. There are many scattered rocks 
lying from 10 to 50 yards from the north shore, and foul ground 
extends nearly % mile northward from Hanigad Island. 

Sibale Island lies westward from Hanigad Island, from which it is 
separated by a short, narrow, mangrove-fringed channel 10 to 15 
yards wide. Sibale and Hanigad Islands are connected both at the 
north and south ends by reefs and are separated by Kantiasay Bay, a 
large, foul basin. The little village of Saragossa stands on the 
north end of Sibale Island. Sibale rises in the southern part to a 
sharp wooded summit 510 feet high. The rest of the island is fairly 
well cultivated for hemp, coconuts, bananas, and sweet potatoes. 
This island is noticeably greener than the others and is well settled ; 
considerable hemp and copra are exported. The shore line is mostly 
rocky near the points, with sand beaches in the bays. 

A small reef, covered by a least depth of 2% fathoms, lies % 
mile 278° (276° mag.) from the north end of Sibale Island. 

Hikdop Island, lying westward from Sibale Island, is about 4 miles 
long northwest and southeast and 1 mile wide. It is rugged and 
high, its extreme elevation being 994 feet to the tops of the trees. 
The northern part presents a very broken skyline and is generally 
covered with coconut trees, grass, and scattered patches of hemp; 
the southern part is more regular and mostly wooded. The south- 
west shore is rocky, with small sand beaches at the heads of the coves. 
The island is generally fringed by a narrow steep-to reef, which from 
its southeast point extends to a distance of about % mile, with a 
least depth of 3% fathoms over black coral heads. There are sev- 
eral villages, of which Buenavista, lying on the southwest side, is 
the most important. The channel between Hikdop and Sibale 
Islands has a least width of 1 mile and can be safely navigated by 
keeping in the middle. 

Ofiate Kock is a small coral reef showing several black rocks, one 
of which is awash at high water, lying about 1 mile from the south 
side of Hikdop Island on the bearings: South tangent to Hikdop 
Island 98° (96° mag.) and west tangent to same island 4° (2° mag.). 

Beelzebub Reef, covered by a least depth of 2y 2 fathoms, lies about 
y 2 mile westward from Ofiate Kock, with a narrow, deep channel 
between them. , 

Danaon Island, lying about % mile west-northwestward from the 
north end of Hikdop Island, is a small regularly shaped island about 
y 2 mile in extent. The east side is low, flat, and sandy, with a white 
coral sand beach at the village of Danaon ; this part is covered with 
coconut trees. The remainder of the island is high, rocky, and 
wooded, being 152 feet high to the tree tops. It is clean and steep-to 
on the east side, but the rest of its shores are fringed by a wide reef 
to a distance of about % mile, which is covered with bowlders. 
There is a rock 4 feet high standing on a detached coral reef nearly 
y 2 mile northesatward from Danaon Island. 

•}Q4K9° 91 1 K 



220 MINDANAO. 

Sumilon Island, the most western island northeastward from Min- 
danao, is situated 5y 2 miles northward from Bilaa Point and about 
Sy 2 miles westward from the north end of Hikdop Island. It is 
about y 2 mile in extent, covered with coconut trees and grass, and 
157 feet high to the tree tops. From its southeastern part a long 
sand spit makes off and surrounds two conspicuous rocks lying about 
!/4 mile from shore. The more southerly of these rocks is covered 
with bushes ; the other is bare. 

Satan Rock, lying nearly l 1 /^ miles east-northeastward from Sumi- 
lon Island, is small and steep and terminates above the surface in 
a conical-shaped black rock. It may be passed fairly close on either 
side. 

Nonoc Island, lying off the south end of Dinagat Island, from 
which it is separated by Gabo Channel, is of very irregular shape, 
6£ miles long east and west and about 4 miles wide. Its sea faces 
are generally steep and clear. It is all mountainous ; its highest sum- 
mit, Mount Conico, situated in the western part, reaches an eleva- 
tion of 1,100 feet. It is composed of a series of parallel ridges 
trending roughly northwest and southeast. Those at the west and 
east ends are heavily wooded, but in between, especially bordering 
on Gabo Channel, are several ridges nearly bare of vegetation with 
a bright red soil exposed, over which are scattered a few dead trees. 
Along the south side of the island, at the base of Mount Conico 's 
southeasterly slope, are several unusually green grassy hills. 

Gabo Channel is the narrow deep channel between Port Gabo and 
Awasan Bay. It has a least width of 150 yards and a least depth of 
7. fathoms. The shores of the channel are bordered with mangroves 
and fringed by steep-to coral reefs. In entering from the northward 
care must be taken to avoid the shoals to the westward of the chan- 
nel,' which is formed by reefs on either side for about 1 mile before 
entering the channel proper between the islands ; these shoals can be 
passed close to on either side. Gabo Channel is not practicable for 
anything except small craft which make the passage with the tide. 

Currents. Low water at the Awasan Bay end of Gabo Channel 
comes at about the same time as high water at the Port Gabo end, 
and as a consequence there are violent and swift tidal currents with 
dangerous rips and whirls near all the points. The tim-s of slack 
water do not correspond with high and low waters by two and three 
hours. 

Port Gabo, at the southern end of Gabo Channel, lies between Dina- 
gat and Nonoc Islands. It is well protected, being sheltered by high 
land on three sides. The port, which is easily made out from sea- 
ward, is nearly 1 mile wide at the entrance and has a great depth of 
water. It extends l 1 ^ miles westward and then forms an elbow 
southward, turning into Gabo Channel. Gabo Island is a small 
wooded island, 98 feet high, near the entrance to Gabo Channel. It is 
surrounded by a reef which connects it with Nonoc Island and also 
extends about % mile northward from it. Good, protected anchorage 
may be found in the northern part of the port, less than % mile from 
shore, in about 15 fathoms. 

Boot Islet, about 1 mile in extent, lies close to the southwest side of 
of Nonoc Island, from which it is separaed by a narrow mangrove- 
bordered channel. The southern half of the islet is covered with 
mangroves, while the northern half is high, showing three conspicu- 



DINAGAT ISLAND. 221. 

ous, grassy, wooded hills, the highest of which is 190 feet. A reef 
extends off the west shore of Doot, reaching almost to the village of 
Nonoc, where it terminates in several rocks above water. There is a 
deep channel between these rocks and the villages, and small vessels 
could find an anchorage just inside of them. The southwest shore of 
Doot Islet forms one side of the channel between it and Rasa Islet ; 
this channel is deep and clear, but its use is not recommended because 
of the heavy tide rips, whirlpools, and strong current in it. There is 
scarcely any slack water in this channel, the current changing from 
flood to ebb very quickly. 

Rasa Islet is a small islet lying on an extensive steep-to reef, part 
of which bares at low water, about 600 yards south of Doot Islet. 
It is composed mainly of mangroves, a little sand beach on the 
northeast shore, and a small hill about 25 feet high in the middle. 
The reef on which the islet lies extends about % mile on the north- 
west side around to the southwest and southeast sides, where it nar- 
rows to about y± mile. The northeast shore of the islet is steep-to 
and forms the south side of the channel between it and Doot Islet. 

A fixed red light is exhibited 10 feet above high water from a 
concrete pedestal on the extreme edge of the reef, 450 yards southward 
from Rasa Islet. 

From Port Gabo the coast trends in a general northerly direction 
for 37 miles to Desolation Point, at the northern extremity of the 
island, and is bold and mountainous and of desolate and forbidding 
character. The spurs from the mountains approach the shore and 
end in steep cliffs and bluffs. The shores are fringed with reefs 
varying in width from a few yards to over 14 mile. It can be safely 
navigated by keeping outside a line drawn 1 mile eastward from the 
salient points, care being taken to avoid the dangerous area eastward 
from Penascales Point, which will be described in its proper order. 
This coast is exposed to the full force of the waves from the Pacific 
and there are few places where a landing can be safely effected in bad 
weather. Owing to the lack of harbors, the strong currents, and 
numerous offshore dangers these waters are seldom visited by ship- 
ping. 

Mount Gabo is the summit of a bold promontory extending from the 
south end of Dinagat. It is connected with the rest of the island 
at a point about 5 miles from the south end by an isthmus a little 
over 1 mile wide and not much over 100 feet high. Mount Gabo 
appears as a rather flat-topped ridge sloping gently toward the north 
and dropping abruptly at the south. The summit, 1,752 feet in 
height, is densely wooded with low scrub, while the lower slopes are 
covered with small timber. The shore line of the peninsula, which is 
surmounted by Mount Gabo, is mostly rocky ledges with sand beaches 
in the bights and is fringed by a narrow steep-to coral reef. 

Kagdyanao Bay, about 1 mile in extent and nearly blocked by reefs, 
lies at the foot of the northern slope of Mount Gabo. Fairly sheltered 
anchorage for small vessels may be found off the village of Kagdy- 
anao in 12 fathoms, in a pocket in the reef about 14 mile in diameter. 
From the village of Kagdyanao, which is small and unimportant, 
there is a trail across the island to the head of Awasan Bay. 

Tabuk Island is a small tree and grass covered island, 148 feet high, 
lying on the northern side of the entrance to Kagdyanao Bay. It 
lies on the shore reef, which extends % mile eastward from it. 



222 MINDANAO. 

Sayao Island, lying over % mile northeastward from Tabuk Island, 
is a small, lightly wooded island, 127 feet high. Its southwest point 
is clear and steep-to, leaving a deep boat passage, 200 yards wide, 
between it and the reef surrounding Tabuk Island. The remainder 
of Sayao Island is fringed by reefs, which extend y^ mile northeast- 
ward from it, and surround Dakit Eock, a conspicuous rock, 18 feet 
high, which lies on the extreme edge of the reef. 

Lahi Bay lies immediately northward from Kagdyanao Bay. Its 
•shores are fringed by wide reefs and it is of little value to navigation. 

Mangli Bay, about 5% miles northward from Dakit Eock, is very 
small, almost blocked by reefs, and only available for small, native 
craft during the southwest monsoon. 

Peiiascales Point, the most eastern point of Dinagat northward 
from Grabo Peninsula, is situated 7 miles northward from Dakit 
Eock. It is surrounded by a considerable reef, which extends about 
14 mile eastward, and is steep-to. On this reef there is a small 
group of large black rocks, the highest of which is 22 feet ; these 
rocks show up well from north and south. 

Eastward from a north and south line, passing 2 miles eastward 
from Peiiascales Point, is an area of foul ground, about 9 miles long 
north and south and 7 miles wide east and west, in which are found 
numerous detached reefs covered by depths of from Zy 2 to 7 fathoms. 
The location of these reefs and the limits of the area of foul ground 
will be best understood by reference to the chart. 

Peninsula Point, about 6 miles northward from Peiiascales Point, 
is formed by a round peninsula, about 1 mile in diameter. It is 
densely wooded, 528 feet high, and rather flat on top, but drops off 
steeply on the eastern side. It is fringed with reefs, which, from the 
northeast side, extend to a distance of nearly y 2 mile. About y 2 
mile from its southeast point there is a detached patch covered by a 
least depth of 414 fathoms. 

Gaas Bay, lying northward from Peninsula Point, is about iy 2 miles 
wide at its entrance, and extends about 1 mile westward. The middle 
of the bay is deep, but the shores are fringed with reefs, which at 
the head of the bay extend to a distance of % mile. 

Gaas Inlet (chart 4638) is a deep winding waterway extending from 
Gaas Bay in a general southwesterly direction for about 3 miles and 
terminating in a large, comparatively shallow basin, about 2 miles 
long and over y 2 mile wide. The inlet has an average width of about 
200 yards and is from 3% to 10 fathoms deep. The shore line is 
almost entirely rocky, and has a steep slope with mangroves growing 
at the edge of the water. The basin, at the head of the inlet, is 
bordered by mangroves and there are a number of small rivers, 
navigable by small craft, discharging into it. There is a channel lead- 
ing through the basin, in which there is a least depth of \y 2 fathoms. 

Gaas Inlet is recommended in preference to Malinao Inlet, as the 
entrance is better protected from northeast sea, and once inside affords 
perfect protection for small vessels. Care should be taken in enters 
ing to keep well in the center, as there are large reefs making off 
from either shore, and the reef line northward from the entrance 
incloses several large sunken bowlders. 

Malinao Inlet (chart 4638) is the first break through the long range 
of mountains extending from Desolation Point southward on the 



DINAGAT ISLAND. 223' 

east coast of Dinagat and is situated 13 miles southward from Deso- 
lation Point and 5 miles northward from Peninsula Point. It iff 
about y 2 mile wide at the entrance and extends about V/ 2 miles north- 
westward, where it divides into two arms, which end in mangrove 
sloughs. The depth at the entrance is 5 fathoms; immediately in- 
side the depth decreases to \y 2 and then increases to 4 fathoms. This 
inlet affords fairly protected anchorage for small craft at all seasons. 
Shoal water, with a very irregular bottom, covered by depths of from 
2 to 10 fathoms, makes off to the eastward from the entrance to 
Malinao Inlet for nearly 1 mile ; good anchorage can be found off this, 
shoal during the southwest monsoon. 

Masdang Cove is a small cove 2 miles southward from Desolation 
Point, which affords shelter for boats and where a landing can gen- 
erally be made in bad weather. 

Halian Island, situated 8 miles eastward from Kagdyanao Bay, 
Dinagat, and 4% miles westward from Cowhagan Island, off the 
west coast of Siargao, is a small, low, coral-sand island, covered with 
trees, 60 to 80 feet high. It lies on the southern part of an extensive 
reef, which extends about 1 mile northward from it. Heavy swells 
roll over this reef, but a landing can be made a little north of the 
most western point of the island, where there is a sand beach and two 
or three houses. 

SIAEGAO ISLAND, 

situated 15 miles eastward from the southern part of Dinagat Island, 
is 19 miles long north and south, and has a greatest width of 11% 
miles. It is generally low, the greatest elevation, about 900 feet, being 
found in the southwest part. 

Sugbuhan Point, the northern extremity of the island, is a low bush 
and tree covered rounding point, from which reefs extend % mile 
in a north-northeasterly direction. 

Sugbuhan Beef, lying 2% miles north-northwestward from Sugbu- 
han Point, is 1% miles long in an east-southeast and opposite direc- 
tion, y 2 m il e wide, and covered by a least depth of iy 2 fathoms. 
Strong currents run over this reef and it can be plainly seen when 
the light is favorable. 

Malayo Reef, lying 7% miles 258° (256° mag.) from Sugbuhan 
Point, is about 1 mile long in an east-northeast and opposite direc- 
tion, ^4 mile wide, and covered by a least depth of \y 2 fathoms. 

From Sugbuhan Point the coast trends in a general south-south- 
westerly direction for 15 miles to Venus Point, and thence southeast- 
erly for 6 miles to Cambasac Point, on the northern side of the west- 
ern entrance to Dapa Channel. Between Sugbuhan and Venus Point 
there is an extensive bank having a greatest width of 5 miles, on 
which lie Kambiling, Pagbasayan, Kangun, Dahican, Megancub, Cow- 
hagan, Kangbangyo, Poneas, Tona, and Laonan Islands, and numer- 
ous reefs and shoals. A chain of reefs' begins about 1 mile south of 
Laonan Island, and stretches southeastward, parallel with the shore 
and about y 2 mile distant from it, as far as Venus Point, where it 
joins the shore. From Venus Point to Cambasac Point the coast is 
rocky, bordered with mangroves and fringed by steep-to reefs, no- 
where exceeding 400 yards in width. 



224 MINDANAO. 

Rizal is a small village lying on the coast about 2y 2 miles south- 
westward from Sugbuhan Point. The reef, in front of this village, 
bares to a distance of about % mile, and exposes a cluster of very 
jagged, dead coral rocks, lying about % mile from the outer edge of 
the reef. 

Kambiling Islet is a small sandy cay, awash at high water,. lying 
4y 2 miles southwestward from Sugbuhan Point, near the outer edge 
of the bank here about 2 miles wide. 

Sapao, the largest town in this vicinity, lies at the head of a man- 
grove-bordered cove, about y 2 mile southward from Eizal. It con- 
tains a stone church and convent, both of which are falling to ruin. 
Small steamers occasionally call here, anchoring about 1 mile from 
the town in 7 fathoms, at the entrance to a break in the reef leading 
to the town. This anchorage may be approached either northward 
or southward from Kambiling Islet. 

Pagbasayan Islet is a small, low, sandy islet covered with trees and 
bushes. It lies on the bank over 1 mile from its outer edge and the 
same distance from the shore. It is surrounded by an extensive reef 
that bares at low water. 

Shoals. — A shoal, covered by a least depth of 3% fathoms, exists 
3% miles, 311° (309° mag.) from Pagbasayan Islet. 

A shoal, covered by a least depth of 2*4 fathoms, exists 2% miles, 
304° (302° mag.) from Pagbasayan Islet. 

A shoal, covered by a least depth of 1% fathoms, exists 2% miles, 
325° (323° mag.) from Pagbasayan Islet. 

Kangun Islet is a low sandy islet lying near the edge of the bank, 
2y 2 miles southwest from Pagbasayan Islet and 2 miles from shore ; 
a reef which bares at low water extends about 1 mile northward 
from it. 

Litalit Bay, formed by Kangun, Dahican, and Litalit Islets and the 
coast of Siargao Island, is shoal in places and of little value to navi- 
gation. Prom the head of Litalit Bay there is a mangrove-fringed 
channel, navigable by small native craft, leading southward to 
Numancia. 

San Benito is a small unimportant village on the eastern shore of 
Litalit Bay ;^ the village and the sand beach in front of it are con- 
spicuous from seaward. San Benito may be approached by enter- 
ing Litalit Bay either northward or southward of Kangun Islet. 

Dahican Island, lying about 2 miles westward from San Benito, is 
a long, narrow, flat island, consisting mostly of mangroves with a 
small wooded area in the middle. 

Poneas Island, the largest island off the west coast of Siargao, is 5 
miles long in a northeast and southwest direction and over 1 mile 
wide. It is separated from Siargao and Tona Islands by Sayug 
Channel, Baban Lagoon, and Tona Channel. It appears as a cluster 
■of small peaks, the highest of which is 655 feet, lying close together, 
but separated from each other by deep gorges. An extensive area 
formed by a wide mangrove flat, intersected by mangrove sloughs, 
lies between the higher part of the island and the western part 01 
Siargao Island, which is of a very similar formation to the western 
part of Poneas Island. Sayug Channel, Baban Lagoon, and Tona Chan- 
nel, separating Poneas Island from Tona and Siargao Islands, are 
shoal, bordered by mangroves, and only navigable by the smaller 
•class of native craft ; they do not require any detailed description. 



SIAKGAO ISLAND. 225 

Cowhagan Island and Rock lie about % mile from the edge of the 
bank westward from Siargao and form a rounding point for coast- 
ing vessels. The island is small and low; the rock, lying on the 
northern side of the island, is covered with trees and rises to a 
height of 62 feet. 

Kangbangyo Island, about 1 mile west of the south end of Poneas 
Island, is covered with numerous wooded peaks, the highest of which 
rises to a height of 440 feet. It is surrounded by reefs which extend 
out y 2 mile and surrounds several high rocks. 

A shoal, covered by a least depth of 5% fathoms, lies V/ 2 miles 
westward from the north end of Kangbangyo. 

Laonan Island, lying close to the southwest end of Poneas Island, is 
very small, wooded, and rises to a height of 452 feet. 

Tona Island, composed almost entirely of mangroves, lies southward 
from Poneas Island. It is about V/ 2 miles square and is separated 
from Poneas by Tona Channel and from Siargao by Libas Channel. 
The Beyobo Channel, through which the town of Numancia is ap- 
proached, lies on the southeast side of Tona Island. 

Numancia, the largest town in this vicinity, lies about 8 miles north- 
westward from the western entrance to Dapa Channel and 2 miles 
from the sea ; the only part of it visible from seaward is the conspicu- 
ous church tower. There is a very narrow and tortuous mangrove- 
fringed channel leading to the town. The entrance is made by ap- 
proaching the coast nearly % mile northwest from a very conspicu- 
ous, small, white-sand islet which is awash at high water. This 
channel should not be attempted by a person without local knowl- 
edge, as there are several small shoals which can not be seen until 
close over them. The most dangerous shoal is one in the center of 
the channel, about % mile south of the pier; this shoal bares at 
extreme low water, but there is deep water close to the mangroves 
to the westward. The currents run with considerable velocity and 
there are dangerous whirlpools at places. It is reported that small 
steamers, drawing about 8 feet, make the town at high water and 
anchor off the pier, which is built of stone and extends about 200 
yards into the slough. 

San Fernando, formerly known as Port Cacub, is a small unim- 
portant town lying about 3 miles south of Numancia on a rather 
prominent green hill and is visible from seaward ; most of its houses 
are deserted. It is on the right bank of the Lumaton Eiver, a 
mangrove slough discharging into Pamay Bay. The entrance chan- 
nel is narrow and dangerous, and the currents run strongly in the 
river. Anchorage may be found in Pamay Bay in about 15 fathoms, 
muddy bottom, y 2 mile southward from Pamay Point. 

Quico Reef is a small steep-to coral reef, which shows a few bare 
spots at extreme low water, on the bearings : San Miguel Point, the 
northern extremity of East Bucas Island, 111° (109° mag.) and 
Bagum Islet, a 60-foot islet off the northern extremity of Middle 
Bucas Island, 212° (210° mag.) distant % mile. 

Barrabas Reef, similar to Quico Beef and somewhat larger, lies on 
the bearings: San Miguel Point 99° (97° mag.) and Mount Sibonga 
182° (180° mag.). 

These two reefs and the rock off the north end of Bucas Grande 
Island are the only detached dangers in the western approach to 



226 MINDANAO. 

Dapa Channel. The summit of Bancuyo Islet (100 feet) in Dapa 
Channel kept on a 110° (108° mag.) bearing will carry a vessel well 
clear of all dangers. 

Cambasac Point, the southern extremity of Siargao Island, is fringed 
by a narrow, steep-to reef. It may be recognized by the village of 
; Cambasac, which lies on its southern extremity. 

Dapa Channel (chart 4638), separating the southern part of Siargao 
Island from East Bucas Island, is y 2 mile wide at the western en- 
trance between Cambasac Point, Siargao, and San Miguel Point, 
northern extremity of East Bucas. Inside the heads it widens quickly 
to a width of iy 2 miles and then gradually narrows to a width of 1 
mile at the eastern entrance. It is nearly blocked by islets, reefs, and 
shoal water, leaving three narrow tortuous channels through which 
the currents run with considerable velocity. The reefs, show plainly, 
defining the channels.and Dapa Channel is safe for a small, carefully 
navigated steamer. The middle channel, between Abanay and Ban- 
cuyo Islets is the best, it being fairly straight and deep and having 
a least width of 100 yards. The northern channel west and north 
of Abanay Islet is more generally used as it passes the town of Dapa ; 
it is very narrow and deep. The southern channel between Bancuyo 
Islet and East Bucas is very narrow and tortuous and its use is not 
recommended. 

Dapa is a small town situated, on the northern shore of Dapa Chan- 
nel. Small steamers occasionally call here, anchoring in 5 fathoms, 
mud bottom, about % mile southwestward from the end of the pier. 
This anchorage can be approached from the eastward, care being 
taken to avoid a 1^-f athom spot lying about 1 mile east-southeast- 
ward from the town and ^ mile from shore. 

From the town of Dapa the coast trends eastward for Sy 2 miles 
to Dolores Point, which is low and covered with coconut trees, thence 
turns sharply northward for y 2 mile to the village of Union, at the 
mouth .of the Union River, and thence northeastward for 5 miles to 
Tuason Point, the eastern extremity of Siargao Island. This section 
of the coast is a smooth sandy beach with groves of coconuts, hemp, 
and bananas. 

Bank. — The southeastern part of Siargao is faced by a wide bank 
which extends about 5 miles southeastward and on which lie Janoyoy, 
Guyang, and Daco Islets, Seco Reef, and numerous reefs and shoals, 
both awash and submerged. A reef, bare at low water, begins at 
Tuason Point and extends southward and then westward, with only 
two small breaks around Daco Islet to Seco Reef; it is steep-to and 
always defined by a line of breakers. Within this reef there is a large 
area of fairly shoal, always smooth, water, studded with numerous 
dangers, amongst which no one could attempt to navigate unless pos- 
sessed of local knowledge. 

Cabuntug lies on the shore about Zy 2 miles northeastward from 
Dolores Point. It may be approached by small craft through a nar- 
row tortuous channel which crosses the bank between Dolores Point 
and Seco Reef and passes close to Janoyoy Islet. 

Seco Keef, bare at low water, lies on the outer edge of the bank 1% 
miles southeastward from Dolores Point. There is a small sand cay 
on its northwest side. A small reef of dark coral formation, cov- 
ered by a least depth of 3^4 fathoms, exists about 1 mile southward 
from Seco Reef. 



SIAKGAO ISLAND. 227 

Janoyoy is a small sandy islet lying on the bank about 1 mile east- 
northeastward from Dolores Point and % mile from shore. 

Guyang Islet is a small sand islet covered with coconut trees lying 
on the bank just inside the barrier reef and 2y 2 miles southward from 
Tuason Point. 

Daco Islet, about 1% miles long in an east-northeast and opposite 
direction and nearly 14 m ile wide, lies on the southeastern part of 
the bank about 4 miles southward from Tuason Point. It is sur- 
rounded by a reef which extends about 1 mile southeastward from it. 
Its ends are 105 and 130 feet high, but from a distance it appears 
perfectly flat on top and forms a good landmark. 

Tuason Point, the eastern extremity of Siargao Island, is a very 
rocky point about 130 feet high. Its sea face is formed by a bluff 
60 feet high. It is fringed by a very narrow steep-to reef. 

Sharp Point, low, sharp, and covered with coconut trees, is situated 
about 2y 2 miles northwestward from Tuason Point. It is surrounded 
by a reef which extends 1 mile eastward and y 2 mile northward 
from it. 

Between Tuason and Sharp Points the coast recedes, forming a large, 
shallow, foul bay which extends about y 2 mile southwestward. Reefs, 
partly bare at low water, extend nearly 1 mile outside a line drawn 
between the headlands of this bay. On the outer edges of these reefs 
there is a chain of islets, composed of three large bare rocks and one 
small mangrove islet, which extends with a curve northeastward for 
a distance of 1% miles northwestward. The southern rock, lying 
iy 2 miles northward from Tuason Point, is 50 feet high, the next two 
are each 25 feet high, and the small islet lying off Sharp Point is 
covered with mangroves 10 feet high. Between the two 25-foot rocks 
there is a deep channel about % mile wide leading to a deep circular 
basin about % mile in diameter. 

Port Pilar (chart 4638) is an unimportant bay situated northwest- 
ward from Sharp Point. It affords the best anchorage on the east 
coast of Siargao Island, but its use can not be recommended, as even 
in the southwest monsoon a heavy sea usually sets in around Pilar 
Point, the northern entrance point. The southern half of the bay is 
filled with reefs, near the northern edge of which is situated Isda 
Islet, a small islet 120 feet high, and several large rocks. There are 
several small streams discharging into the head of the bay. The 
village of Pilar lies on the north side of the mouth of the Pilar Biver, 
a small river discharging into the northwest part of the bay. Anchor- 
age for moderate-sized vessels may be found in 7 or 8 fathoms 
about y 2 mile east-southeastward from Pilar. Small craft can enter 
the Pilar Biver and find perfectly protected anchorage 200 or 300 
yards above the village. 

From Pilar Point the coast trends northward for 12 miles to Sug- 
buhan Point at the northern end of the island. This section of the 
coast is high and bold, and is fringed by steep-to reefs from % to y 2 
mile wide. The limits of the reefs can easily be seen and even in the 
southwest monsoon there is a continuous line of breakers all along 
the coast. The small and unimportant villages of Caridad, San 
Isidro, and Alegria lie on this coast. 

Arena Point, the most prominent landmark in this vicinity, is situ- 
ated about midway between Port Pilar and Sugbuhan Point. It 



228 MINDANAO. 

projects but slightly from the shore line and owes its name to a 
ridge which rises to a height of 600 feet at less than % mile inland. 

BTJCAS ISLANDS. 

Bucas Grande Island, lying southwestward from Siargao Island, is 
12 miles long north and south and about 5 miles wide. The northern 
and western sides are very irregular, being indented by numerous 
small baySj generally too deep to afford anchorage; the eastern and 
southern sides are more regular and comparatively straight. The 
shores are fringed with narrow steep-to reefs, nowhere exceeding y 2 
mile in width, and there are a few off-lying dangers which will be 
described in their proper order. The northern part of the island is 
formed by a flat-topped ridge, over 800 feet high, lightly wooded, 
and dropping off abruptly at the coast in bluffs nearly bare of vegeta- 
tion, exposing to view a dark red soil. Proceeding southward the 
inner table-land is lower with several spurs at right angles to the 
coast and the slope to the shore is more gradual. The southern half 
of the island forms a striking contrast to the northern. It is made up 
of dozens of small, steep, separate peaks, all heavily wooded, the 
highest of which reaches an extreme elevation of 924 feet to the tops 
of the trees. 

A conspicuous rock, 4 feet high, lies % mile northeastward from 
the northeast extremity of Bucas Grande Island, with which it is 
nearly connected by a reef. 

Bucas Point, the northwestern extremity of the island, is sharp and 
high and surrounded by a reef to a distance of about 400 yards. 

Manaol Point, the most western point on Bucas Grande in this 
vicinity, is high and fringed by a very narrow steep-to reef. 

Kanlanuk Bay, situated about 4 miles southward from Manaol 
Point, is deep and its shores are fringed by a reef bare at low water. 
Pamosaingan lies at its head from where there is a fairly good trail 
crossing the island to Socorro ; these two villages are the only ones on 
the island. Anchorage with sufficient swinging room to clear the 
edges of the reef may be found in 24 fathoms, about % mile north- 
ward from Pamosaingan. Vessels entering Kanlanuk Bay from the 
southward should exercise care in rounding Nilusingan Point, the 
western entrance point, as it is surrounded by reefs which extend y 2 
mile northwestward from it. 

Nakiauit Point, about 3 miles southward from Kanlanuk Bay, is a 
small conspicuous point 200 feet high and is the most western point on 
Bucas Grande. It should be given a berth of at least 1 mile, as there 
are several 2%-fathom shoals off it. The outer shoal lies about % 
mile westward from the point and can not be seen until directly 
over it. 

A small 1-fathom patch exists about y 2 mile southeastward from 
Nakiauit Point. 

Sohutan Bay (chart 4638), situated southeastward from Nakiauit 
Point, is about \y 2 miles wide and extends about % mile northeast- 
ward. From its southwestern entrance point a reef, on which there 
are a number of large rocks, extends y 2 mile northwestward. The 
outer rock, lying on the northern edge of the reef, is 107 feet high 
and may be rounded close-to. Eastward from the above reef good 



BUCAS ISLANDS. 229 

protected anchorage may be found in 23 fathoms, about ^ mile from 
the head of the bay. In approaching this anchorage from the south- 
ward the 107-foot rock on the extremity of the reef should not be 
brought northward of 47° (45° mag.) in order to clear all dangers 
making off the southwestern entrance point. 

Sohutan Inlet, making off from the head of Sohutan Bay, is of no 
value to navigation, there being only % fathom of water at its en- 
trance. 

Dahakit Point is a sharp point extending westward from the south 
end of Bucas Grande Island. About y 2 mile from the point and close 
to the most southern part of the island the land rises to a height of 
330 feet. An automatic acetylene light, showing one short white 
flash every 5 seconds, visible from -a distance of 10 miles, is exhibited, 
100 feet above high water, from a white concrete beacon on the south 
coast of the point. The bay northwestward from Dahakit Point is 
nearly blocked by reefs on which lie the Dahikan Islets, Bobon Islet, 
and numerous other small islets and rocks. 

From Dahakit Point to the southern entrance point to Port Ba- 
tuecas the coast is a series of bold, rocky promontories and sandy 
beaches. At Socorro, about 3 miles northward from the south end 
of the island, there is a sand beach about 2 miles long. In front of 
the village there is a break in the coral reef, here, about 600 yards 
wide, affording passage to small craft. The Socorro Kiver, discharg- 
ing northward of the village, has but 1 foot of water on its bar at 
low water, but inside the bar it is broad and deep for some distance. 

A reef covered by from 4% to 10 fathoms exists 1 mile off the east 
coast of the Biicas Grande on the bearings: East tangent to the 
island 6° (4° mag.), southeast tangent to the island 213° (211° mag.). 

There are no off-lying dangers on this side of the island except those 
at the entrance to Port Sibonga. 

Port Batuecas, separating the northern part of Bucas Grande from 
Middle Bucas Island, is about 2% miles long north and south and 
from y 2 to % mile wide. Its shores are bordered by mangroves and 
fringed with reefs, about 75 yards wide in the entrance and widen- 
ing to nearly % mile on the east central side and coming together 
about i/ 2 mi l e from its northern end, completely closing the area 
northward. The northern entrance is nearly *4 mile wide and is 
entirely closed by a coral reef which bares about 1 foot at low water. 
The southern entrance, leading from Port Sibonga, is reduced by 
reefs on either side to a navigable channel about 110 yards wide and 
7 to 10 fathoms deep, through which the currents run with consid- 
erable velocity. Just within the port a reef on the south side extends 
about % mile northward, rendering this part of the port useless and 
confining the channel along the eastern shore. Immediately north- 
ward from this reef good protected anchorage for moderate-sized 
vessels may be found in 9 fathoms, mud bottom. A small reef, cov- 
ered by % fathom, is found in the north central part of the port, 
making it inadvisable to use the area northward from it. 

Middle Bucas Island, lying between Bucas Grande and East Bucas 
Islands, is roughly circular in shape and about 1% miles in diameter. 
It is separated fromBucas Grande by Port Batuecas, already described, 
and from East Bucas by a narrow mangrove-bordered boat passage 
about 600 yards long and some 12 to 15 yards wide. This passage is 
bare at very low water, as is also a wide stretch of reef at either end. 



230 MINDANAO. 

Mount Sibonga, in the southeastern part of Middle Bucas, is a well- 
wooded conical-shaped peak, which rises to a height of 955 feet and 
forms a prominent landmark for miles around ; it is the highest point 
on the Bucas Islands. Bagum Islet is a very small prominent islet, 
covered by a small growth and rising to a height of 60 feet, situated 
on the shore reef about 200 yards northward from the northern ex- 
tremity of Middle Bucas Island; foul ground extends about % mile 
west-northwestward from Bagum Islet. 

Port Castilla, formed by the northeast part of Middle Bucas and the 
northwest part of East Bucas Island, is about 1 mile in extent. The 
eastern part and also the head of the port are foul. There is a large 
reef awash in the middle of the entrance with a narrow channel on 
either side of it. 

East Bucas Island is a very irregularly shaped island, 5 miles long 
in an east-northeast and opposite direction and l 1 /^ miles wide. It 
is well wooded and rises, near the middle, to a height of 600 feet. 
Its shores are fringed with reefs, which, with those immediately 
adjacent, extend in some places to a distance of 1 mile and surround 
several small islets and rocks. The extent of the foul area surround- 
ing East Bucas Island will be best understood by referring to the 
chart. 

The village of San Miguel lies on the point of the same name, a 
sandy point, 146 feet high, which forms the northern extremity of 
the island. Monserrat lies on the southeast point and Consolacion lies 
on the southwest point facing Port Sibonga. 

Port Sibonga is an unimportant bay about 1 mile square situated 
southward from Mount Sibonga and bounded by the east coast of 
Bucas Grande, the south side of Middle Bucas, and the west side of 
East Bucas Islands. A reef ? bare at low water, extends about 400 
yards southward from the middle of the head of the port, and near 
its southern end lies Banluto Islet, a small, wooded islet 150 feet 
high. Anchorage may be found oft Consolacion, but care must be 
taken as the bottom is very uneven and full of coral heads ; probably 
the best place to anchor is midway between Banluto Islet and the 
village. 

Casulian Island, lying % mile southeastward from East Bucas 
Island, is about 1 mile long in an east and west direction and % 
mile wide. It is heavily wooded on the eastern part, where it rises 
to a height of 295 feet, while the western end is lower and covered 
with coconut trees. It is surrounded by shoal water to a distance of 
about 600 yards, between which and the reefs surrounding East Bucas 
Island there is a narrow, deep channel. 

About % mile southwestward from west end of Casulian Island 
is the northern end of a shoal, covered by depths of from 14 to 10 
fathoms, which extends 1^ miles southward. Shoals covered by 
depths of V/2 and 4% fathoms exist % and 1% miles, respectively, 
from the east end of Casulian Island. A shoal covered by 4^2 
fathoms exists 1 mile southeastward from the east end and one of 5 
fathoms lies 1% miles southward from the summit of Casulian Island. 

Anajauan Island, lying about 7^ miles southeastward from East 
Bucas Island, is 1*4 miles long in an east-northeast and opposite 
direction and is narrow. It is wooded and the highest point is near 
the eastern end, where it is 200 feet to the tree tops. It is fringed 



HINATUAN PASSAGE. 231 

by a reef, bare at low water, and lies on the southwestern part of a 
bank about 3% miles long northeast and southwest, on which there 
are a number of rocks. 

Lajanosa, Mamon, and Antokon are a group of islands lying on 
the same reef northeastward and eastward from Anajauan. 
Lajanosa, the northern island, is rather flat with three hills on the 
western side, the highest of which is 170 feet. Mamon, the middle 
island, is the highest, rising to a height of 270 feet. Antokon, the 
southern and smallest, rises in three cones, the southern and highest 
of which is 230 feet. Between the reef surrounding this group, which 
is always breaking, and the reef surrounding Anajauan there is a 
very narrow, deep channel. 

A small coral bank covered by a least depth of 6 fathoms lies 6% 
miles 263° (261° mag.) from the southern cone on Antokon Island. 

Whale Rock, a small black rock, 12 feet high and surrounded by 
deep water, lies on the bearings : Tugas Point, Mindanao, 270° (268° 
mag.) ; Antokon Islet, summit 43° (41° mag.) ; and Auqui Islet, 
east tangent, 187° (185° mag.). 

HINATUAN 

or Eastern Passage, between Surigao Strait and the Pacific, is deep 
and free from dangers with the exception of Kabo Reef and Hinatuan 
Rock, both of which will be described later. Owing to the lack of 
good harbors on the northeast and east coast of Mindanao and the 
absence of a thorough survey of that locality, most of the trade has 
been carried on with Surigao in small vessels. Now that the survey 
of Hinatuan Passage has been completed, more of the larger vessels 
are using that passage. 

Directions. — Vessels bound east should bring Bilaa Point to bear 
272° (270° mag.) and steer 92° (90° mag.) until the light beacon on 
the southern edge of Rasa Island Reef bears 137° (135° mag.), when 
the vessel should be hauled southeastward, the beacon rounded at a 
distance of % or % mile, and a mid-channel course held until the 
middle of Banug Strait, between Hinatuan and Talabera Islands, 
bears 137° (135° mag.). Pass through the middle of the strait and 
continue the southeast course until Amaga Islet is made, when it may 
be steered for and passed on either side. The 137° (135° mag.) 
course from Banug Strait leads near Hinatuan Rock, at present un- 
marked, and vessels drawing over 15 feet should make a slight detour 

to avoid it. 

Banug "Strait is unobstructed and less current is experienced than 
in the longer track around Hinatuan Island. 

Hinatuan Passage is not recommended for a sailing ship without 
a pilot, because of the strength of the currents and tidal whirls met 
in the vicinity of Rasa Island. Pilots can be obtained and dis- 
charged at Surigao and Cantilan ; a small town on the northeast coast 
of Mindanao. In case of necessity vessels can anchor off Surigao to 
wait for a favorable wind and tide. 

Currents. — The currents run with great velocity and the tide rips 
and whirlpools are very marked in some parts of the Hinatuan 
Passage. The flood tide sets from the Pacific toward Surigao Strait ; 
the ebb' in the opposite direction. The maximum current is ap- 
proximately 7 knots, being usually the strongest abreast and a little 



232 MINDANAO. 

to the westward of Easa Island. In this latter area the tide rips 
during the strength of the flood are very marked; they are also 
bad, especially so with the flood current, in the vicinity of Kabo 
Reef, the submerged reef, about 2 miles to the westward of Easa 
Island. The channel northward from Easa Island is straight, un- 
obstructed, and comparatively deep ; this being a short cut the cur- 
rent becomes almost a mill race and when running ebb, full force, 
produces bad rips and whirls where it joins the currents coming 
around more slowly south of Easa Island Eeef . There are rips and 
whirls at certain stages all the way through from a little west of 
Kabo Eeef to and abreast of Hinatuan Island, but the foregoing- 
mentioned places are the worst. 

The time of high-water slack generally occurs abreast of Easa 
Island about 40 minutes before high water at Surigao, while the low- 
water slack generally occurs about 50 minutes before low water 
at Surigao — although at times the times of both high and low water 
slack will vary from the foregoing by as much as 40 or 50 minutes. 

The only good anchorage in the vicinity of Easa Island for large 
vessels is in Panag Bay, about % mile southward from Lapinig 
Island and nearly y 2 mile southwestward from a very conspicuous 
bare, white coral sand island. Anchorage may be found here in 20 
fathoms, sand bottom ; the advantage of this anchorage is that there 
is no current here at any time, as it appears to be a neutral area of 
considerable size. 

NORTHEAST AND BAST COAST OP MINDANAO. 

Bilaa Point, the northern extremity of Mindanao, and Bilaa 
Shoal, lying northward from it, have already been described. 

Basol Island, lying about 2y 2 miles east-northeastward from Bilaa 
Point, is a prominent landmark for vessels bound for Surigao or 
the Hinatuan Passage. It is about 400 yards long in a west-north- 
west and opposite direction by 200 yards wide. The eastern three- 
fourths is low ; covered with coconuts, and has a sandy beach; the 
western part is higher and wooded with rocky shore line. It is 
fringed by a narrow steep-to reef, which, on the northwestern end, 
extends to a distance of about 400 yards. 

i rom Bilaa Point the coast trends southeastward for about 4 miles 
to Surigao. The first 2 miles is mostly stony shore line, with sand 
beach in small coves and a fringe of jagged dead coral heads 50 to 
100 yards from shore, outside of which the water deepens rapidly. 
The rest of the shore line is a narrow sand beach fringed with coco- 
nut trees, back of which are mangroves and low land. 

Surigao River, discharging on the west side of the town of Surigao, 
has about 1 foot on its bar at low water ; the ruins of an iron bridge 
near the mouth prevents large boats from entering. About 1^4 miles 
above the mouth of the Surigao Eiver it divides into two branches ; 
the larger branch, known as the Tomanday, flows northward form- 
ing Bingad Island between them. The Tomanday has about % 
fathom on its bar at low water; at high water small boats drawing 
not more than 5 feet can enter and ascend the river for a distance of 
about \y% miles. 

Surigao (chart 4629), capital of the province of the same name, 
stands on low land at the eastern side of the mouth of the Surigao 



NORTHEAST COAST. 233 

River. It contains a number of large buildings and is prominent 
from the sea. It is a place of considerable commercial importance, 
most of the trade of eastern Mindanao passing through here. The 
wharves, warehouses, and hemp presses are located at the village of 
Bilanbilan, about % mile southward from Surigao, with which it is 
connected by a good road. 

A fixed red light, visible 7 miles, is exhibited 22 feet above high 
water from a concrete tower on the edge of the shore reef about 90 
yards from the shore and % mile southeastward from the river mouth. 
This light can be passed fairly close-to as the watej- deepens rapidly 
outside of it. Good anchorage for vessels not desiring to dock may 
be found in from 14 to 16 fathoms, sandy bottom, about }4 mile east- 
ward or southeastward from the light. 

There are a number of small wharves at Bilanbilan, the largest of 
which has 18 feet of water close to its end. Vessels usually drop 
bower and stern kedge anchors and haul into the wharf according to 
draft. 

A shoal covered by a least depth of }4 fathom exists about 1^ 
miles eastward from Surigao light. Vessels bound east should stand 
well off before shaping a course for Rasa Light. 

From Surigao the coast trends southeastward for 8y 2 miles to the 
western entrance point to Canal Bay. This section of the coast is 
bordered by mangroves which extend inland to a distance of 1 and 2 
miles and is fronted by numerous islands, some with and some with- 
out names, composed mostly of magroves lying so close to the shore 
and so close to each other as to appear to be part of the mainland. 
Many of the smaller islands have no hard land, the tide rising in the 
mangroves to a depth of about 2 feet. These islands are separated 
from the shore and from each other by a network of esteros, naviga- 
ble only by small native boats in charge of those possessed of local 
knowledge, who utilize them to save distances and escape the rough 
weather and strong currents of Hinatuan Passage. The hills nearest 
the coast are generally covered with grass and coconut trees and are 
detached from the mountains farther inland, which are heavily tim- 
bered. 

The principal mangrove-bordered islands off this part of the coast 
are Kabo, Load, Lapinig, Lamagon, Bilabid, Maanoc, Cobeton, Ce- 
paya, and Condona. They do not require any detailed description. 
Their sides facing the Hinatuan Passage are generally clean and 
steep-to and free from danger. 

Kabo Reef is a small reef covered by a least depth of 2y 2 fathoms 
lying a good y 2 mile northward from the nearest point of Kabo 
Island and 2^4 miles 282° (280° mag.) from Rasa light beacon. 

Lying beyond the mangrove islands previously mentioned are a 
number of high islands of entirely different formation, of which 
Bayagnan, Masapelid, Talabera, and Hinatuan are among the larger. 

Hinatuan Island, lying 2y 2 miles southeastward from Nonoc Island, 
is 3y 2 miles long north and south, 2% miles wide, irregular in shape, 
very conspicuous, and uninhabited. It is surrounded by a narrow, 
steep-to coral reef, which on its northwest extremity extends to a dis- 
tance of about 1/4 mile. From a distance it appears as two separate 
islands; the large southern part is joined to the northern part by a 
narrow neck of land only about 30 feet high. The southern part, 



234 MINDANAO. 

1,135 feet high, is covered with a sparse growth, through which large 
patches of bright-red soil are exposed to view. The northern part 
presents nearly vertical cliffs of dark stone, is heavily wooded, and 
rises to a height of 606 feet. The shore line is mostly rocky ledge, 
with a few short sand beaches. Banug Strait, about % mile wide, 
between the southwest point of Hinatuan Island and Banug Islet, 
is straight and deep. 

Hinatuan Rock is a small rocky shoal covered by a least depth of 
3% fathoms and surrounded by deep water, lying directly in the 
fairway between Banug Strait and Amaga Islet on the bearings: 
Eastern extremity of Hinatuan Island 344° (342° mag.), and Nagu- 
bat Island 235° (233° mag.), distant 4 miles. 

Taiabera Island, lying % m il e southwestward from Hinatuan, is 
about iy 2 miles long east and west, 1 mile wide, and of very irregular 
shape. It is covered with coconut trees and grass and is 605 feet 
high. It is fringed by a narrow, steep-to reef, which from its south- 
west point extends ^4 mile southward and surrounds the sand islet 
Bagumbanua. Taiabera Island is well watered and cultivated. The 
village of Taiabera lies on the north coast of the island. 

A fairly good anchorage for small vessels may be found at the 
head of a small bay in the southwest part of Taiabera Island in about 
24 fathoms, muddy bottom. 

Banug Islet is a small islet situated about % mile northward from 
Taiabera Island, from which it is separated by a deep, clear channel 
about 200 yards wide. It is formed by two hills joined by a low, 
palm-covered, sandy isthmus; the eastern hill is 130 feet high. It 
lies on the south side of a reef, bare at low water, about % mile long 
east and west and 14 mile wide. 

Bayagnan Island, lying 2 miles westward from Hinatuan, is about 
3 miles long northwest and southeast and very narrow near the mid- 
dle. It presents a very irregular sky line; two low passes, 15 or 20 
feet high, divide the island into three distinct parts. Telegraph 
Mountain, the sharp peak on the southern part, is covered with tall 
green trees, rises to a height of 827 feet, and forms a conspicuous 
landmark for miles around. The island is well watered and settled, 
houses being scattered everywhere. The most important settlement 
is San Jose, situated on San Jose Point, the southeast extremity of 
the island. Bayagnan Island is fringed by reefs which at some points 
extend to a distance of % mile and surround a number of rocks and 
small islets. Dayan Reef is an extensive reef surmounted by a clus- 
ter of rocks about 7 feet above high water, situated immediately 
westward from the north end of Bayagnan Island, from which it 
is separated by a very narrow, deep channel, in which are violent 
tidal whirls. 

Sugbu and Sugbu Diutay Islets are two small unimportant islets 
lying on the reef which extends nearly % mile eastward from the 
northern part of Bayagnan Island. Sugbu, the eastern and larger 
islet, is 214 feet high and wooded on the northeast part; the re- 
mainder is grass and palm covered. This east shore is rocky ledge ; 
the south and west shore is a sandy beach. Sugbu Diutay lies be- 
tween Sugbu and Bayagnan and does not require any description. 

Sagasae Islet lies on the reef extending nearly % mile southeast- 
ward from the southeast extremity of Bayagnan Island. The north- 
east part is wooded, 175 feet high to the tops of the trees, and the re- 



NORTHEAST COAST. 235 

mainder is grass and palm covered. The eastern shore is rocky 
ledge ; the south and west, sand beach. The channel between it and 
Talabera Island is about y± mile wide and is deep and clear. 

Bilabid Island, lying close to the southwestern side of Bayagnan 
Island, from which it is separated by a narrow, foul mangrove slough, 
is about 2 miles long in a north-northeast and opposite direction and 
1 mile wide. The eastern part is covered mostly with grass and 
scattered coconuts, but has a very prominent clump of green trees at 
the highest point, which is 298 feet to the tops of the trees ; the re- 
mainder is mostly mangroves. 

Caye Island is a small island lying close to the shore reef south- 
eastward from Bilabid Island. Its western side is mangrove; its 
eastern side, sand beach. It is 269 feet high to the tops of the trees. 
There are very narrow, deep channels between it and Bilabid and be- 
tween it and Masapelid. 

Masapelid Island, southward from Bilabid, is about 4 miles long in 
a north-northwest and opposite direction and has a greatest width 
of about 2y 2 miles. The west part is a very rough, heavily wooded 
country, with many small peaks ; the northeast part is covered with 
grass and scattered trees; the south part is a rolling ridge heavily 
wooded on the west side, while on the east side there is more grass 
and a great number of dead trees. The highest point on the island, 
684 feet, is near the south end. A small reef that bares lies y 2 mile 
southeast from its south point. La Condola lies on Canal Bay, near 
the southwest end of the island. 

Mahaba Island lies close to the east side of Masapelid Island, from 
which it is separated by a narrow, deep channel, the southern and 
better entrance to which is marked by two small islets, one on the 
Masapelid Island reef and the other on the Mahaba Island reef. 
Mahaba is covered with green trees on top and has scattering coconuts 
near the eastern shore. Mahaba is fringed with coral reefs, which 
on the eastern and southeastern side extend to a distance of from 
14 to y 2 mile. 

Bonga Island, lying about % mile eastward from the south part of 
Masapelid Island, is about 600 yards in extent, bold on the east side, 
heavily wooded, and 325 feet high. It is surrounded by a reef which 
extends about y 2 mile south from it. About 400 yards from the 
northwest side of Bonga Island there is a small %-fathom shoal. 

Nagubat is a small island, 172 feet high, lying iy 2 miles south of 
the summit of Hinatuan Island, near the middle of a narrow reef 
about \y 2 miles long north and south. 

Dijut Eock is a rock, 38 feet high, with a lone coconut tree on it, 
standing on the same reef with Nagubat Island and % mile north- 
northwestward from it. Dijut Rock is surrounded by several smaller 
rocks and forms a conspicuous landmark. There is a 314-fathom 
channel across the reef midway between Nagubat Island and Dijut 
Rock. 

Isa Keef, a small, dangerous reef, covered by a least depth of l 1 /^ 
fathoms, lies about \y 2 miles westward from Nagubat Island in the 
fairway of vessels approaching Placer, Gigaquit, Bacuag, etc., from 
the northward ; to avoid it vessels should bring the summit of Bonga 
Island to bear 2° (0° mag.) and Dijut Rock to bear 92° (90° mag.), 
and from this position steer 182° (180° mag.) until Nagubat is 
abaft the beam, when the reef will have been passed. 

33452°— 21 16 



236 MINDANAO. 

Canal Bay, a large indentation on the southwest side of Masapelid 
Island, is 214 miles wide at the entrance and extends about 2 miles 
northward. It contains a number of small islands and dangerous 
shoals. 

Opong and Dinago Islands are two small islands, 402 and 416 feet 
high, respectively, lying in the western part of Canal Bay. They are 
of rough, jagged coral, much eroded at the water line; giving them 
a mushroom appearance. They are covered with vegetation and are 
readily identified. Close to the eastern side of Dinago there is a very 
small islet, having two summits 120 and 125 feet high, respectively. 

Masapelid Passage connects Hinatuan Passage with Canal Bay. It 
is formed by Lamagon, Maanoc, and Condona Islands on the west and 
Bayagnan, Bilabid, and Masapelid Islands on the east. It is some- 
times used by small steamers trading between Surigao and ports on 
the northeast coast of Mindanao. Its use is not recommended unless 
possessing local knowledge as it is narrowed in several places by 
dangerous reefs and shoals and the tidal currents run with great 
velocity. Owing to its intricate channel and the absence of good 
landmarks, no directions for it can be given. 

Taganaan is a small village lying at the mouth of the river of the 
same name, which discharges into the Taganaan Estero about 1^4 
miles westward from Opong Island. It lies in the center of a large 
coconut district, but is otherwise of little commercial importance, as 
boats drawing more than 2 feet can not get to it at low water. 

Taganaan Estero, a narrow passage through the mangroves be- 
tween the Hinatuan Passage and Canal Bay, is of considerable im- 
portance, as through it pass most of the small native craft plying 
between Surigao and Taganaan, Placer, etc., thus saving considerable 
distance and having to contend with only a current of about 2 knots, 
while in Masapelid the current is much stronger. 

Bobon is a small village lying on the mainland abreast of Dinago 
Island. Here is found the first solid shore line southeastward from 
Surigao. 

From Cog Point, western entrance to Canal Bay, the coast trends 
in a general east-southeasterly direction for 24 miles to Tugas Point. 
From the town of Placer, 1 mile south of Cog Point, to the mouth of 
the Bacuag River, 4% miles southeastward, a range of heavily wooded 
mountains rises almost directly from the coast. From the Bacuag 
River to the Claver Eiver, a distance of about 5 miles, the shore line 
is low and sandy and the country back from it flat and intersected by 
numerous small streams. From Claver Point, forming the eastern 
side of Claver River mouth, to Tugas Point, a distance of 14% 
miles, the shore line is generally rocky with sandy beaches and very 
little mangrove, and the mountains rise almost immediately back 
from it. This section of the coast is fringed by reefs with a number 
of small islets and much foul ground outside of them. 

Placer is a small town lying on a point about 1 mile southward from 
Cog Point. From Placer there is a trail to Mainit, on the lake of 
the same name, over which natives truck hemp and other articles for 
shipment. Placer has a small jetty with about 12 feet of water at 
its end. The harbor is formed by a large reef, bare at low water 
which projects about % mile northeastward from the town and sur- 
rounds the small islet Bancay. There is a small shoal, covered by a 



NORTHEAST COAST. 237 

least depth of y 2 fathom, lying nearly in the middle of the harbor, 
about 450 yards northward from Bancay Islet, back of which there 
is an area about 400 yards in extent, where two or three small ves- 
sels can find sheltered anchorage in 6 to 9 fathoms, muddy bottom. 

Bacuag is a town somewhat larger than Placer, lying about sy 2 
miles southeastward from it on the south side of the mouth of the 
Tenanan River. It lies in the center of a large coconut district and* 
,is also near a small hemp region. Shoal water, covered by iy 2 fathoms 
at its outer edge, extends about y 2 mile from the mouth of the 
Tenanan River, and surrounds Puyo Rock, which is large and 
conspicuous. 

The Bacuag, Alambiquej Gigaquit, Magallanes, and Claver Rivers, 
which discharge between Bacuag and Claver Point, have very little 
water on their bars, but may be entered by a pulling boat at low 
water. The Alambique and Gigaquit discharge through a common 
mouth, which is faced by shoal water to a distance of over % mile. 
The Magallanes discharges about 2 miles eastward from the Gigaquit, 
and is connected with it by a boat channel, which is used by native 
craft during rough weather. Claver River is used mainly by boats 
as far as the town, but above there it gets very narrow and has very 
little water in it. 

Gigaquit is a large village lying on the left bank of the Gigaquit 
River, about 1 mile from its mouth. It is faced by a long sand spit 
projecting from Byby Island, which forms the northern side of the 
mouth of the Gigaquit River. There is a narrow channel with about 
3 feet of water in it at low water, leading across the bar. There is 
very little water in the river above Gigaquit, but it is reported that 
there is a boat passage from the Gigaquit River to the Magallanes 
River, and thence into the Claver River. Shoal water extends to a 
considerable distance in this vicinity, the 5-fathom curve being found 
about y 2 mile from shore. 

Byby Island, lying between the Gigaquit and Magallanes Rivers, is 
low and flat, and has a small grove of coconuts, but otherwise is of 
little value, as it is mainly a mangrove and nipa swamp. 

Cabgan Island is a small grassy island, 178 feet high, situated about 
y 2 mile from Byby Island. It is surrounded by a reef, which extends 
about y 2 mile northwest from it, and is generally marked by breakers. 
There is a small 3%-fathom shoal lying about % mile north-north- 
eastward from Cabgan. 

Claver is a village lying on the right bank of the Claver River 
about y 2 mile from its mouth ; it is not visible from the sea. 

Claver Point is a narrow point, 106 feet high, which projects about 
y 2 mile northward from the coast of Mindanao. Its southern part 
forms the eastern side of Claver River mouth. 

Candos Bay is formed by an elbow in the coast eastward from Claver 
Point. Lapinigan Island, Pagbuy Rocks, and Bagong Islet lie in its 
entrance. Candos Bay is fringed with reefs, which at one point 
abreast of the west end of Lapinigan Island extend to a distance of 
over y 2 mile and considerably narrow the channel between that island 
and the mainland. 

Lapinigan Island, lying about 1 mile eastward from Claver Point, 
is % mile long east and west and about % mile wide. It is covered 
with grass, coconuts, and scattered trees and rises to a height of 22 



238 MINDANAO. 

feet. It is fringed with reefs, bare at low water, which extend to a 
distance of from 400 to 500 yards. About % mile southeastward 
from Lapinigan Island there is a small detached shoal which bares 
at low water. Good sheltered anchorage may be found westward or 
southward from Lapinigan Island in from 6 to 10 fathoms, mud 
Bottom. 

' Pagbuy Rocks are a group of rocks 15 to 34 feet high lying about 1 
mile eastward from Lapinigan Island. They are fairly steep-to on 
their northern sides. About 400 yards westward from the reef sur- 
rounding Pagbuy Eocks there is a small detached patch which bares 
at low water. 

Bagong Islet is a very small islet, 146 feet high, lying midway be- 
tween Pagbuy Eocks and the shore on the northern edge of a reef, 
bare at low water, which extends y 2 mile southward from it. Be- 
tween this reef and the shore reef are detached shoals which bare at 
low water. The northern side of Bagong Islet is steep-to and may be 
rounded at a distance of 200 yards by vessels bound for the anchor- 
ages southward or westward from Lapinigan Island. 

Male Islet is a small rocky islet, 104 feet high, situated on the south 
end of a reef, about 1 mile long north and south, about 4 miles east- 
ward from Lapinigan Island, and y 2 mile from shore. 

A detached coral shoal about 400 yards in extent lies a little more 
' than 1 mile westward from Male Islet and y 2 m ^ e from shore. It is 
easily seen on account of the breakers, and at low water there are a 
few rocks bare. 

Aling Islet, lying y 2 mile eastward from Male Islet, composed of 
coarse white sand, is at no point over 10 feet high and has a thick 
growth of pine and other trees. The sandy shore is always visible, 
making it easy to identify, as all other islets in this vicinity are of 
rough eroded coral rock. Aling Islet lies on the south part of a large 
reel, bare at low water, which extends over y 2 mile northwestward 
from it. There are several detached dangers between the reefs, on 
which are situated Male and Aling Islets, and the coast;' and while 
there is a deep channel between them and the coast, it is at one point 
only 200 yards wide. 

A small shoal, covered by a least depth of 2 fathoms, lies nearly 
% mile east-northeastward from Aling Islet. 

Taganeto is a small village lying on the left bank of Hegapit Eiver 
about 200 yards from its mouth. From the beach it is obscured by 
high cogon grass, but is visible from offshore. 

Hegapit River, discharging about y 2 mile south-southwestward 
from Male Islet, is navigable by small boats to a point about y 2 mile 
above the village, where it is blocked by rapids. 

Telegraph Islet, 220 feet high, and the two Boheson Islets, the 
western one of which rises to a height of 152 feet, lie on the shore 
reef southeastward and southward from Aling Islet. 

Lang Islets are a group of small, rocky islets lying 1 to 2 miles east- 
ward from Telegraph Island. The largest islet is 132 feet high; 
the southerly of the two southeasterly islets is 78 feet high to the 
tops of the trees. 

A shoal covered by a least depth of &y 2 fathoms lies about % mile 
northward from the largest of the Lang Islets. 

Amaga Islet, situated in the middle of the channel between Min- 
danao and Bucas Grande Islands, forms an excellent landmark. It 



NORTHEAST COAST. 239 

is about 220 by 160 yards in extent and is 169 feet high to the tops of 
the trees. It is composed of jagged coral rock, much underworn at 
the water line, making landing on it impossible. It is clean and 
steep-to and can be passed on either side. 

Hinadkaban Bay, situated westward from Kaba Point, is 2 miles 
wide at the entrance and extends about 1 mile southward. Its shores 
are fringed with coral, which from one point, near the head of the 
bay, extends to a distance of about y 2 mile. Anchorage for a small 
vessel, partially sheltered from the northeast monsoon, may be found 
westward from Kaba Point. 

Kaba Point is steep and rocky and 405 feet high at a point about 
y 2 mile southeastward from its extremity. It is fringed by a steep-t» 
coral reef about 350 yards wide, and from its eastern side a coral 
reef extends to a distance of y 2 mile. 

Red Hills, lying back from Hinadkaban Bay and following the 
coast to Tugas Point, are a very striking natural feature in this 
locality. They are nearly bare of vegetation and are composed of 
bright red soil and sometimes red rock, which is rapidly crumbling 
where exposed to the weather. Immense quantities of red soil are 
washed into the sea by heavy rains, leaving the hillsides scoured by 
deep valleys. The lower slopes in many places are covered with 
a dense growth of scrub. 

Dahikan Bay, between Kaba and Tugas Points, is 3 miles wide at 
the entrance and extends about 2% miles southward. It is divided 
into two arms by a sharp, narrow point extending from Tugas Penin- 
sula. The shores of the bay are rocky and fringed with reefs, but red 
soil washed down from the hills has formed beaches in all the small 
coves. Anchorage, sheltered during the northeast monsoon, may be 
found eastward from the point dividing Dahikan Bay. 

A large shoal, composed of coral and white sand and covered by 
a least depth of ?>y± fathoms, lies % mile northward from the point 
dividing Dahikan Bay ; this shoal breaks heavily during the northeast 
monsoon. 

Tugas Point is the northeastern extremity of the peninsula of thp 
same name. It is formed by a cliff 79 feet high, behind which the 
land rises to a height of about 300 feet at a distance of y 2 mile 
inland. It is surrounded by a steep-to reef, which extends about y± 
mile northward. 

Tugas Peninsula is a very irregularly shaped high and hilly penin- 
sula about 2% miles long north and south, extending from the main- 
land of Mindanao, with which it is connected by an isthmus less than 
y^ mile wide and 83 feet high. The shore of this peninsula consists 
of rocky bluffs with sand beaches in the coves between them. The 
eastern shores of the peninsula are fringed by a narrow reef, and 
a long reef, partly bare at low water, extends about y 2 mile southwest 
from its southern end into Carrascal Bay, behind which there is good 
sheltered anchorage for small vessels. The limits of this reef can 
be plainly seen and its extremity can be rounded fairly clos3-to. 
About y 2 mile from the southeast part of the peninsula there is a 
small 334-fathom shoal. 

Carrascal Bay, between Tugas Peninsula and Capungan Point, is 3 
miles wide at the entrance and extends about By 2 miles southwest- 
ward. It is divided into two parts by Gorda Point. The western, 



240 MINDANAO. 

part is nearly blocked by reefs, on which lie Ludguron, Puyu, Diju, 
and Panwas Islands. A tortuous channel between the reefs leads to 
the village of Adlay, where considerable boat building is carried on. 
Gorda Point, is 170 feet high ; it is surrounded by reefs which extend 
% mile eastward frOm it and fringe the shore of the eastern half of 
the bay as far as Capungan Point. 

Capiingan Point is the northern extremity of a large peninsula 
which forms the eastern side of Carrascal Bay; it is fringed by a 
narrow steep-to reef about 150 yards wide. 

Capungan Peninsula is about 2 miles long north and south, 1 mile 
wide, and rises in the western part to a height of 450 feet. It is con- 
nected with the mainland by a low isthmus about % mile wide, on 
the eastern side of which is situated the village of Consuelo. 

Carrascal is situated on. the western side of the mouth of the river 
of the same name, which discharges at the head of the eastern half 
of Carrascal Bay. The usual anchorage is about % mile northward 
from the church in 10 or 12 fathoms. 

General Island is the largest and most conspicuous of a group of 
three islands lying off Capungan Point. It is situated northeast- 
ward from Capungan Point, from which it is separated by a deep 
channel % mile wide. It is about 2 miles long east and west and iy 2 
miles wide near the middle, where a long, irregularly shaped penin- 
sula extends southward and forms a bay oh either side of it. Along 
its northern side 'is a series of bluffs that are very prominent when ' 
viewed from eastward or westward. General Island is hilly and 
rises in the northern part to a height of 792 feet. The western bay 
on the south side, known as General Island Anchorage, is fringed by 
reefs; the eastern bay is entirely blocked with reefs and is of no 
value to navigation. 

General Island Anchorage affords good anchorage for small Vessels, 
sheltered at all times, in 14 fathoms, muddy bottom, in the middle of 
a basin about 14 mile in extent. The western entrance point is 
marked by a prominent rock on the edge of the shore reef ; the east- 
ern, entrance point, is clean and steep-to; In entering, vessels should 
pass midway between the two entrance points, stand northward, and 
anchor when the second point on the eastern side is abeam. Buena- 
vista lies at the head of this anchorage. 

Ramilette Rock is a prominent rock, 57 feet high, situated over 14 
mile west from the western part of General Island. It is surrounded 
by deep water, and the channel between it and General Island is 
clear. 

A small, dangerous rOck, covered by y 2 fathom and surrounded by 
deep water, lies about % mile south-southwestward from Ramilette 
Eock and ^4 mile from the west end of General Island. When round- 
ing Capungan Point vessels should favor the point side to avoid this 
rock. 

A small shoal, covered by a least depth of 3 fathoms and sur- 
rounded by deep water, lies y 2 mile southward from the extreme 
southern point of General Island in the fairway of the eastern ap- 
proach to General Island Anchorage. 

Auqui, the eastern of the General Island group, lies 2 miles south- 
eastward from General Island ; it is r-bout 1 mile long northeast and 
snuthwest, narrow, and rises near the south end to a height of 337 



NORTHEAST COAST. 241 

feet. The southwest extremity is clean and steep-to ; its other sides 
are fringed by reefs which extend 'about % mile northward from it. 
The area included between General and Auqui Islands contains much 
foul ground and should be avoided. 

Triton Rocks are a group of rocks lying l 1 /^ miles north-north- 
westward from the north end of Auqui Island. The northern rock, 
15 feet high, is steep-to on its northern side and marks the northern 
limit of the foul ground between General and Auqui Islands. 

Unamao Island, a high, dead coral, wooded island, lies y 2 mile east- 
ward from the southern part of Capungan Peninsula. It has four 
distinct peaks, the highest and sharpest of which is 400 feet high. 
The eastern side of the island is clean and steep-to ; the western side 
is fringed by a reef on which there are a number of high rocks. There 
is a channel between the shore reef and that on which Unamao is 
situated, over 14 mile wide, with a depth of 5% fathoms in the 
middle. 

A shoal about y 2 mile in extent, the middle of which bares at 
«xtreme low water, lies % mile northeastward from Unamao Island ; 
about y 2 mile northwestward from this shoal there is a 5%-fathom 
patch. About 2 miles eastward from the south end of Unamao Island 
there is a small shoal covered by 2>y 2 fathoms. 

Lanusa Bay is about 15 miles wide at the entrance between Capun- 
gan and Cauit Points and extends 8 miles sbuthwestward. From the 
low isthmus connecting Capungan Peninsula with the mainland to a 
point 1 mile beyond the mouth of the Lanuza River, at the head 
of the bay, there is a continuous stretch of dark sand beach nearly 
100 yards wide. The remainder of the shore of Lanuza Bay is bold 
and composed of black rocky cliffs. At Lucia and Caridad there 
are short sand beaches. Along this section of the coast the mountains 
come close to the shore, have almost precipitous sides, and are covered 
with a heavy growth of timber. About three-fourths of the way 
from Lanuza to Cauit Point there is a prominent shoulder of the 
mountains, 1,080 feet high, lying about y 2 mile from the coast ; from 
this shoulder the mountain range runs south and there are only 
bills of moderate height on the remainder of the promontory termi- 
nating in Cauit Point. There are a number of rocks, 10 to 30 feet 
nigh, lying close to the shore y 2 to V/ z miles westward from Cauit 
Point. The middle of the bay is deep and clear ; on the western side 
are situated the General Islands, already described, and the danger- 
ous Cantilan Shoals. On the eastern side of the bay the only detached 
danger is a shoal covered by a least depth of 1 fathom lying 2% 
miles east-northeastward from Lanuza and y 2 mile from shore. 

Cantilan is a small town situated on the western side of the mouth 
of the Cantilan River, about 4 miles south from Capungan Point. It 
is an occasional port bf call for small coastwise steamers, which 
usually anchor north-northeastward from the town in 7 fathoms of 
water. Vessels approaching this anchorage should pass close south- 
ward of Unamao Island and not attempt to pass inside the Cantilan 
Shoals. The Cantilan River has very little water on its bar; pulling 
boats are unable to enter at low water. The sandy point through 
which it discharges is surrounded by a reef, bare at low water, to a 
distance of about % mile. 



242 MINDANAO. 

Cantilan Shoals are a cluster of shoals, covered by depths of % to 
414 fathoms, covering an area of about 1^2 miles in extent, 1% to S 
miles northeastward from Cantilan. 

Suyatun River discharges about 2 miles southeastward of the Can- 
tilan. It has very little water on its bar, but can be entered by a 
pulling boat at low water in fine weather. 

The valley between the Cantilan and Lanuza Rivers is intersected 
with a network of waterways, forming a sort of delta, for the four 
mouths of these rivers are connected, making a through inland water- 
way from Cantilan to Lanuza, passable by small boats. 

Lanuza is a village lying at the head of the bay on the eastern side 
of the mouth of the river of the same name. It may be located by 
a 550-foot hill less than 1/4 mile southward from it, which is the most, 
western hill in this vicinity. 

Cauit Point, situated about 18 miles southeast by east from Tugas; 
Point, is the most prominent point in this vicinity. It is the north- 
eastern extremity of a long, well-wooded peninsula formed by a spur 
of the eastern mountain chain of Mindanao. It is 450 feet high, 
clean, and steep-to on the northern side, and fringed by a reef on the 
eastern side to a distance of about % mile. An automatic acetylene 
light, showing one white flash every 3 seconds, visible 12 miles, is.. 1 
exhibited, 55 feet above*high Water, from a white concrete beacon on 
Cauit Point. 

Cauit Bank, about % mile long in a north-northeast and south- 
southwest direction and about % mile wide, covered by depths of 
from 8 to 10 fathoms over a rocky bottom, lies with its 'south- 
western extremity 2% miles east-northeastward from Cauit Point. 
The channel between this bank and the reef fringing Cauit Point is 
deep and clear. . • < • 

From Cauit Point the coast trends southward for 8% miles to- 
Panisaan Point. It is composed of sand and gravel beach as far : as 
Cortes, about 2 miles southward, thence to Panisaan Point it is gen- 
erally bordered with mangroves. It is fringed by an extensive reef r 
partly bare at low water, which varies in width from % mile east- 
ward of Cauit Point to 1% miles abreast of Taganauan Islet, about 
4% miles southward from Cauit Point; On this reef there are a. 
number of rocks and small islets, and there are several breaks in it 
affording boat passages to the various villages. The outer edge of 
the reefs are generally marked by breakers, and there are no detached 
dangers, with the exception of a number of small reefs which break 
at all stages of the tide lying about 1% miles eastward from Tigao. 
Cortes, Burgos, and Tigao lie on this section of the coast 2, Sy 2 , and 
6 miles, respectively, southward from Cauit Point. 

Current. — During the progress of the survey in this vicinity a 
constant set southward of from 1 to 2 knots wa*s experienced between 
Cauit and Panisaan Points. 

Anchorage may be found in fair weather or with westerly winds 
anywhere along the coast between Cauit and Panisaan Points in from 
12 to 20 fathoms, sand or sand and rock bottom. Good anchorage 
for small vessels may be found in a break in the reef about iy 2 miles 
southward from Cauit Point in 8 fathoms, mud bottom, protected 
from all winds and seas except those from the eastward. 

Taganauan Islet is situated on the shore reef about 4^ miles south- 
ward from Cauit Point and midway between the shore and the edge 



CAUIT POINT TO LIANGA BAY. 243 

of the shore reef, here about iy 2 miles wide. It is about 600 yards in 
extent, bordered by mangroves, and on its -western side there are 
coconut trees about 60 feet high. In the vicinity of Taganauan 
Islet there are a number of rocks and small islets, the largest and 
most eastern of which is 75 feet high to the tops of the trees. 

Panisaan Point rises boldly from the water about 2y 2 miles east- 
ward from a 2,130-foot hill, which is the highest point near the coast in 
this vicinity. This hill shows up well from seaward but it is fre- 
quently obscured, in cloudy or rainy weather. 

From Panisaan Point the coast trends southward for 3 miles to the 
mouth of the Paninilan River and thence southeastward and eastward 
to Tandag Point at the mouth of the river of the same name. From 
Panisaan Point to a point y 2 mile southward from the mouth of the 
Paninilan River numerous steep and nearly vertical cliffs appear 
with short stretches of sandy beach between them, that are fringed 
with coral, which in some places extend to a distance of y 2 mile ; the 
remainder of this section is formed by a curving sandy beach with 
broken coral reefs off it, which extends to the mouth of the Tandag 
River. 

In the bay between the mouths of the Paninilan and Tandag Rivers 
there are six separate, detached reefs with narrow passages between 
them. They lie from % to % mile from shore and break in moderate 
weather at all stages of the tide: Their location will be best under- 
stood by reference to the chart. 

Macangani Island, one of the most prominent landmarks in this 
vicinity, lies on the southern part of a bank about 1 mile long in a 
northeast and southwest direction and about 1% miles wide; within 
the' 10- fathom curve, situated* about 2% miles , northeastward from. 
Tandag Point. It is of regular shape, about y 3 mile long northeast 
and southwest, 175 yards wide, oovered with brush and small trees, 
and rises to a height of 260 feet. There are two rocks 85 and 130 feet 
high lying off the northeastern part of Macangani Island. 

The town of Tandag is situated on Tandag Point, a low, flat point 
between the Tandag River and the sea, and may be readily located 
by two small, steep, high, heavily wooded islands at the mouth of 
the river. It has a stone church and convent, several stores, and a 
population of about 1,500. It is a place of considerable commercial 
importance as most of the products of the valleys of the Tandag and 
Tago Rivers are shipped from here. The Tandag River has very 
little water on its bar but may be entered by a pulling boat at high 
water ; its mouth is hidden from seaward by the two previously men- 
tioned islands. Lenungan* the western and larger island, lies about 
100 yards from the west bank of the river mouth and forms one side 
of the channel through which the river discharges. It is about y 2 
mile long in a northeast and southwest direction, y s mile wide, and 
has three peaks of nearly equal height, the highest of which is 365 
feet. The eastern island has no name ; it is oval in shape, about 14 
mile in extent, has a sharp peak 353 feet high, and lies about y A 
mile eastward from the middle peak on Lenungan and the same dis- 
tance from Tandag Point. The north and west sides of Lenungan 
are clear and steep-to ; the reef surrounding the smaller island extends 
about y 2 mile eastward from it. The Tandag River is said to have 
originally discharged between these two islands but now a sand spit 
closes the opening and the river discharges through the narrow chan- 



244 MINDANAO. 

nel between Lenungan and the mainland. The opening between the 
unnamed island and Tandag Point is closed by a coral reef. 

Anchorage, sheltered from all winds except those from north to 
east, may be found in 7 to 10 fathoms, mud bottom, % m il e westward 
from the north end of Lenungan Island. Small craft of 4 or 5 feet 
draft may find sheltered anchorage at the mouth of the Tandag 
River, behind Lenungan Island. 

From Tandag Point the coast trends southeastward for 11 miles 
to Lambillon Point, the northern entrance point to Caguait Harbor, 
About 1 mile southward from Tandag Point there is a small point 
between which and the unnamed island off Tandag Point, reefs, partly 
bare at low water, extend to a distance of y 2 mile. There is a small 
reef about % m il e i n extent, bare at low water and marked by a line 
of breakers, lying about 2 miles southeastward from Lenungan Island 
and 1 mile from shore; a narrow, deep channel, about y 2 mile wide, 
separates it from the shore reef. From the point 1 mile south from 
Tandag Point to Magabao Cove, about 7 miles southeastward, the 
shore line is a clean sandy beach, off which there are no off-lying 
dangers. 

Tago River, said to be the largest river in eastern Mindanao, breaks 
through the beach about 5 miles southeastward from Tandag Point. 
There is a narrow channel across the bar with a depth of 1 fathom 
at low water, but the heavy sea usually rolling in on this coast makes 
it unsafe to enter even in a whaleboat ; it is reported that native boats ; 
never attempt it. The great size of the Tago River valley is indi- 
cated by the absence of coastal mountains, which north and south of 
this area rise abruptly from the shore. Here, however, the first moun- 
tains are 20 miles or more inland. The river rises back in these 
mountains and with many wide meanderings flows in a general east- 
erly direction through its wide, flat valley. 

The town of Tago is situated on the north bank of the Tago River 
about 1 mile from its mouth and is not visible from the sea. The big 
surf makes landing on the beach difficult and dangerous. The best 
landing in this vicinity is at the mouth of the Tandag River. There 1 
is a good road between Tago and Tandag, over which all the hemp 
and copra raised in this vicinity is trucked to Tandag for shipment. 

Magabao Cove, about 7 miles southeastward from Tandag Point, is 
about % mile wide at the entrance, extends nearly % mile south- 
westward, and is nearly blocked with reefs. It has a depth of 9 
fathoms at the entrance and decreases to 5% fathoms near its head; 
in the middle of the entrance there is a small 3%-fathom shoal. Its 
northwestern entrance point is low; the southeastern entrance point 
is high and rocky and is the first high land on the coast southeast- 
ward from Tandag Point. There are no inhabitants on its shore and 
nothing further in regard to it is known. 

From Magabao Cove southeastward to Lambillon Point the coast 
is high, bold, and rocky, with patches of mangrove here and there, 
and fringed by a narrow steep -to coral reef on which there are a 
number of large rocks. There are no off-lying dangers with the ex- 
ception of a small reef about 200 yards in extent, which breaks in 
moderate weather, lying about % mile northeastward from Lambillon 
Point and y 2 m il e from shore. 

Caguait is a small and unimportant village lying on the south 
shore of Caguait Harbor about 1 mile southeastward from Lambillon. 



CAUIT POINT TO MANGA BAY. 245 

Point; the water in front of the village is shoal. Caguait Harbor 
is a circular basin about % mile in diameter. The northern side of 
the harbor is high and rocky like the coast northward ; the southern 
entrance point is low and rocky. The depth at the entrance is 7 
fathoms. The depths decrease gradually from the entrance to the 
head of the harbor, where a sandy beach with scattering palms is 
found. Good anchorage, protected from all winds and seas except 
those from the eastward, may be found anywhere in the harbor ac- 
cording to draft. 

From Ltambillon Point the coast trends in a general south-southeast 
direction for 6 miles and from offshore presents a lower and smoother 
appearance than that northward from Lambillon Point. Imme- 
diately southeastward from Caguait Harbor is a small sand cove 
blocked with reefs and of no value. The shore, consisting of coral 
rocks, runs eastward from this cove for about 1 mile and then turns 
southward. From this point a fringing reef makes off for a distance 
of 14 mile and continues along the coast, to the head of Bitaugan 
Bay, varying in width from % to y 2 mile. About 1 mile southward 
of the point where the shore line turns southward, the rocky shore 
ceases and mangroves hide the shore line and continue for another 
mile and then turn westward and southward into a sand beach at the 
head of Bitaugan Bay. This beach continues southward for over y 2 
mile, where the rocky shore begins again and continues around TJma- 
num Point. 

Bitaugan Bay (chart 4628) is about iy 2 miles wide at the entrance 
and extends about 1 mile westward. Bitaugan, from which consider- 
able hemp is shipped, lies on the south shore of the bay. The head 
of the bay is shoal, and there are a number of reefs and sunken rocks 
in the bay, contracting the anchorage space and complicating the 
navigation. A triangular reef about iy 2 miles in extent and bare 
at low water lies in the mouth of the bay, leaving a channel ^ to V2 
mile wide, where good sheltered anchorage for small vessels may be 
found. 

Arangasa Islands are three unimportant islands lying on the large 
triangular reef in the entrance to Bitaugan Bay. The largest has no 
name and is simply a big mangrove patch, lying on the western part 
of the reef about 1 mile long east and west and 14 to % mile wide. 
Arangasa Island, on the southeastern part of the reef, about 450 
yards long north and south and 330 yards wide, is of sand and con- 
tains a coconut grove and other large trees, the tops of which are 
about 80 feet above the sea. An automatic acetylene light, showing 
one white flash every 5 seconds, visible 10 miles, is exhibited, 36 feet 
above high water, from a white concrete beacon on Arangasa Island. 
The third island, also unnamed, is about 200 yards in extent, rocky, 
and covered with brush ; it lies about 100 yards south of Arangasa 
and is of no value. 

A large rocky shoal ; which breaks in moderate weather, lies with 
its center about iy 2 miles east-southeastward from Arangasa Island. 
It is about 1 mile long in a north-northwest and opposite direction, 
y 2 mile wide, and covered by iy 2 to 10 fathoms of water. Foul 

f round exists in the channel between this shoal and the reef on which 
jrangasa Island lies and its use is not recommended. There are a 
number of small detached reefs lying so close to the big reef that 
they practically form part of it. The tangent to the land northward 



246 MINDANAO. 

from Lambillon Point, bearing- nothing northward of 317° (315° 
mag.), clears the northeastern side of the dangers off Bitaugan Bay, 
and the south side of Umanum Point, bearing nothing southward of 
247° (245° mag.), clears the southeastern side of the same dangers. 

A rock covered by 3 fathoms of water exists on the bearings : Tan- 
gent to the south entrance point of Bitaugan Bay 300° (298° mag.), 
and Umanum Point 174° (172° mag.). 

About % m il e northward from Umanum Point and y 2 mile from 
shore there is a coral reef on which the sea is constantly breaking; 
it is about % mile long, north and south, y 8 mile wide and surrounded 
by foul ground. Umanum Point, bearing 200° (198° mag.), clears 
all dangers around this reef. 

Directions for Bitaugan Bay.— The northern channel into Bitau- 
gan Bay is narrow and tortuous and "in the absence of any aids to 
navigation or local knowledge should not be attempted. To enter by 
the southern channel, when still outside the dangerous area included 
by the clearing marks, the southern entrance point, on which there 
is a hill over 200 feet high, should be brought to bear 288° (286° 
mag.), and steered for; pass it at a distance 150 or 200 yards and 
haul northwestward and good sheltered anchorage in 12 fathoms will 
be found with the south end of Arangasa Island bearing 96° (94° 
mag.), and the dock at Bitaugan bearing 194° (192° mag.). 

TTmanum, Point is a rocky point . fringed by a narrow reef. Imme- 
diately back of the point the land rises to a prominent 460-foot hill. 

From Umanum Point the coast trends in, a general .southwesterly 
direction for about 10 miles to> Jobo Point at, the entrance to Lianga 
Bay. It is very irregular in outline and is intersected by a number 
of small rivers, indented by numerous bays, fringed by coral reefs of, 
varying width and fronted by numerous detached dangers. From 
Umanum Point the coast trends- westward for 1 mile and then, south- 
eastward for the same distance, forming Santa Cruz Bay. The shore 
southward continues low, rocky, apd black to a point 2 miles south of 
the Marihatag River, from which point mangrove predominates to 
the mouth of the Otieza River. From the mouth of this river a sand 
beach extends southward for iy 2 miles to a point where mangroves 
begin and extend 2 miles eastward, surrounding and forming Jobo 
Point. 

Santa Cruz Bay, immediately southwestward from Umanum Point, 
is about % mile wide at the entrance and extends about 1 mile west- 
ward. The shores of the bay are bordered by mangroves and fringed 
with reefs, bare at low water. In the middle of the bay there is 
a detached reef, bare at low water, which renders this bay useless 
to navigation. Santa Cruz, small and unimportant, lies at the head 
of the bay. 

A reef, bare at low water, lies % mile southeastward from the 
northern entrance to Santa Cruz Bay, and two reefs, also bare at 
low water, extend % mile eastward from the south point of the same 
bay; southward of the first-mentioned reef there is a deep channel, 
over 14 mile wide, leading into Santa Cruz Bay. 

Marihatag is a small village on the south side, of the mouth of the 
Marihatag River, which discharges 3 miles southwestward from 
Umanum Point through a narrow mouth about 20 -yards wide. The 
Marihatag River has very little water on its, bar ; at high water small 
boats can enter the river and ascend it about 3 miles. Marihatag 



CAUIT POINT TO LlANGA BAY. 247 

is a port of call for small coastwise steamers that usually anchor 
about % mile northeastward from Ayninan Islet and y 2 mile south- 
ward from the breaking reef, lying 1 mile eastward from the mouth 
of the Marihatag River in 16 to 18 fathoms of water. 

A reef about % mile long east and west and 300 yards wide, which 
breaks in moderate weather at all stages of the tide, lies 1 mile 
eastward from the mouth of the Marihatag River; immediately 
southward of this reef there is a small 2%-fathom patch. About 
% mile westward from the first-mentioned reef there is a small 
breaking reef with a deep channel between them. 

Ayninan Islet, lying \y 2 miles southward from the mouth of the 
Marihatag River and ^ mile from shore, is oval shaped, % mile 
long east and west, and 90 feet high to the tops of the trees. It is 
surrounded by a reef, partly bare at low water, which extends % 
mile northeastward and the same distance southward. The western 
end of the islet is a white sand beach, clean and steep-to. A deep 
passage, about 200 yards wide, separates it from the shore reef. 

About % and V/& miles eastward from Ayninan Islet are two reefs 
covered by 4 and Sy 2 fathoms, respectively. The outer reef is about 
y 2 mile long north and south and -y^ mile wide ; the inner one is 
about 300 yards in diameter. There is also a 4%-fathom patch, 
about 200 yards in diameter, lying about % mile southward from the 
east end of Ayninan. All or these shoals are surrounded . by deep 
water and are readily picked up by their eolor. 

Antipolo is a small village lying about iy 2 miles westward from 
Ayninan Island. 

Santo Nino is a small village lying about 2y 2 miles westward from 
Antipolo at the month of the Santo Nino River; some hemp is 
shipped from here in small sailing craft. The Santo Nino River has 
very little water on its bar. 

Oteiza is a small village lying at the mouth of the Oteiza River, 
which discharges about 2 miles southwestward from the Santo Nino 
River. Small steamers call here for hemp brought from the neigh- 
boring ports in small craft. The Oteiza River has more water on 
its bar than either the Marihatag or Santo Nino; ships' launches 
can cross it at high water. 

Salvacion is a small village in the bend of the coast about 2 miles 
southward from Oteiza, where the sandy beach turns to mangroves. 
It does most of its business through Oteiza. 

Two dangerous detached reefs lie near the middle of Oteiza Bay. , 
The first, lying 1% miles 58° (56° mag.) from the church at Salva- 
cion, bares at extreme low water; the second, lying 1 mile 73° (71° 
mag.) from the same point, breaks with a moderate sea. Both are 
steep-to and at high water with a smooth sea can not be seen until 
directly over them. These and a small detached reef lying close to 
the shore reef, % mile southeastward from Oteiza, constitute the only 
dangers in Oteiza Bay, and they all may be avoided by steering for 
Oteiza Church on a 324° (322° mag.) bearing and anchoring accord- 
ing to draft. 

Jobo Point is a low mangrove-covered point extending about 2 miles 
eastward from the village of Salvacion. On it are two hills rising 
from the mangroves, both of which are 110 feet high. Jobo Point is 
surrounded by a stQep-to coral reef about % mile wide, and its eastern 
eitremity may be passed in- safety at a distance of y 2 mile. 



248 ' MINDANAO. 

LIANGA BAY 

is about 11 miles wide at |he entrance between Jobo and Banculin 
Points and extends 13 miles westward. From Jobo Point the coast 
trends in a general southwesterly direction for 10 miles to the town 
of Lianga; then turns sharply and trends southeasterly for about 
11 miles to head of Gamot Bay, a long narrow bay ; thence back in a 
northwesterly direction for 3 miles t"o Conceson Point ; thence in 
an easterly direction for about 10 miles to Banculin Point. The 
north side of Lianga Bay is bordered by mangroves with rounded 
hills rising out of them and is fringed by a wide reef, off which there 
are numerous detached dangers. The south side, of the bay is higher 
and is fringed by a wide coral reef as far as Conceson Point; thence 
to Banculin Point the shore is rocky and steep, with a narrow steep-to 
coral reef. 

Jobo Islet, about 1% miles southwestwar'd from Jobo Point, is 
about 300 yards long northeast and southwest, 100 yards wide, flat 
topped, covered with trees and brush, and about 75 feet high to the 
tree tops. It is composed of sand and lies on a coral reef, partly bare 
at low water, which extends al;out % mile northeast and southwest 
from it. About % mile southeast from Jobo Islet there is a small 
shoal covered by a least depth of 6 fathoms. This is believed to be 
the " P. D." shoal shown on the old charts 1% miles southward from 
Jobo Islet. Between the reef surrounding Jobo Islet and the shore 
reef there is a channel nearly y 2 mile wide, but it contains a number 
of shoal patches, and its use is not recommended. 

Haycock Islands are a group of some 12 small islets and rocks lying 
on the shore reef 3 to Sy 2 miles westward from Jobo, Point and Vi to 
1 mile from shore. They are of various heights up to 205 feet and 
are covered with brush. 

About 2 miles westward from Jobo Islet there is a small flat sandy 
cay, about y s mile in extent, lying on the center of a reef about 
iy 3 miles long northwest and southeast and Vi m il e wide. 

Malinonok Islands are three small high islands lying on the shore 
reef about 6 miles westward from Jobo Island. Malinonok, the 
western one, is 110 feet high. 

lianga, a port of call for, small coasting steamers, lies at the head 
of Lianga Bay, about % mile south of the mouth of the Lianga River. 
It is clean and well-kept and contains a prominent church that is 
visible from a long distance. The shore in front of the town is 
' fringed with coral, rendering landing at low water or after dark 
difficult. Anchorage, sheltered only, during the southwest monsoon, 
may be found in about 20 fathoms, muddy bottom, with the church 
bearing 289° (287° mag.) and about % mile southeastward from a 
prominent 35-foot rock standing on the shore reef about % mile east- 
ward of the northern part of the town. 

Panirongan Island, about 3 miles southeastward from the town of 
Lianga, appears to be a part of the mainland, being separated from 
it only by a narrow mangrove-fringed boat channel. Panirongan is 
wooded, 130 feet high,, and bordered by mangroves except on its east- 
ern side, where there is a sandy beach with coconut trees at the back, 
where a landing for the village of Panirongan can be made. 

Tomajo Rock is a small rock, about 25 feet high, lying on the shore 
reef immediately eastward from Panirongan Island. ♦ 



LIANGA BAY. 249 

Between Panirongan and Conceson Points, a distance of about 4 
miles, the coast recedes about 3 miles southward, forming a large bay 
blocked by reefs and of no value to navigation; the northern limit 
of the reefs is clearly defined by an almost unbroken line of breakers. 

Cabgan and Gabao are two small rocky islets on the northern edge 
of the reefs filling the above-mentioned bay. Cabgan, the western 
and larger one, lying about 1^2 miles northwestward from Conceson 
Point, is about % mile long northwest and southeast and 200 yards 
wide. Its north side is formed by vertical cliffs undermined by the 
sea and is clean and steep-to. Cabgan is about 100 feet high to the 
tops of the trees. Gabao Islet, lying about % mile east-southeast 
from Cabgan, has the same general appearance as Cabgan, and is 
about 175 feet high to the tops of the trees. A number of conspicu- 
ous bowlders lie off its eastern side. 

A channel, about ^4 mile wide and 12 fathoms deep, between Cab- 
gan and Gabao Islets leads to a deep lagoon about 2 miles long east 
and west and % to y 2 mile wide. This lagoon, though navigable by 
small boats and launches, is of little value to navigation. 

Gamot Bay, southward from Conceson Point, is about 1 mile wide 
at the entrance and extends about 3 miles eastward to the mouth of 
the Gamot River. Both sides of this bay are fringed with reefs, 
leaving a deep channel between them, which is accessible only to 
native canoes. 

Conceson Point is a long peninsula forming the northern side of 
Gamot Bay. On it are a number of hills, the highest of which, 830 
feet in elevation, slopes gradually northward to the shore of Lianga 
Bay. Sua Islets are two small islets, 65 and 100 feet high, lying off 
Conceson Point. A prong of the shore reef extends about 1 mile 
northward from the western end of Conceson Point. 

From Conceson Point the shores are rocky, the cliffs rise abruptly 
from the sea, and parallel ridges rise in successive steps to the high 
mountains in the interior. From the prong of the reef extending 
about 1 mile northward from Conceson Point, the shore reef as far 
as Banculin Point is narrow and steep-to. 

Banculin Point, the southern entrance point to Lianga Bay, is a 
bold, prominent headland, 590 feet high. The coral reef extends 
about 1 mile eastward of the point and is dotted with numerous large 
rocks, the largest one being 70 feet high and covered with vegetation. 
In the bay southward of this reef, there is an extensive area of clear 
water, but entrance to it is blocked by a reef which bares at low water. 

Singag Island, 450 by 350 yards in extent and rising to a height of 
185 feet, lies about 1% miles eastward of Banculin Point, being sepa- 
rated from the shore reef by a narrow foul channel with a depth of 
2% fathoms near the middle. The island has steep rock cliffs on all 
sides and is steep-to on the north and south with 6 and 7 fathoms of 
water extending % mile eastward of it. 

From Bafcculin Point the coast trends southward for 15 miles to 
the northern entrance point of Bislig Bay ; a constant southerly cur- 
rent of modferate strength exists offshore, but in the narrow channels, 
among the numerous coral reef s lying in the deep indentations of the 
coast, the current is influenced by the tide, flooding northward and 
causing f reqjuent swirls and eddies. 

Lamon Point, 4% miles southward of Singag Island, consists of 
perpendicular cliffs, 50 feet high, with a narrow, rocky beach at low 



250 MINDANAO. 

tide. From a little distance offshore these cliffs have the appearance 
of a fresh slide. Northward of the point the narrow valleys are 
separated by vertical cliff points and the coral reef broadens, entirely 
filling the indentations of the shore. Southward of Lamon Point 
the shore recedes to the westward, then southward and eastward, 
forming a large bay almost filled by a large coral reef, on which lies 
Bagasinan Island. 

Bagasinan Island, 150 feet high, is long and narrow with steep, 
rocky slopes. The eastern end appears to be cut off from the main 
island and is separated from it by a narrow boat passage at high 
water. Several rocks lie on the reef to the westward of the island. 

lamon Anchorage (chart 4627) lies between Bagasinan Island and 
its reefs and the shore reef to the northward. It affords fairly pro- 
tected anchorage for moderate-sized vessels in 6 to 7 fathoms of 
water, mud bottom. This anchorage is open to eastward and has not 
been tried in heavy northeast weather, but is believed to afford pro- 
tection from wind and sea from that direction. 

A large shoal area lies southeastward of the east end of Bagasinan 
Island. The least depth, 2% fathoms, lies V/ 2 miles 145° (143° 
mag.) from the east end of Bagasinan Island, with a 3-fathom shoal 
% mile westward of it. Between the latter shoal and the reefs and 
shoals extending 1% miles northeastward of San Juan there is a clear 
channel over 14 mile wide. The shoals break in heavy weather, but 
in smooth weather they are hard to distinguish, as they have the 
same appearance as the deeper water around them. 

San Juan is of little commercial importance. At the time of the 
survey it had about 40 nipe houses. 

Mahaba Island is low and flat, being only about 6 feet above high 
water. The greater part of the island is covered with trees and 
bushes, having only a small strip of cultivated land with a few 
houses on the western shore. A snug anchorage for launches and 
small vessels of 6 to 8 foot draft exists about % mile south of the 
mangrove islet in the channel westward of Mahaba Island. The best 
approach is from the northward, through the western channel which 
carries a depth of about 2 fathoms of water, the channel eastward of 
the small island being only about 80 yards wide. The channels 
among the reefs southward and eastward of this anchorage are nar- 
row and tortuous, with strong tidal currents, and should not be 
attempted without local knowledge. 

Tigdos Island, lying % mile southeast of Mahaba Island, is 110 feet 
high to tops of trees, the surface of the ground being about 8 feet 
above high water. It shows very prominently from seaward and is 
a good landmark in approaching Hinatuan from northward. 

Hinatuan is an important shipping center for this section of Min- 
danao. The church, municipal building, and the school are of strong 
material, with tin roofs, which show up prominently from the south- 
east. The Hinatuan River drains an extensive area. Launches draw- 
ing 7 feet cross, the bar at high water and go alongside the wharf in 
front of the town. About a mile above its mouth rocks obstruct the 
passage of the larger boats, but native bancas ascend the river for 
more than 20 miles. Strong tidal currents run in and out fair with 
the channel, which is usually marked by stakes or beacons. 

The usual anchorage for Hinatuan is about 1% miles southeast of 
the river mouth in 4 fathoms, mud bottom. Better-protected anchor- 



LIAHGA. BAY. 251 

age may be found behind the reefs to the northward, in 7 fathoms of 
water, mud bottom, with Manomawan Islet bearing 120° (118° mag.) 
distant % mile. The approach to Hinatuan Anchorage is deep and 
clear and almost 1 mile wide. It is however, bordered on both its 
north and south sides by numerous reefs and shoals, the most danger- 
ous one being a shoal with a least known depth of 2}4 fathoms of 
water lying 1% miles 165° (163° mag.) from the eastern end of Tig- 
dos Island. It has been observed breaking, but in smooth weather 
has the same appearance as the deep water around it. 

Mancahorom Island marks the eastern end and Maowa Island the 
western end of the chain of shoals lying on the south side of the ap- 
proach to Hinatuan. The former has an extensive coral reef sur- 
rounding it and should be passed to eastward and northward at a 
distance of not less than y% mile. Both islands are low, but trees 
and palms make them conspicuous and excellent landmarks. 

Loyola is a small settlement near the mouth of the Bigaan River. 
The latter is navigable for a whaleboat for about 5 miles from its 
mouth, but sand bars block the entrance at low water. Extensive 
coral reefs with several small mangrove islets and mud flats fill the 
head of the bay southeastward from Loyola. 

Mawes Island, lies on an extensive coral reef off the northern en- 
trance point of Bislig Bay, being separated from the shore reef by a 
narrow channel with a depth of 4 fathoms of water. There are some 
coconut palms at the southwest end. The remainder of the island is 
covered with trees and bushes, and a fringe of mangroves entirely 
surrounds it. 

i BISLIG BAT, 

5 miles wide at the entrance between Mawes Island and Sanco Point, 
extends 8 miles in a southwest direction, forming a large open bay 
containing numerous shoals and reefs. A heavily wooded ridge, 
about 600 feet high, but without prominent peaks, lies along the south 
side of the bay. On the north side the land slopes gradually to a 
height of 420 feet, the shore being fringed by mangroves and bor- 
dered by a wide coral reef, on which lie Tumano and several other 
small mangrove islands. Agonoy Island lies on a detached coral 
reef, is about 6 feet above high water, and has a sand beach around 
it. It is prominent on account of the coconut grove upon it. The 
valley of the Bislig Eiver, which empties into the northwest corner 
of the bay, is low, flat, and heavily wooded. The river is navigable 
for whaleboats beyond San Jose, a small settlement about 5 miles 
above its mouth. Launches drawing 6 to 8 feet enter the river at 
half tide, the channel across the bar being usually marked by stakes, 
but care is necessary on account of the strong tidal currents. 

Bislig, at the mouth of the Bislig River, and Haramelio, in the 
southern angle of the bay, are the only settlements on the shore of 
the bay and are of little commercial importance. 

Directions. — Vessels entering Bislig Bay should keep from y 2 t° 
% mile off the southern shore until Agonoy Island bears 320° (318° 
mag.) , when the course should be changed to 272° (270° mag.) , which 
leads to an anchorage in 4 to 5 fathoms of water off the mouth of the 
Bislig River. If bound for Haramelio or the head of the bay, keep 
% mile offshore to avoid two 2-fathom shoals lying y 2 mile off the 

33452°— 21 17 



252 MINDANAO. 

southern shore, and anchor according to draft. The head of the bay 
is shoal and affords no protection from northeast weather. Some 
protection from the seas may be obtained in the northwest corner 
of the bay behind the reefs, but the anchorage space is very limited. 

Sanco Point, the southern entrance point to Bislig Bay, is low, 
thickly covered with bushes, and has a white sand beach at high- 
water line. A coral reef bares at low water from iy 2 to 2 miles east- 
ward and southeastward of the point. The town of Valencia is small 
and unimportant and is not visible to passing vessels. 

From Sanco Point the coast trends almost due south for 15 miles 
to Catarman Point. The shore is bordered by a wide coral reef, and 
the land rises to a heavily wooded ridge about 400 feet high, which 
presents no distinguishing features. About 5 miles from Sanco 
Point, in front of the town of Barcelona, a break in the reef affords 
anchorage and some protection. The entrance is narrowed to about 
400 yards by a 2}4-fathom shoal. An anchorage in 7 fathoms, sand 
bottom, may be had y 2 mile southwest of Maopia Island, a small 
island, 20 feet high, lying on the reef. This anchorage is well pro- 
tected by the reef in all directions except from the southeast. The 
3-fathom shoal 2y 2 miles northeast of Maopia Island and the 4- 
fathom shoal iy 2 miles south of that island both break in a moderate 
sea. The best boat landing at Barcelona is at the mouth of the Taon 
River. 

Tambog Point, rising to a height of 2G0 feet, is covered with scat- 
tered trees, hemp, and bushes and is very prominent. The point itself 
is double, the southern and higher point being about 50 feet high. 
The bight northward of Tambog Point is partially protected from 
the swirls and constant southerly currents which prevail off the 
point. 

lingit, near the mouth of the Lingit River, is of little importance. 
The best boat landing is found by following the break in the reef 
northward of the town at half tide or better, thus gaining the pro- 
tection of the reef. 

Catarman Point is bold, steep, and very prominent, with rocky 
cliffs about 40 feet high. The point is covered with bushes with large 
trees scattered among them. Close northward of the point is a break 
in the coral reef forming Catarman Anchorage. The entrance be- 
tween the reefs is about 400 yards, widening to y 2 mile inside. It is 
protected on the north by the reef on which the Majangit Islands lie, 
and its surroundings allow none but an easterly sea to enter. The 
depth of 18 fathoms at the entrance gradually lessens to 7 fathoms, 
mud bottom, 1 mile farther in, where safe anchorage may be had 14 
mile from the shore. 

From Catarman Point the coast trends southwest and south, then 
southeast to Bangai Point, forming a large, open bay known as 
Cateel Bay. The waters of this bay are deep and almost free from 
currents, Catarman Point protecting it from the constant southerly 
current which is felt farther offshore. The shore is bordered by a 
wide coral reef, showing in some places a glistening white sand 
beach, but in the main the vegetation comes to the water's edge. The 
land rises to a high, flat, heavily wooded ridge with several peaks 
among the higher mountains farther inland showing over it. 

Hamuan Island, on the shore reef 2y 2 miles southwest of Catarman 
Point, is 275 feet high and covered with big trees. The western 



BISLIG BAY TO PUJADA BAY. 253 

part of the island is being cleared for hemp. The south and east 
sides are rocky. A number of high, rocky islets, covered with 
bushes, lie on the reef between Hamuan Island and Catarman Point. 
At half tide a small boat can pass between them and the mainland, 
thus gaining the protection of the reef. A large detached reef, with 
coral heads breaking at all times, lies y 2 mile southeast of Hamuan 
Island with a deep channel between it and the shore reef. 

Cabugao Island, 220 feet high, tree-covered and prominent, lies on 
the edge of the reef northward of Boston. A shoal with a solitary 
rock 30 yards in diameter on its eastern edge baring at low water, lies 
% mile 13° (11° mag.) from the east end of Cabugao Island. This 
rock is a serious danger as it lies in the fairway to Boston Anchorage 
and in a smooth sea is hard to distinguish. 

The best anchorage is in 5 to 7 fathoms of water, mud bottom, 
about y 2 mile northwest of Cabugao Island. It is open from north 
to east and may become untenable during heavy easterly weather. 
Boston is an important shipping point for the products of this section 
of Mindanao. 

Between Tonquil and Tanguip Points there is a break in the high 
ridge near shore, forming a broad, fertile valley drained by the 
Cateel Biver. The channel across the bar of the river is about 100 
yards wide and carries about 5 feet of water with deeper water in- 
side; but the river can only be entered in the smoothest of weather. 
Strong tidal currents into and out of the river cause confused seas 
near the entrance. The town of Cateel lies at the mouth of the river. 
Anchorage may be taken up y^ to % mile offshore anywhere between 
Tonquil and Tanguip Points in 12 to 14 fathoms of water, mud and 
sand bottom, but preferably off the mouth of the Cateel Eiver. 

Bagoso Island, lying on the shore reef y 2 mile southeast of Bangai 
Point, is a prominent landmark when seen from north or south; a 
large tree on Quinablangan Island is especially prominent, being 
visible for 20 miles up and down the coast. Both islands are low, 
being only about 7 feet above high water, with their seaward faces 
of coral rock formation. A break in the reef leads back of Quina- 
blangan Island and at high water a boat can continue on over the reef 
back of Bagosa Island, thus avoiding the heavy rips and swirls that 
frequently exist off this coast. 

San Victor Island is the largest of a number of low bush-covered 
islands lying on the reefs between Quinablangan Island and Paypay 
Point. A narrow channel separates San Victor Island from the shore 
reef. A large shoal area lies southeast and east of the island, on 
which there are three spots that bare at extreme low water and that : 
break heavily at all times. There is another detached reef about mid- 
way between Paypay Point and the mouth of the Dapnan Biver. 
Fair-waather anchorage may be had off the mouth of the Dapnan 
Eiver, but the remainder of this stretch of coast should not be ap- 
proached without local knowledge. 

Baganga Bay is a deep indentation in the coast southward of Lam- 
bavon Point. A coral reef extends y 3 mile southward of the point 
and a breaking reef lies y 2 mile 228° (226° mag.) from Lambayon 
Point. Good anchorage, protected from northerly and easterly 
weather, may be had in 7 fathoms, mud bottom, about y 2 mile west- 
ward from Lambayon Point and y 4 mile offshore. The breaking 



254 MINDANAO. 

reef divides the approach to this anchorage into two channels, of 
which the western is the better, being the wider one and having an 
even bottom. Anchorage protected from southeasterly and southerly 
weather may be had in the southern part of Baganga Bay in 5 
fathoms, sand bottom, y± mile offshore. 

Baganga, the only town of importance, lies on the southwest shore 
of the bay. A nipa house, with a tin roof, stands out prominently, 
but the stone church and school are not visible from the bay. Neither 
the Baganga River nor the Panglimasan Biver can be entered by boats 
at low water. 

Eaquit Island lies on the shore reef that fringes the southern en- 
trance point to Baganga Bay. It is low, covered with bushes and 
trees, and from a distance appears to be a part of the coast line. 
The coast to Baculin Point, 7 miles southward, is fringed "by coral 
reef but is steep-to and clear. The Languyon River has a wide mouth, 
but can only be entered at half tide through a narrow channel near 
the southern bank. 

Between Baculin Point and Pusan Point, 9 miles southward, there 
are three indentations in the coast. Baculin Bay, between Baculin 
Point ^nd Bacul Point, is deep and clear. Both points are low and 
rounding and are fringed by a coral reef about 400 yards wide. The 
head of the bay is sand beach. Baculin, San Luis, and Manorigao 
lie on the shore of this bay but are of little importance at the present 
time, the products of this section, a small amount of hemp and copra, 
being taken by trail or native boat to Caraga or Baganga for ship- 
ment. Anchorage protected ivo^a northerly and northeasterly 
weather may be found about 2 miles west of Baculin Point in 7 to 
10 fathoms of water, sand bottom, about 1/2 m il e from shore. 

The bay between Bacul Point and Alisud Point does not afford 
any safe anchorage. Santa Fe, at the mouth of the Hipayaan River, 
is of no special importance. A rock, which is reported to bare at 
extreme low water, lies 1 mile 174° (172° mag.) from Bacul Point. 
It is marked by breakers at all stages of the tide. 

Caraga Bay, between Alisud Point and Pusan Point, affords an- 
chorage protected in easterly and southeasterly weather in the south- 
west corner in front of Santiago. The anchorage in front of Caraga, 
on Alisud Point, is available in fair weather only ; the depth of water 
and character of bottom render it unwise for any vessel to remain 
in this vicinity during heavy weather. Caraga is an important 
shipping point for the products of this section and is a port of call 
for coastwise steamers. The Caraga River can be entered by small 
boats at half or full tide only; heavy breakers extend across the 
entrance even during moderate weather. 

Pusan Point is low and rounding. It is steep-to, but even in moder- 
ate weather heavy rips and swirls are met with off this point, appar- 
ently caused bv the constant southerly current which exists off the 
east coast of Mindanao. 

From Pusan Point the coast trends south-southwestward for 20 
miles to Tugubun Point. The points in between are coral cliffs 15 
to 30 feet high with sand and shingle beaches at the heads of the 
several bays. The coastal ridge is somewhat broken, but does not 
show any . prominent landmarks. It is separated from the higher 
mountains inland by a valley or depression of 400 or 500 feet, and 



BISLIG BAY TO PUJADA BAY. 255 

the entire coast is heavily wooded. The only danger to navigation 
along this coast is a coral shoal lying 2*4 miles north of Tugubun 
Point. It is connected to the shore reef and has a shoal spot of 1% 
fathoms % mile offshore, with a detached shoal 1,4 mile eastward 
having a depth of 4% fathoms. 

No anchorage protected from easterly or southerly weather is 
available along this section of the coast. At the head of Bunga 
Cove there is a small semicircular opening, into which launches can 
enter. Bunga Creek, emptying into this basin, affords a good quality 
of fresh water. Batinao Point is a high, rounding coral cliff. 

Manay Bay affords anchorage protected from west through north 
to northeast, westward of Manaol Point. A 38-foot rock close to the 
cliff of the point makes an excellent landmark when seen from north- 
ward or southward. Manay is an occasional port of call for coast- 
wise steamers. The Manay River can be entered by small boats, but 
the rapids block it a short distance from its mouth. 

The Casauman River, iy 2 miles north of Casauman Point, can be 
entered by small boats at low water. Just in front of the river 
mouth is a high shingle ridge cast up by the heavy seas that fre- 
quently prevail along this coast. Heavy tide rips frequently exist 
off Casauman Point. 

The bays between Casauman, Buan, Manduao, Tambuc, and Yako 
r„ints afford indifferent anchorages, all open to eastward and south- 
ward. Zaragosa, Santa Cruz, San Ignacio, Quinonoan, and Tarra- 
gona are settlements of Visayans, the latter being an occasional port 
of call for coastwise steamers. Jovellar is a settlement of Manda- 
yans, the natives of this section, whose villages usually are 3 or 4 
miles from the coast. Hemp and copra are the principal products of 
the country and are usually carried to Caraga or Mati for shipment. 

Mayo Bay, between Tugubun Point and Lamigan Point, is a deep, 
open body of water that affords no protected anchorage and very 
precarious anchorage even in fair weather. Tidal currents are weak 
within the bay, but at the entrance points they come in conflict with 
a strong constant southerly current of about 2.2 knots and frequently 
caused heavy tide rips and much disturbed water. The only known 
danger is a small coral reef baring at half tide, which lies % mile 
southeast of Flacca Point on the north shore of the bay. The chan- 
nel between this reef and the shore reef has a depth of over 3 fathoms. 
The north shore of the bay is similar to the shore north of Tugubun 
Point. The points consist of low coral cliffs, the bights of shingle, 
and sand beaches on a narrow coral reef. At Magbiga Point, be- 
tween Flacca and Tugubun Points, the rocky ledge shows promi- 
nently. At Tacaquinay Point the cliffs are of hard conglomerate, 
rising sheer from the water for 200 feet in four separate headlands 
separated by deep gorges. Mount Ambutig, 1,940 feet high, with a 
sharp grassy top, is conspicuous from seaward and especially easy to 
identify when seen against the sky. The remainder of the shore of 
Mayo Bay is a prominent shingle beach overlying a coral reef with 
the exception of Gorda Point, which is a rocky ledge with a broad 
sand beach in the bay to the westward. Bobon Point is low and 
rounding. 

Lucatan and Mayo are the principal settlements, the inhabitants 
being mostly Mandayans. The government road from Mati passes 



256 MINDANAO. 

through Mayo and it is the intention to continue it along the coast 
to Caraga. Freight for the plantations in this region is frequently 
landed at Mati and transported over this road to its destination. 

Lamigan Point is the southern end of Guanguan Peninsula, sepa- 
rating Mayo Bay and Pujada Bay. It is very bold, having a sheer 
cliff 108 feet high. The 1,825-foot hill back of the point is a very 
conspicuous landmark for vessels approaching Pujada Bay. It is 
overtopped by the higher mountains to the westward, but its isolated 
position permits of easy identification. 

PUJADA BAY, 

6 miles wide at the entrance between Lamigan Point and Tumadgo 
Point and extending 12 miles northwestward, is too deep to afford 
good anchorage though otherwise well sheltered. The entrance nar- 
rows to 4 miles in width and is divided into two deep clear channels 
by Pujada Island. The land in this vicinity rises steeply from the 
water's edge, the shore being fringed by a narrow coral reef, except 
at Taganilao, where the coral reef extends out % mile from shore. 
The land in the eastern side of the bay from Batiano Point northward 
is low, and a broad coral reef fringes the shore. 

Pujada Island, 1% miles long, y 2 mile wide, and attaining a height 
of 485 feet, divides the entrance into two deep, clear channels. The 
island, originally heavily timbered, has been cleared and planted to 
coconuts. The shore reef on the western side is about 100 yards wide, 
about 200 yards at its north end, and gradually widens on the east 
side until it attains its greatest width of 400 yards at the southeast 
end. Two small sand islands, on coral reefs that bare, lie % and 1% 
miles southeast of Pujada Island. They are separated from each 
other by a narrow, foul channel, and from Pujada Island by a chan- 
nel ^4 mile wide with a depth of 4 fathoms of water. Both sand 
islands are conspicuous objects, and Pujada Island forms an excel- 
lent landmark for entering the bay. 

Uanivan Island, 105 feet high and covered with trees, lies on the east 
side of the bay about % mile northwest of Taganiiao Point, with 
which it is connected by a reef having 5% fathoms of water over it. 
The island has a sand beach on, its eastern side but is rocky on the 
west and a wide coral reef bares to the southeast. 

Guanguan Estero is entirely filled by coral reefs, which extend 
nearly 1 mile offshore between Licoc Point and Guanguan Point. 

Mati, the seat of government and the most important town of this 
section, lies at the head of Pujada Bay. It is 1 connected by road and 
trail with the towns on the east coast of Mindanao and with the east 
shore of Davao Gulf. It has regular steamer communication with 
other ports of Mindanao and with Manila, and is an important ship- 
ping place for hemp and copra. 

Business is generally in the hands of Chinese traders. The people 
are mostly Visayans, with one More settlement, Babiasan, at the 
mouth of the Guanguan Estero and another one, Bajucan, in Balete 
Bay. 

Anchorage may be taken up off the town of Mati in 15 to 18 
fathoms, sand bottom, about 400 yards from shore. A fixed red light 
is exhibited from a white-framed structure on the beach eastward of 



PUJADA BAY. 257 

the old pier. Good anchorage may also be had 1 mile northward of 
Batiano Point in 15 to 20 fathoms, % mile offshore. 

The western shore of Pujada is steep-to, the land high and heavily 
wooded. A detached rock lies % mile eastward of Camansi Point, 
while the shore reef fills the indentations northward and southward 
of the point. Calayan Point, 1 mile southward, is a high, rounding 
rocky point. 

Lacutan Cove has a very irregular shore fringed by a wide coral 
reef with a 3%-fathom shoal nearly in the middle of the cove. 

Tataidaga Point and Daca Point are the southeast and southwest ex- 
tremities of the peninsula separating Balete Bay from the main body 
of Pujada Bay. Shoal water extends some distance off these points 
and they should be given a berth of at least y% mile. 

Balete Bay (chart 4625) affords perfectly protected anchorage for 
small vessels. About % mile northwestward of Daca Point, the en- 
trance channel is narrowed to 200 yards by a shoal with a least 
known depth of *4 fathom of water over it. Beyond this shoal 
anchorage may be had in 16 to 20 fathoms of water, or near the head 
of the bay in 8 fathoms, mud bottom. Wide coral reefs border the 
shore with mangroves at the head of the bay. No river enters this 
bay, though the gently sloping valley would indicate its existence. 

Macambal and Magun are two small unimportant settlements on the 
southwest shore of Pujada Bay. Fresh water can be procured but 
with great difficulty at these places. 

Tnmadgo Point is a crumbling cliff rising to a height of about 500 
feet. Back of the point the land rises in irregular ridges to Mount 
Hamiguitan. 5,345 feet high. 

From Tumadgo Point the coast trends 188° (186° mag.) for 30 
miles to Cape San Agustin. The first half of this stretch of coast is 
characterized by steep clifflike points, from the top of which the 
land rises steeply to the higher mountains. The cliffs are of soft 
rock, which are undermined by the heavy storm seas striking this 
coast, and the fallen rock forms huge bowlders on the narrow ledge 
between the high-water line and the foot of the cliff. Between the 
several points, of which Macaonan, Nagas, and Salasala are the most 
prominent, are narrow valleys that rise steeply from the shore and are 
not noticeable from offshore. A large rock 10 feet high lies on the 
edge of the shore reef % mile eastward of Kabuaya. 

Luban Island, 219 feet high, has an almost perpendicular cliff face 
on its eastern side, gradually sloping to the mangrove shore line on 
the western side. A large rock 25 feet high lies close to the cliff face. 
Luban Island is connected to the mainland by a coral reef that bares 
at low water. At high water small launches drawing not more than 
4 feef can P ass back °^ tne island into a small lagoon in front of 
Luban town. Entrance to this lagoon from the south side is made 
difficult by numerous bowlders on the reef. 

About 3 miles northward of Lagum Point there is a decided change 
in the character of the vegetation. The country to the northward is 
heavily wooded with large trees and has a decided jungle appearance. 
To the southward the trees are stunted, and from a distance offshore 
the many large-leaved palms have the appearance of nipa houses. 

There are no good anchorages along this coast. In case of neces- 
sity anchorage may be had at several places along the coast. Outside 



258 MINDANAO. 

of about 1 mile from the shore there is a constant southerly current. 
Inshore there is an eddy, and the direction of the currents seems to 
be influenced by the tides. Heavy tide rips and swirls are encoun- 
tered around Luban Island and southward. 

Cape San Agustin and San Agustin Reef have been described on 
page 207. 

Currents. — A constant current southward has been observed on 
the east coast of Mindanao, especially at a distance of beyond 4 miles 
from shore. Within this distance the tides preserve their influence 
in some places, but near the projecting points the current remains 
constant. Northward of Mayo Bay this current shows itself in 
strong races, which increase on approaching Pusan Point, where they 
attain their greatest force. They are very violent off Lacud Point 
and also off Lambajon and Bagoso Points. In order to lessen the 
effects of the current, a vessel should keep a good distance offshore. 
Near the coast the sea is always very rough and choppy, and vessels 
suffer a good deal from it. 

PALMAS ISLAND, 

or Miangas Island, lying 48 miles south-southeastward from Cape 
San Agustin, is about iy 3 miles long northeast and southwest and 
% mile wide. The greater part of the island is low and covered with 
coconut palms, the land being only about 5 feet above high water. 
The northeast part of the island rises to a series of hills, the highest 
of which is 365 feet. The northeast corner of the island is a sheer, 
vertical cliff 150 feet high. The island is surrounded by a wide coral 
reef. A break in the reef in front of the village on the southwest 
shore is the best and practically the only landing place for small 
boats. The survey vessel anchored off this break in the reef in 
17 fathoms about 2.00 yards from the bowlder line, putting a small 
anchor on the reef to prevent dragging off the ledge into deep water. 
This place was protected from the heavy northeast swell which 
prevailed at the time. 

The southeast anchorage is found, about y 3 mile east-northeast from 
the extreme south end of the island in 18 to 20 fathoms of water, sand 
bottom, with an ample clearance from the shore reef for moderate- 
sized vessels. This anchorage is subject to swirls and tide rips. A 
strong southerly current splits on the bank, extending more than a 
mile off the north end of the island, causing violent overfalls and 
boiling water in that vicinity and a considerable eddy near the reef 
to the southward. The range of tide was found to be about 3y z feet. 



STJLTJ ARCHIPELAGO. 

The Sulu Archipelago consists of a long chain, of islands extend- 
ing from Basilan Strait, off the southwestern extremity of Mindanao, 
for 180 miles in a southwesterly direction to Sibutu Passage, off the 
northeast coast of Borneo, and includes over 300 islands of various 
sizes. It is divided into three principal groups : That of Basilan to 
the east, Jolo in the center, and Tawitawi to the west. Besides these 
there are smaller groups, the descriptions of which are included in 
that of the three larger groups. 

The inhabitants, about 120,000 in number are nearly all Moham- 
medans, of Malay race, speaking a Malay dialect which they write 
with Arabic characters. They are considerably advanced in civiliza- 
tion and are engaged in cultivating rice, fishing, and rearing horses, 
cattle, and poultry. The pirates of this archipelago were once a ter- 
rible scourge to the eastern seas and are still a terror to small native 
craft and to unprotected coasts. 

The principal articles of commerce are tortoise shell, trepang, 
edible birds' nests, pearls, and pearl shells. There is regular steam 
communication between the islands and Singapore and Manila. 

BASILAN GROUP. 

Basilan Island, which with the southwest end of Mindanao, forms 
the strait of Basilan, is the largest and principal island of the group. 
It is 32 miles long east and west and 20 miles wide. The island is 
thickly wooded and is traversed by high mountain ranges that are 
frequently enveloped in clouds. The highest peak, lying somewhat 
southward of the center, attains a height of 3,346 feet. The shores 
of the island, which are generally low and wooded, are bordered by a 
belt of sand and coral debris from 50 to 100 yards wide. This belt 
is sometimes covered at high tides and forms mangrove swamps. 

There are many small rivers ; their mouths are wide and can be 
entered by boats at high water, but a short distance up the width con- 
tracts until the river becomes a mere rivulet flowing among stones. 
Good watering places do not exist, as fallen trees intercept the pas- 
sage of boats. 

Navigation around the island presents no difficulties; the water is 
clear, and the bottom can be seen at a depth of 8 to 9 fathoms ; as the 
weather is generally fine, vessels can anchor anywhere round the coast. 
on coral bottom. 

Malamaui Island is situated off the northwest coast of Basilan, from 
which it is separated by the Isabela Channel. It is 370 feet high and 
heavily wooded. The timberis considered to be superior to any found 
in the neighborhood and is well adapted for spars and building. A 
fixed red lens lantern light, visible 7 miles from seaward and in the 
Isabela Channel as far south as the town of Isabela, is exhibited, 36 
feet above high water, from a white wooden frame structure on the 
eastern point of Malamaui Island. 

259 



260 SULU ARCHIPELAGO. 

Lampinigan Island is about % mile east and west, about 200 feet 
high, and is situated 4 miles westward from the western entrance 
to Isabela Channel. 

Pamelukan Bank is situated about 2 miles westward from the west 
side of Malamaui Island. From the position where % fathom, the 
least water, is found, the highest part of Lampinigan Island bears 
227° (225° mag.) and Moro Island 103° (101° mag.). The re- 
mainder of the bank has from 5 to 10 fathoms of water over it. 

Dangers. — There is a long shoal westward from Pamelukan Bank, 
stretching east and west for 4 miles, which has two patches of 4 
fathoms on. it, lying, respectively, 347° (345° mag.) 1% miles and 
305° (303° mag.) 2 miles from the summit of Lampinigan. There 
are besides these several banks northwest of Malamaui, on which the 
least depth of water shown on the chart is 6 to 8 fathoms. 

Malamaui Road, southwestward of the island of the same name, 
affords a safe anchorage for ships of all sizes and is particularly 
convenient for vessels making Port Isabela after nightfall, when 
the entrance into the channel would be dangerous. The holding 
ground is good and strong winds are rare. 

The shores are generally low, heavily wooded, and bordered by 
coral reefs. Abreast the streams there is usually sufficient depth 
over the reef at high water to permit of the entrance of a ship's 
boat, and it is advisable to make landings at these points, as there 
is frequently enough surf to damage a boat attempting to land along 
the shore at other places. 

Anchorage. — The best anchorage will be found in the vicinity 
of San Rafael Bay and small vessels can lie close in eastward of 
Matanaye Island. In approaching this anchofage from northward, 
Pamelukan Bank is the only danger that need be considered. Unless 
there is sufficient light to make out Matanaye Island and the high 
land behind it, it is not advisable to pass between Malamaui Island 
and this bank, as the border reef extends some distance from the 
shore and the general character of the land makes the estimation 
of distances at night difficult. It will usually be found best, in mak- 
ing this anchorage either from northward or westward, to head for 
Lampinigan Island, which can usually be distinguished, leaving 
Pamelukan Bank eastward, when entering from northward, and 
passing between Basilan and the 26- foot shoals when entering from 
westward. Lampinigan Island may be approached safely, and from 
its vicinity Matanaye Island can usually be made out. 

Moro Island, lying close to the south side of Malamaui, is low, cov- 
ered with trees 50 to 65 feet high, and is usually visible from a 
distance of 7 miles. 

About 300 yards southeasterly from Moro Island there is an ex- 
tensive reef awash, nearly always covered by driftwood and well 
marked by the ripple round the edges; part of the sand is always 
above water and mangrove bushes are beginning to grow there. The 
depth of water off the eastern edge of the bank is decreasing toward 
the coast. 

At 300 yards distance westward from Moro Island there is a small 
shoal covered by 16 feet. The channel either side of Moro Island may 
be taken, but that on the north of the island and south of Malamaui 
has the greater width and depth of water. 



BASILAN ISLAND. 261 

Kalut Island is situated in a bight on the eastern side of Malamaui 
Island, from which it is separated by a very narrow, deep channel. 

Port Isabela (chart 4543) is' situated on the island of Basilan, fac- 
ing Isabela Channel, which separates Basilan from Malamaui. The 
roadstead is between Malamaui and Lampinigan Island and offers 
good anchorage in 6 to 15 fathoms, muddy bottom. Port Isabela was 
formerly a naval station and contains an old fort, barracks, hospital, 
repairing yard with workshops for machinery, and a slipway for 
hauling out small vessels. 

There is a shed and wharf on Malamaui Island opposite Port Isa- 
bela, but the wharf is too light to secure vessels to ; they must there- 
fore anchor in the stream and breast in by lines. Vessels going to 
the wharf should go against the ebb, heading southwestward. The 
stern line will then lead nearly fore and aft. There are anchors se- 
curely set on shore for the bow and stern lines and piles for the breast 
lines. The rings of the anchors are covered at half tide and the rocks 
in wake of them are whitewashed. A vessel drawing 20 feet can 
safely go alongside the wharf. There is u rock covered by 6 feet of 
water about 200 feet southwestward from and in line with the end of 
the wharf. 

The bottom is rocky and the anchorage bad in Isabela Channel; 
the tides are very irregular and the greatest velocity of the ebb is 4 
to 5 knots and of the flood about 1 knot less. According to the last 
report received, there are no buoys nor beacons existing in the ap- 
proaches to Port Isabela. 

Directions. — Port Isabela can be entered from either direction, but 
vessels generally take the entrance which will bring the tide against 
-them to avoid turning in the channel. The channel is about 4 miles 
long and the least width between the 5-fathom curves is 150 yards. 
The northern entrance is rendered somewhat difficult by the absence 
of buoys or beacons. In entering, the only precaution necessary is to 
avoid a shoal covered by 2 feet least water lying ^ mile from the 
Basilan shore, which can be done by rounding the east point of Mala- 
maui at a distance of x /4 mile, the shoal water off Malamaui not ex- 
tending out over 250 yards. Inside the channel the chart shows a 
small shoal of 16 feet 200 yards from the Basilan shore ; a shoal with 
13 feet on it 200 yards from the east side of Kalut Island ; near the 
middle of the channel, , a little over y 2 mile northeastward of Port 
Isabela and extending 200 yards from the Basilan side, a shelf of 
coral, level with the surface: but nearly everywhere after passing the 
shoal off Kalut Island the Malamaui shore can be passed at a dis- 
tance of 150 yards. Vessels entering from westward should give the 
coast of Malamaui a berth of % mile and pass either north or south 
of Moro Island, care being taken to avoid the 16-foot patch west- 
ward of it. If passing northward of Moro Island, the northeast point 
of the islands should not be approached too closely, as the tide seems 
to set vessels toward the reef, which at this point extends a short dis- 
tance from the shore. The channel southward of Moro Island is good 
for small vessels, but as there is considerable cross current care must 
be taken to avoid being set upon Moro Island or the reef lying south- 
eastward of it. 

Current. — The currents encountered are tidal and run with con- 
siderable velocity. Their directions vary with the locality and no 
general rule can be laid down. The stream through Basilan Strait 



262 SLTLU ARCHIPELAGO. 

splits on Malamaui Island, a portion going through the Isabela 
Channel. Just westward of Malamaui some set northward or south- 
ward will usually be found. This diminishes in force as the distance 
from Malamaui Island becomes greater. In Isabela Channel the 
flood tide runs southwest; the ebb northeast. For further informa- 
tion regarding tidal currents in Basilan Strait, see page 145. 

Provisions, water, etc. — There are a number of native settle- 
ments along the shore. Provisions are scarce, although at Panaga- 
han, the largest village, situated on Malamaui Island, near the west- 
ern entrance to Isabela Channel, a few chickens and eggs may some- 
times be obtained. Other villages may be found at the head of San 
Rafael Bay, at the Atonaton River, and on Lampinigan and Mata- 
naye Islands. There are many native boats built at the last-named 
settlement. Fresh water may be had by ascending the streams a 
greater or less distance, depending upon the season. During the 
rainy season the water is fresh almost to the mouth. It is best, how- 
ever, to obtain fresh water from the hydrant at Port Isabela. The 
natives are generally peaceful, although not to be trusted. They are 
most troublesome toward Maluso, lying southward and westward. 

The west and south coasts of Basilan are high, wooded, and steep-to 
and can be navigated at a distance of 1 mile with the help of a chart. 
On the western side, near Pangasahan Point, there is a small islet, 
separated from the coast by a channel 300 yards wide and 6 fathoms 
deep, into which small craft can enter. 

Maluso Bay. — This anchorage, on the west side of Basilan Island, is 
formed by two islands : Great Govenen, which is conical in shape and 
308 feet high, and Little Govenen, also conical, but only 59 feet high. 
A shoal of 334 fathoms lies 24° (22° mag.) distant 200 yards from- 
the Great Govenen. Good anchorage and holding ground will be 
found % mile northward of Great Govenen with the northern point 
of Goreno Islet bearing 255° (253° mag.) and the extreme point of 
Pangasahan 300° (298° mag.). A river enters the head of the bay, 
the bar of which bares at low water, but within the bar the depth is 
9 feet and the river is just wide enough for a boat to pull up. 

Anchorage for small vessels may also be found off the sawmill 
wharf on Basilan opposite Great Govenen Island in 7 to 9 fathoms, 
mud bottom. Good fresh water may be obtained at the wharf. 

Teipono Island is small, low, and wooded. The chart shows a reef 
extending a short distance from the south end. 

Goreno Islet is situated nearly % mile northerly from Teipono 
Island with a reef off its north point and a small shoal of 1 fathom 
about 200 yards from its northeast side. 

Islands west of Maluso Bay. — Tengolan, Takela, Dauan, and the two 
Langasmate Islands are flat and covered by vegetation ; the channels 
between them are clear except between Tengolan and Takela, where 
there is a coral shoal of 2% to 4% fathoms, which leaves a channel 
over y 2i mile wide. The chart shows two shoal spots of; 1 and iy 2 
fathoms off the north side of Takela. The small, low, wooded islet 
Teingalaguit lies, 11/^ miles northwesterly from Tengolan; a reef 
projects 1.200 yards 351°, (349° mag.) from it. Odel Island, lying 
nearly 3 miles westward from the northern end of Takelaj is also 
small, low, and wooded. . . ■ , 

Tides and currents.— The maximum rise and fall amounts only to 
5 feet, but the velocity of the tidal stream in the! channel between 



BASILAR ISLAND. 263 

the coast of Basilan and Teingalaguit and Tengolan Islands is very 
strong and reaches 3 knots at times ; the flood stream sets northwest 
and the ebb southeast. 

Tamuk Island, about 1 mile in extent and 180 feet high, lies 3^ 
miles southward of Teipono and about the same distance from the 
coast of Basilan. Canouman Islet is a small, clean islet lying V/ 2 miles 
eastward of the south end of Tamuk. 

South coast of Basilan. — Lahatlahat and other small islets border the 
coast between Maluso Bay and Mangal Point, the southern extremity 
of Basilan. Mangal Point is low and Sandy. Ttunajubun Point has a 
little hill upon it. At 1 mile southeast of Tumajubun Point is the 
eastern edge of a shoal with 1 to 4 fathoms of water on it and no 
bottom, with 60 fathoms at less than 200 yards from it, which extends 
about 1% miles eastward from Bihintinusa Island. 

Kauluan Island, off the southeast coast of Basilan, is low. It is 
separated from Basilan by a narrow channel with several small shoals 
at the northern end. The soundings on the southeast side of Kauluan 
appear to be very deep, as no bottom could be obtained with 60 
fathoms 300 yards from it. 

Matanal Point. — In the large bay between Kauluan Island and 
Matanal Point, the eastern point of Basilan, the depths decrease from 
10 to 20 fathoms toward the shore; bottom coarse sand and rotten 
■coral, favorable for anchoring to wait a tide. The land above the 
point rises to Mount Matanal, 2,050 feet above the sea. The northern 
coast is bold and steep-to. The islands in Basilan Strait have already 
been described. 

PILAS ISLANDS 

is the name given to a group of islands situated west and northwest 
of Basilan, of which Pilas Island is the largest. 

Teinga Island, the northernmost of the group, is about 1*4 miles 
north and south, low, wooded, and surrounded by a reef. The bank, 
of 5 to 11 fathoms, on which the group is situated, extends to a dis- 
tance of about 5 miles east-northeast of Teinga. There is a sounding 
of 6 fathoms (doubtful) shown on the chart at 7 miles 277° (275° 
mag.) from Teinga. 

Sangboy Islands, or Hare's Ears, are two remarkable islands, 617 and 
856 feet high, and may often be clearly seen when the high land 
of Basilan is obscured by clouds. The mountain of the southern 
island resembles a cupola, while the land around it is low. A shoal 
with a least depth of 2 fathoms lies from 1 to 3 miles southward of 
the southern island. 

Kaludlud and Dassalan Islands are low and said to have good timber. 
JShoal ground, covered by 10 feet least water, extends 2% miles west- 
ward of Kaludlud and terminates in Griffin Rocks, which have 10 feet 
least water over them. These rocks do not always break. Besides 
these dangers and a patch of 2 fathoms lying 106° (104° mag.), 2 
miles from the south end of Dassalan, the chart shows many shoal 
patches about these islands. Capt. Davenport, of the yawl Haidee, 
reports finding a rock covered by a depth of about 10 feet on the 3*4- 
fathom shoal lying 6 miles 253° (251° mag.) from Kaludlud Island. 

Salknlakit Islet and the Lakits Islets are on the western side of the 
Pilas Bank. North and northwestward of the Lakits, which are 



264 STJLU ARCHIPELAGO. 

mere rocks, and to a distance of 4 miles, there are soundings of 2%. 
to 8 fathoms and there may be dangers not yet discovered. 

Favorite Bank is a large bank, the eastern edge of which lies about 
25 miles westward of Pilas Island. It has not been surveyed. H. M. 
S. Nassau carried a depth of 6 to 10 fathoms for 8 miles over it. The 
U. S. S. Charleston anchored near this bank in 12% fathoms on the 
following bearings: Mount Bahu, Jolo, 187° (185° mag.) ; Sangbov 
Islands 66° (64° mag.) ; and Pilas Island 92° (90° mag.). The mark 
for clearing the eastern edge of Favorite Bank is Mount Bahu, Jolo, 
bearing 190° (188° mag.). The soundings on this line are not less 
than 18 fathoms, the shoaler water being about 5 miles westward of 
that line. 

Pilas Island is the largest of the islands near Basilan. It is about 
8 miles long north and south and its greatest breadth is 2 miles. The 
land is low and fiat, except at the northern part, where there are two 
hills close together, 919 and 522 feet high. The southern part of the 
island tapers gradually to Panducan Point, the southern extremity. 
This part of the island is low, heavily wooded mangroves, and inter- 
sected with numerous channels, which at high water probably sepa- 
rate the southern portion from the main body of the island. There 
is a shoal extending southward from Panducan Point, on which 5 
fathoms is the least water shown. This sounding is % mile south- 
ward of the point. 

The little islet Tagutu lies about % mile off the east coast. On the 
western side of Pilas there are several small islands with good an- 
chorages between them, especially one on the northwest part ; but a 
good local pilot is necessary for entering it, particularly if the north- 
ern entrance be taken, as the islets have reefs off them and one very 
dangerous one must be passed close-to in order to clear the reef off 
the northwest coast of Pilas, as well as the Tamila Shoal, on which, 
at y 2 mile from the shore, there is a rock above water, surrounded by 
depths of 5 fathoms. 

The islands Bantulinos, Cujangan, Minis, Saloro, Tambilunay, Ma- 
nangal, Siringo, Palajangan, Lemondo, Orell, Mamannak, Pasigpasilan, 
Tinutungan, and Tiguilabun are small islands lying westward of Pilas 
Island. Being of little importance and situated out of the regular 
track of navigation, it is not considered necessary to describe each 
separately. 

Coral shoals. — A patch covered by 2 fathoms lies 227° (225° mag.) 
3 miles from Panducan Point ; another 2- fathom patch lies 247° (245° 
mag.) 4% miles from the same point. 

Mindoro Shoal, covered by 2% fathoms least water, lies 276° (274° 
mag. ) 10 miles from Panducan Point. 

Pilas Channel, between Pilas Island to the west and Balukbaluk 
and Mataja Islands to the east, has a width of 3 miles and a depth 
of 9 fathoms. The tidal current in it attains a velocity of 6 knots 
at springs; the flood stream sets to the north and the ebb to the 
south. 

Balukbaluk Island, east of the north end of Pilas, rises to a peak 
525 feet high on the northern part; the southern part is low. The 
chart shows a shoal around the northern part to a distance of 300 
yards. 



PILAS ISLANDS. 265 

Mataja Island, lying 3^ miles southward of Balukbaluk Island, is 
small, low, flat, and wooded. It is steep-to on all sides except the 
northern. The chart shows a sounding of V/ 2 fathoms about % mile 
northerly from the north end of Mataja. A fixed white light, 
visible 12 miles from all around the horizon except where obscured 
by Balukbaluk Island, is exhibited, 62 feet above high water, from 
a white framed structure, 52 feet high, on the southern extremity of 
Mataja Island. 

TAPIANTANA ISLANDS. 

The Tapiantana Islands are a group of eight islands situated 
southward of Basilan Island. 

Bihintinusa, the most northern island of the group, is small, low, 
sandy, and wooded. It is situated less than 1 mile from the south 
coast of Basilan. It is surrounded by a reef, and shoal water extends 
to a distance of 1% miles 81° (79° mag.) of the island, where there 
is 2% fathoms at the edge of the bank. At ^4 mile eastward of 
the bank there is no bottom at 60 fathoms. 

Bubuan Island, situated 214 miles southward of Basilan, is about 2 
miles in extent and has a hill rising near the center to a height of 
794 feet. In the channel between Bubuan and Tapiantana Islands 
there is a shoal called Tacut Balas, covered by y 2 fathom least water. 

Lanamian Island lies about 2 miles southwesterly from Bubuan. It 
is about iy 2 miles long north and south, y 2 mile wide, and has two 
hills on the western part, of 318 and 394 feet in height, respectively. 
A reef projects y^ mile 160° (158° mag.) from the south end, and at 
y 2 mile in the same direction the depth is 2 fathoms. The northern 
side of this island is inhabited. 

Tapiantana Island, lying 1*4 miles southward of Bubuan, is about 
2 miles long east and west and 1% miles wide, and has in the west- 
ern part a hill which rises gently to a point 938 feet above the sea. 
The eastern part is low and ends in an extensive reef, which bares 
more than 1 mile eastward and incloses the small islet Haluluko. 
The reef southward terminates in a narrow, wooded islet, known as 
Tolon Pisa Island, 2% miles long, with very deep water on its south- 
ern side. The western side of this island is inhabited. 

Salupin and Timbungan are two low, wooded islands on one reef at 
the eastern edge of the bank on which the group is situated. This 
bank is very steep ; at 200 yards distance from it no bottom is found 
with 60 fathoms. 

Soundings. — The soundings between Lanahuan and Mataja 
Islands are irregular, from 10 to 40 fathoms, but from 30 to 35 fath- 
oms are the common soundings in the fair track. The bottom is fit 
for anchorage, consisting of sand and gravel mixed with coral in 
some places. Near the south side of Tamuk the depths are less than 
at 4 or 5 miles distance. 

Tides and currents. — The mean tidal interval at Tapiantana is 
6 h 03 m ; the maximum rise and fall is 7% feet. The tidal stream 
turns at 4 h 15 m after high and after low water. The tidal currents in 
the channel south of Tamuk set nearly northwest and southeast, the 
ebb to the southeast being strongest in the southwest monsoon, about 
2y 2 and 2 miles an hour at spring tides. 



266 STJLU ARCHIPELAGO. 

SAMALES ISLANDS 

ara a group of islands lying on a bank extending 25 miles in a north- 
east and southwest direction. Tapiantana Channel, between Lana- 
huan, of the Tapiantana Group, and Tatalan Island, of the Samales 
Group, is 6 miles wide and 11 to 33 fathoms deep. Nearly midway 
between the two islands there is a patch of 7 fathoms. 

Tatalan Island, about 1% miles long north and south and % mile 
wide, rises in the northern part in a hill 387 feet high. It is situ- 
ated 6 miles 220° (218° mag.) from Lanahuan and 4 miles westward 
of the edge of the bank. An automatic acetylene light, showing one 
white flash every 5 seconds, visible 12 miles, is exhibited at a height 
of 45 feet above high water from a white concrete beacon on the 
extreme south end of Tatalan Island. 

Batumandi is a rock awash with 9 fathoms around it, lying 2 miles 
westward from the north end of Tatalan. At 3^4 miles westward 
of Batumandi there is a narrow bank 2 miles in length north and 
south, with a least depth of 8 fathoms, bottom sand and rock. Cau- 
tion must be used in navigating in the vicinity of these shoals. 

Bolod Islands are two small wooded islands, each about y 2 mile in 
extent, lying about 20 miles south-south westward from Mataja 
Island light. The western island is 643 feet high and the eastern 
one 597 feet high. They lie about 1% miles apart in an east-north- 
east and opposite direction and form good landmarks for vessels 
trading between Zamboanga and Jolo. The channel between them is 
deep and clear. A shoal covered by depths of from 3% to 8 fathoms 
extends 2 miles southeastward from the eastern Bolod Island. 

Tirana Rock, lying y 2 mile northward of the eastern Bolod Island, 
is a dangerous, small patch of flat rock almost level with the water. 

Sibarut Bank, of sand and rock, V/ 2 miles in extent in a northeast 
and southwest direction, lies with the western Bolod 53° (51° mag.) 
distant 5% miles and Bitinan Island 209° (207° mag.) distant 8 
miles. The chart shows 6 fathoms on this bank. 

Sungu Shoal lies iy 2 miles southeasterly from the eastern Bolod. It 
is 2 miles in extent northeast and southwest and 1% miles in breadth, 
and consists of sand, gravel, and rock. Near its southwest extremity 
there are rocks with a depth of 1 fathom. At 400 yards northward 
of these is a patch of 2y 2 fathoms and at y 2 mile eastward of 
them is a large patch with depths of from 4 to 5 fathoms, gravel 
bottom. There are depths of 18 fathoms close to the southwest side 
of the bank, 22 fathoms off its south side, and 11 to 13 fathoms on 
the north and northeast sides. From the position of least depth the 
eastern Bolod bears 304° (302° mag.) distant 4% miles. 

Bucutua and Bulan Islands, lying 2y 2 miles southward of Tatalan, 
are separated by a narrow channel 200 yards wide and 6 to 26 feet 
deep. Bucutua Island is low, having only a hill of 157 feet upon it. 
Buta Kalut Bank, with 16 feet of water on it, lies y 2 mile west of 
Bucutua. Bulan has on it a round mountain 1,184 feet high. At 1*4 
miles northeasterly from Bulan are the two, Dipolod Islets. The 
eastern and larger is 250 feet high and is % mile from the edge of 
the bank. Mamad Islet, situated 1% miles westward of Bucutua, is 
128 feet high, and has no dangers beyond ^ mile from its shore. 

The channel between Tatalan and Bucutua is 2y 2 miles wide and 
the soundings are from 30 to 50 fathoms. 



SAMALES ISLANDS. 267 

Tonquil Island is situated on the southeastern edge of the bank and 
is low and crescent-shaped, with the concave side northward. At y± 
mile from Eguet Point, the eastern point of the islands, there is no 
bottom at 55 fathoms, and at 200 yards from the southern point the 
depth is 90 fathoms. The channel between Sagui Point, the western 
point of the island, and the islands Bucutua and Bulan is 3 miles 
wide. The soundings are deep, with the exception of one patch of 
2% fathoms from the position of which, the peak of Bulan bears 
17° (15° mag.) and Sagui Point 273° (271° mag.). 

Inside of a line drawn between the horns of the crescent from 
Sagui Point to Eguet Point there are several -reefs and shoals. 

Balanguingui Islands consist of Mamanoc, Parol, several islets, and 
the principal island, Balanguingui. 

Balanguingui Island, including the main island and numerous small 
islands lying on the reef, is about 4 miles in, extent. These islands 
are separated by lagoons and narrow, tortuous boat channels, and, 
seen from a distance, have the appearance of one island. 

Mamanoc, lying iy 2 miles northwesterly from Balanguingui, is 
about % mile in extent. It is surrounded by a narrow reef extending 
nowhere more than y^ mile from shore. 

Parol, lying % mile from the northeast part of Balanguingui, is 
iy 2 miles long northwest and southeast, is fringed by a narrow reef* 
and has shoal ground extending more than % mile from its norths 
west and southeast points. 

Bangalao and Simisa Islands, lying westward of Balanguingui, are 
low and intersected with lagoons. Shoal water of 2% f athome ex- 
tends to % mile southwest of Bangalao and 2 fathoms 1% miles 
north of the same island. 

Manungut Island, the most western of the Samales Islands, is only 
about % mile in extent and is situated about 1% miles northwesterly 
from Bangalao Island. In the western part there are two hills, the 
northern and higher of which rises to a height of 276 feet. 

Tidal streams and whirlpools. — Navigation for sailing vessels is 
dangerous on account of the strong currents and eddies. It is stated 
that at times the tides between Jolo and Balanguingui run 8 knots, 
with strong eddies and whirlpools. 

JOLO GROUP. 

Jolo Island, from which the group is named, is about 34 miles long 
east and west and 3 to 13 miles broad from north to south. The 
island from east to west is a series of hills and valleys, the highest 
mountain being on the west end and rises 2,893 feet above the sea. 
The coasts, especially the northern, are in general wooded, clean, and 
steep-to, as also the islands and islets that border them. They are 
slightly indented, forming several bays where there is anchorage, 
the most sheltered and secure in both monsoons being that of Dal- 
rymple or Tulayan Harbor. There is no good watering place in the 
island ; it must either be had from the rivers at low tide or from wells. 

The island has a pleasing appearance. The mountains are covered 
with magnificent trees or beautiful green pasturage ; some are culti- 
vated to the summit. 

The climate of Jolo, although so near the equator, enjoys a much 
more even and cdoler temperature than Mindanao; the nights are 

33452°— 21 18 



268 SULU ARCHIPELAGO. 

sensibly cool, and, although the island abounds in water, mosquitoes 
are not troublesome. The Jolo Islands are seldom, if ever, visited 
by. gales, although strong winds and heavy falls of rain are not 
uncommon. 

Pabunuan Shoal, of sand and shells, lies 20 miles northward of Jolo 
Island and 290° (288° mag.), distant 18 miles, from the western 
Bolod Island. It is 4 miles in extent from north to south and about 
2 miles across from east to west. The general depth over it is 4% 
to 6 fathoms, but in the middle there is a ridge of 4% fathoms with 
two patches of 2% fathoms and 2 fathoms. From the position of 
least depth, 2 fathoms, the following bearings were taken : Gujangan 
Islet, summit, 183° (181° mag.) ; Mount Tandu, Jolo, 164° (162° 
mag.); Pangasinan Islet, 233° (231° mag.). The eastern Bolod 
Island, in line with Bulan Island, summit bearing 120° (118° mag.), 
shows that a vessel bound to the north and east, is clear of Pabunuan 
Shoal. Currents in this vicinity make ranges much more reliable than 
compass courses. 

Haloon Rock, lying &y 2 miles 64° (62° mag.) from the 2-fathom 
patch on Pabunuan Shoal, is awash at high water, steep-to, and sur- 
rounded by depths of 25 to 30 fathoms. 

Capual Island, situated at the northeast extremity of Jolo Island, is 
circular, about 3 miles in diameter, and 1,066 feet high on the 
southeastern side. A narrow coral spit makes out from the northern 
side in a north-northwest direction to about 600 yards. Bearings 
were taken from the spit when in 2 fathoms of water as follows: 
Left tangent Capual Island, 95° (93° mag.) ; right tangent Capual 
Island, 220° (218° mag.). Elsewhere the coast of this island is re- 
ported to be clear and steep-to except on the southwest side, where 
it is united to Jolo by a shoal of sand with 2J to 4£ fathoms of water 
in places. The islet Bulicutin is situated on this shoal. 

Capual Channel, between Capual and Jolo Islands, is deep at the 
eastern end, but has only If fathoms at the western end. 

Goitya Shoal, of 300 yards extent and covered by 1% fathoms of 
water, lies 1 mile from the northwest part of Capual Island. 

Bitinan Island, to the northeast of Capual and separated from it by 
a clear channel 1 mile wide and 13 fathoms deep, is 1\ miles in ex- 
tent, 722 feet high, and steep-to. 

Tidal current. — In the channel between Bitinan and Capual the 
tidal current runs 3 knots. 

Dalrymple Harbor (chart 4541), or Port Tulayan of the Spanish 
Derrotero, is formed by the island of Tulayan on the north and the 
coast of Jolo on the south, and, being the only well-protected harbor 
on the island, may at some future day be a place of importance. 
Good anchorage will be found during the northeast monsoon under 
the lee of Tulayan Island. The natives report that during this mon- 
soon the wind seldom blows home. 

Tulayan Island is about 1 mile in extent. The western side is steep, 
running up to a height of 672 feet, the summit being covered with 
long grass. 

Coast of Jolo. — From Dixon Point, iy 2 miles westward of the south 
end of Tulayan Island, the coast trends east-southeast, east and east- 
northeast to Petley Point, forming a large indentation. The shores 
are covered with mangroves and fronted by a reef with numerous 



JOLO ISLAND. 269 

small bays, mangrove islets, and rocks in it. The village of Limawa 
lies on the southeast shore of the bay. 

Dangers. — In the eastern entrance there are two patches of 2% 
fathoms, the westernmost of which lies over % mile eastward from 
Martin Bluff, on Tulayan Island, and 10° (8° mag.) from Limawa. 
A shoal of B 1 /^ to 4% fathoms lies 800 yards southeast from Martin 
Bluff; a paten of 2 fathoms on a shoal of 4% fathoms lies 1,400 
yards south from Martin Bluff; and in the western entrance there 
is a 2-fathom patch lying y 2 m ^ e 276° (274° mag.) from the south- 
west point of Tulayan Island. 

Anchorage. — A large vessel visiting Dalrymple Harbor should 
round Tulayan Island northward and bring the village of Limawa to 
bear 180° (178° mag.) and steer for it, giving the eastern side of 
Tulayan a berth of about y 2 mile to clear the 3^4-fathom shoal lying 
southeast of Martin Bluff. When the south end of Tulayan bears 
270° (268° mag.) it may be steered for and anchorage taken up with 
Martin Bluff bearing between 0° (358° mag.) and 30° (28° mag.), 
in 7 to 9 fathoms, bottom sand and broken shells. 

From Dixon Point the coast trends westward for 4 miles, and, 
curving first southward and then round to the northward, forms a 
bay &y 2 miles across to Tuctuc Point. This bay is bordered by a 
steep reef, at y 2 mile from which is Eseo Shoal, of 400 yards extent, 
covered by 2 fathoms of water and surrounded by depths of 5 to 7 
fathoms. From Tuctuc Point the coast trends northwest for 3 miles 
to Igasan Point, near which is Bancungan Island ; from thence west- 
ward to Daingapic Point, the northern limit of Jolo roadstead, it 
is clean and steep-to. The towns along this coast offer no resources. 
The natives are very poor. 

Gujangan Island, situated 315° (313° mag.) distant Sy 2 miles from 
Tulayan, is small, moderately high, and steep-to. It has the ap- 
pearance of two islands about 400 feet high, thickly wooded and 
connected by a flat neck of land, the two portions being well opened 
when bearing 117° (115° mag.). The northern part is slightly the 
higher and the island stands out prominently and forms a good land- 
mark. The pilot reports a rock lying about 3 miles 47° (45° mag.) 
from Gujangan, and it is so shown on the chart, marked position 
doubtful; no other information is available. 

Bancungan Island, situated eastward of Igasan Point, is small and 
of triangular form, 1,145 feet high. It is clean and steep-to, except 
to the northwest, on which dde a reef projects 300 yards, with rocks 
awash on it. There is a narrow but safe channel, with a depth of 
over 7 fathoms between the island and the coast. 

Fanganaa Islet, lying 1 mile east of Bancungan, has some rocks 
close to its southern part; elsewhere it is clean. There is a depth 
of 13 fathoms between the islet and Tuctuc Point. 

From Daingapic Point the coast trends southwestward with a bend 
southward for 2y 2 miles to Belan Point. It is clean and consists 
of coarse sand. The water shoals gradually and the 5-fathom curve 
is generally 400 yards from shore. A reef, about 300 yards wide, 
that bares in places, borders the shore in front of the town of Jolo, 
leaving a passage of 1 foot depth to a lagoon which extends south- 
wstrcl. 

Jolo (chart 4541).— The town of Jolo, situated in a bight in the 
coast about y 2 mile eastward from Belan Point, is a port of entry 



270 SULU ARCHIPELAGO. 

and the seat of considerable trade. It is well laid out in three or 
-four streets, planted with shade trees and surrounded by a wall. 
The Chinese town is built on a long wharf about % mile westward 
from the town proper. Trade is largely in the hands of the Chinese, 
who do a large business in fitting out boats engaged in the pearl 
fishery. The imports are principally rice, hardware, and cotton 
goods, and the exports pearls, pearl shells, and a variety of hard 
woods. 

Communication. — Jolo has regular communication with Singa- 
pore and Borneo and also maintains steam communication with all 
ports of the Philippines. 

There is a radio station at Jolo operated by the Bureau of Posts: 
Call letters, FS. 

Whaef. — There is a stone mole, projecting northwestward from 
the north gate of the town, with a wooden extension having about 
24 feet of water at its end. Vessels approaching this wharf must 
be careful to avoid the reefs on either side. There is a pipe laid down 
on the wharf, from which a good supply of water can be obtained. 

A fixed red light, visible 7 miles, is exhibited, 58 feet above high 
water, from a white steel-framed structure erected about 25 feet south- 
ward from the stone tower on the north side of the stone mole. 

Anchorage. — The usual anchorage for vessels which do not intend 
to go to the wharf is northwestward from the lighthouse in 12 to 14 
fathoms. During the northeast monsoon ships are sometimes obliged 
to leave this anchorage and take shelter under the lee of Marongas 
Island. This is a poor anchorage as the bank is steep and the tidal 
currents strong. 

Tides. — It is high water, full and change, at 7 h 30 m ; springs rise 
5 feet. The flood stream sets to the southwest and the ebb to the 
northeast. 

From Belan Point the coast trends west-southwest for 3% miles 
to Candea Point, then curves gradually southward for 6 miles to 
Silangon Point, the western extremity of Jolo Island. All this part 
is safe, a depth of iy 2 to 10 fathoms being found at the edge of the 
narrow reef that fringes the shore. 

Buansa Shoal, covered by a depth of 4 fathoms with 5 fathoms im- 
mediately inside of it, lies 1 mile 50° (48° mag.) from Candea Point 
and nearly % mile from shore. 

Tulian Island, situated 1% miles northwestward from Pulaluaac 
Point, the nearest part of Jolo, is 208 feet high, clean, and cultivated. 
The channel between Tulian and Jolo is clear and deep on the Tulian 
side, but there are only 4% fathoms at a distance of nearly i/ 2 mile 
from Pulaluaac Point. 

Busson Rock, which lies % mile 317° (315° mag.) from Tulian 
Island, is covered by 4 feet of water with 19 fathoms outside of it. 

Matos Shoal, about 1 mile northward of Silangon Point and y 2 mile 
from shore, is covered by 4% fathoms. 

Islands north of Jolo. — These form a group of six large islands and 
several small ones, separated from the northwest point of Jolo by 
a safe and deep channel nearly 3 miles wide and 15 to 30 fathoms 
deep. 

Marongas Islands, lying 3y 2 miles northwesterly from Jolo light, is 
about 1 mile long northeast and southwest, y 2 mile wide, and 285 



JOLO ISLAND. 271 

feet high. The channel between Marongas and Pangasinan is y 2 
mile wide and 8 fathoms deep. 

Pangasinan Island is 548 feet high. At l 1 ^ miles northeastward 
there is a shoal 1 mile in extent with 3% fathoms on it and at y 2 
mile south there is a smaller shoal of 3% fathoms. 

Anchorage may be had in 7 to 12 fathoms 200 yards from the 
coasts of these islands, but the currents have considerable velocity. 

Hegad Island, lying northward of Pangasinan, is low and flat and 
separated from Bubuan and Pangasinan by safe and deep channels. 
The little islet Tauitaui, 1 mile west of it, has a small reef on the 
east and west sides, but is steep-to on the north and south sides. 

Minis Island is the northeasternmost of the group, 1 mile in extent, 
flat, and steep-to. . 

Bubuan Island is 499 f eet high on the north side. On the south side, 
which is low and flat, are two inlets of no importance. The channel 
that separates it from the islands off Cabucan Island is divided into 
three by the islet Lahatlahat and the Concas Bank- These three 
passages are each about 400 yards wide and 5y 2 fathoms deep. 

Cabucan Island is 4 miles in extent east-northeast and west-south- 
west, about 50 feet high, and perfectly flat. On the south side it is 
clean, but the north and west sides are bordered by a reef which 
extends y 2 mile westward. The eastern part ends in several small 
islets, known as the Palliagan Islands, covered by mangroves. 

Aguirre Bank, with less than 10 fathoms of water on it, extends 3 
miles from the southwest coast of Cabucan and is 1 to 2 miles wide 
north and south. The shoalest part, with 4 fathoms of water on it, 
lies about 2 miles from the western extremity of Cabucan. A sound- 
ing of 3 fathoms is shown at a distance of 6 miles west-southwest of 
Cabucan, with 5% and 9 fathoms near it. 

Pantocnnan Island, situated Zy 2 miles northwest of Cabucan, is cir- 
cular, about 1 mile in diameter, low, and flat. It is clean and steep-to 
on the south side, but bordered by a coral reef y s mile wide on the 
north side. This island appears to be on the Pangutarang Bank, 
hereafter described, as in the channel between it and Cabucan there is 
a depth of more than 110 fathoms. 

Sulade Island, lying about 7 miles southwest from Bunga Point, is 
very flat and forms a complete lagoon, inclosing an archipelago of 
islets, with an entrance on the south navigable by boats at high water. 
On its western extremity are two remarkable trees, like fan palms, 
which when approaching the island from north or south appear, 
when sighted, like the sails of two vessels. There is anchorage on the 
west side of Sulade Island in from 6 to 10 fathoms, sand, the bottom 
being even and the soundings decreasing regularly to the shore. 

The currents in this vicinity have considerable velocity, a rate of 
314 knots having been experienced at ordinary tides, running prin- 
cipally northeast, the weaker west-northwest, 2% knots. 

Southwest coast of Jolo. — Bunga Point, situated 2 miles southward 
of Silangon Point, is surrounded by a reef which extends along the 
coast from before the town of Bauisa northward and as far as the 
town of Parang eastward. The reef is about y 2 mile wide and near 
its edge the depth is 7 to 14 fathoms. 

Parang. — This village, consisting of 30 or 40 houses in line, is built 
on piles in the sea, each house being connected with the shore by a 



272 STJLU AKCHIPELAGO. 

separate bridge. Anchorage may be had in 8 fathoms about % mile 
from shore, close to some fishing stakes, with Mount Tumatanguis, 
bearing 32° (30° mag.), and Tubingantan Point 119° (117° mag.). 
From this anchorage the water shoals gradually to the landing place 
opposite the east village. 

Batolaqui Bank consists of a number of shoal patches extending 
about 11/4 miles easterly and southeasterly from Cabalian Point. 
They are covered by 1 to 3 fathoms, with rocks awash at low water on 
the western edge of the bank. The depth between the patches is 6 
to 8 fathoms and there is a narrow channel between a small sand cay 
northward of the bank and Jolo Island, with not less than 6 fathoms 
in it. 

Clearing marks. — Bunga Point, open of Tubingantan Point (the 
point westward of Cabalian), bearing 308° (306° mag.), clears the 
southwest side of the bank and Mount Mabintan, 1,519 feet in height, 
bearing 58° (56° mag.), clears the southeast side. 

Maibun Bay (chart 4541) affords good shelter during the northeast 
monsoon, but is liable to a heavy swell during the southwest mon- 
soon, which sets in in June. The bay is about 8 miles wide between 
Cabalian Point, the western entrance, and Putic Point, the eastern 
entrance point ? and extends 3 miles in a northerly direction; at the 
head are the river and town of Maibun. The shores of the bay are 
bordered by a narrow coral reef, and a depth of 5 fathoms will gen- 
erally be found at 400 yards from the shore. The eastern side is cov- 
ered by mangroves. The western shore is wooded with cleared spaces. 
The town of JPunungan is situated not far from Putic Point. 

Banks and shoals. — Within the bay and fronting the town are two 
shoals. The southernmost is always bare and is named Dry Bank; 
the northernmost bares at half ebb. There are, besides, four shoals ; 
Marban Bank, with 6 feet least water on it, lies about y 2 mile 120° 
(118° mag.) from Dry Bank; another shoal of 10 feet, about y 2 
mile 171° (169° mag.) from the same bank and two patches of 29 and 
27 feet lie 84° (82° mag.) and 92° (90° mag.) from Dry Bank. 
The depth between the shoals and the eastern shore is 5 to 15 fathoms. 

Directions for Maibun Anchorage. — There are two good chan- 
nels into the anchorage off the town. The eastern, between Marban 
Bank and the eastern shore of the bay, seems to be the better ; it is 
about y 2 mile wide and has not less than 5 ftithoms in the middle. 
The other passage is between Dry and Marban Banks. If this 
passage be taken, Dry Bank should not be brought to bear north- 
ward of 10° (8° mag.) until the 10-foot patch lying 171° (169° mag.) 
of it is passed. Should this bank not be buoyed it can generally be 
distinguished by the fishing stakes on it, and also by the light color 
of the water over it. When this patch bears 92° (90° mag.) a course 
should be shaped to pass midway between Dry and Marban Banks. 

Anchorage. — Vessels can anchor anywhere in the bay, but the 
usual anchorage is about % mile southward of the town, with Dry 
Bank bearing 223° (221° mag.) in 8 or 9 fathoms, coral sand bottom. 

Tides and Currents. — In Maibun Bay the tides are irregular; it 
is high water, full and change, at 6 h 25 m ; springs rise iy 2 feet. In- 
side of the shoals the current is not noticeable, but in the offing it 
is strong and irregular. Flood stream sets westward and ebb sets 
eastward. The flood and ebb streams overrun the time of high and 
low water by about two hours. 



JOLO ISLAND. 273 

Maibun. — The town of Maibun is built on piles on the outer edge of 
the bar, at the mouth of the river of the same name, which has only 
1 foot of water on it at low water. 

Teomabal Island, situated about Zy 2 miles southwestward of Putic 
Point, is small and low and surrounded by a coral reef which ex- 
tends about y 2 mile from the southeast side. There are coral patches 
of 24 to 30 feet lying as much as 1*4 miles southeastward of the 
island. The greater part of the interior of the island is a large 
lagoon that nearly bares at low water. 

Patian and Lumbian Islands are clear and steep-to. The passage be- 
tween these islands is reported to be clear and deep. There is an- 
chorage in 12 fathoms in this channel. 

The master of the launch Bcmger reported, under date of Decem- 
ber 28, 1914, the existence of a hitherto uncharted reef, with a least 
depth of 4 fathoms over it, lying about 2y 2 miles southwestward of 
Patian Island. | 

Garcia Shoal, lying y s mile southwesterly from Lumbian Island, is 
of small area and covered by a least depth of 3 fathoms. 

Villamil Rock, lying about % mile southward of Putic Point, in 
the middle of the pass between Putic Point and Patian Island, is 
small and covered by a least depth of 4 feet. It is surrounded by 
deep water. 

Tutu Bay, east of Maibun Bay, is only separated from the bay on 
the north side of Jolo Island by a low isthmus 2y 2 miles wide. A 
narrow steep reef skirts the western shore of the bay, but from the 
northern shore, and also from the northeastern, between Tutu and 
Carangdato Points, the reef extends 1% miles from the coast. Se- 
rantes Shoal, covered by iy 2 fathoms, lies % mile from the western 
shore. The towns, Pandanpandang and Carongdong, are on the 
eastern shore. Anchorage may be had in the bends oi the western 
shore of the bay and in the breaks of the reef on the northern and 
eastern sides. The bay is sheltered from southerly winds by Pata 
Island. 

Pata Island is circular, about 4y 2 miles in diameter, and rises in the 
center to a mountain 1,433 feet high. The shores are clean and 
steep-to, except on the eastern side from which a reef extends 2 
miles eastward having on it an island almost joined to Pata, and 
off the south side of this island is Tanquique Bock. The islet Damocan 
lies 800 yards northwestward of Pata Island. 

Dongdong Island, situated between Pata and Jolo Island, is low, 
flat, and surrounded by a steep reef. 

Tambulian Island lies % mile northwesterly from Dongdong. It 
is a small, round island, with a shoal extending to y 2 mile from its 
southeast shore. Anchorage may be had near the shoal in 8 fathoms. 

Pitogo Bay, between Carangdato and Tandican Points, is bordered 
by a shoal which extends 1 mile southward from Tandican Point 
and fills up the bay northward. . . 

The edge of the bank on which the archipelago is situated is close 
to the shoal southward of Tandican Point and is at the distance of 
1 mile from it southeast of the point. It is also 1 mile from Tandu 
Point, the eastern point of Jolo. 

The towns of Higan and Ganon are in the bay between landican 
and Tandu Points. 



274 SULU ARCHIPELAGO. 



TAPUL ISLANDS 



are situated between the Jolo and Tawitawi group?. Tapul and 
Bolipongpong Islands are two fertile and well-cultivated islands 
lying about 8 miles south, of Cabalian Point, Jolo. Both have coni- 
cal peaks ; the former is 1,676 feet and the latter 954 feet high. The 
narrow channel between them is fit only for boats. They are appar- 
ently clear, except eastward of Bolipongpong,. from which a reef 
projects about 2 miles. 

A reef, not shown on the chart, also extends from the northwest 
end of Bolipongpong. Keeping westward of a line drawn from the 
southwest point of Bolipongpong Island to the 1,010-foot hill on the 
north end of Lapac Island clears this reef. 

At 1 mile south of Bolipongpong the depth is 9 and 10 fathoms, 
and anchorage may be had in the bight on that side of the island east 
of the little islet, Gbndra, in 8 fathoms. The town of Caunpan is on 
the north side of Tapul. 

Cabingaan and Taluc are two low, flat islands, on the same reef, 
with a lagoon inside between them. Paquia Island, close to the west 
side of Cabingaan, is also low and has a narrow reef projecting 
1% miles to the southeast, with iy 2 fathoms on the end of the reef and 

11 fathoms off it. There are two villages on the islands. Between 
Tapul, Cabingaan, and Jolo Islands the depth varies in general from 
20 to 40 fathoms, with patches of 10 fathoms. 

Siasi Island (chart 4544) is about 6y 2 miles long north and south 
and 5% miles in an east and west direction. Grorro, the highest peak 
on the island, is in latitude 5 Q 32' N. and longitude 120° 52' E. It is 
situated southward of the center of the island, rises to a height of 
1,673 feet, and is surmounted by a remarkable clump of dark trees. 
Siasi Island is the highest land between Jolo and Tawitawi, except 
Tapul Island. There are several large villages, built in the usual 
Moro style, on the reefs that fringe the southwest and east coasts, 
the inhabitants of which carry on the pearl fishing, the pearl oyster 
being found in great abundance in this vicinity. 

An extensive reef runs off for about 4 miles eastward of Siasi, on 
the eastern and southern shores of which are numerous low, thickly 
wooded, and uninhabited islands. Sibijindacula, the largest, is very 
low, the sea in some places washing through it at high water. 

Off Basbas Point, the southern point of Siasi, the reef only extends 
to 14 mile, and at the distance of y 2 mile there is no bottom at 66 
fathoms. 

Southwest of Siasi the reef extends to about 3 miles and is sepa- 
rated from the reef running south of Lapac Island by a narrow, deep 
channel which varies in width from 100 to 200 yards and is fit only 
for small craft. 

Tara Island lies on the reef northward of Siasi and is about iy 2 

miles long in an east and west direction. It is crescent-shaped with 

the convex side toward Siasi, and the space between the horns is 

filled with islets and shoals, forming a deep lagoon in the center. 

It is very low on the west side, but the east end is about 110 feet high. 

The channel between Tara and Siasi is about 500 yards wide and 

12 fathoms deep, but there are shoals at both ends of it. 

Tincalan Islet is situated near the northern edge of the foul ground 
between the points of Tara Island. It is a solitary rock, standing 8 



SIASI ISLAND. 275 

feet above high- water mark, and when seen from a distance resembles 
a canoe under sail. 

Shoals. — Northward of Siasi Island, in the fairway of the channel 
between that island and Bolipongpong, three shoals have been found, 
viz: 

Sungu Shoal, about 1 mile in extent east and west and % mile from 
north to south, with a least depth of 2y 2 fathoms, coral and sand 
bottom, and from 16 to 20 fathoms northward of it. From the west- 
ern 2%-fathom patch the small islet north of Tara Island bears 98° 
(96° mag.) and the north point of Siasi 129° (127° mag.). 

Langon Shoal. — About 1 mile westward of Sungu Shoal is the east- 
ern extremity of Langon Shoal, with a depth of 8 fathoms. Thence 
the shoal takes a west-northwest direction for 1^4 miles, with a 
breadth of y 2 mile, having depths of 4% to ly 2 fathoms. From 
the shoalest part, 4% fathoms near its western extremity, the north- 
east point of Lapaclsland bears 161° (159° mag.), and Sirun Island 
241° (239° mag.) distant 4 miles. 

Unnamed shoal.— At 2 miles 55° (53° mag.) of Sirun Island there 
is a shoal about y 2 mile in extent, covered by a least depth of 6 
fathoms. 

Kadyajan Shoal, lying 2y 2 miles eastward of the north point of 
Siasi and 2 miles north of Laminusa, extends about 2 miles in a north- 
west and southeast direction and is covered by from 13 to 30 feet of 
water. 

Between this shoal and Laminusa there is a channel y 2 mile wide, 
with a depth of 6 to 12 fathoms. During the northeast monsoon 
heavy tide rips are seen near this bank. Between Kadyajan and 
Siasi there are several small shoals, and a reef named Bambagan, 
which partly bares, is situated y 2 mile from the shore. 

Between Kadyajan and Bambagan is the northern channel to 
Laminusa, with a depth of 6 to 11 fathoms, sand bottom. Inshore 
of Bambagan Beef there is a good anchorage in from 4 to 5 fathoms. 

Laminusa Island, which lies % mile northeastward of the east point 
of Siasi Island, is low and covered with mangroves; on the north- 
western part there is a village and coconut plantation. Eastward of 
the island a reef bares out to 14 mile, and from there the water 
deepens gradually eastward for 1% miles to the edge of the bank, 
which has 10 fathoms. At % m il e beyond the 10-f athom curve there 
is no bottom with 60 fathoms. 

The channel which separates Laminusa from Siasi is divided into 
two passages by Gusun Keef, composed of sand and coral, which bares 
at low water and can at all times be distinctly seen. The passage 
between the reef and Laminusa is clear but narrow, and winds more 
than that westward of the reef, which is perfectly clear. 

Laminusa Anchorage, between Laminusa Island and the reefs adja- 
cent to the east point of Siasi, is of good width, well sheltered, with 
good holding ground. The reef uncovers in part at low water. It 
is steep-to, but can not be easily distinguished and must be approached 
with caution. 

Tidal currents. — The tidal stream is very strong at springs; the 
flood sets from east to west and then north through the channel, the 
ebb from north to south and then east. Springs rise 6 feet. 

Directions for entering Laminusa Anchorage. — Vessels enter- 
ing Laminusa Anchorage should pass y 2 mile eastward of Tara 



276 SULTJ ARCHIPELAGO. 

Island; then a course 152° (150° mag.) will lead in 4 to 11 fathoms 
until westward of the head of the reef north of Laminusa. A course 
should then be steered for Punungan Islet in line with the eastern 
point of Siasi, which will clear the reefs off Laminusa. Punungan 
can easily be recognized, being a truncated cone 289 feet high. 

The channel between Laminusa and the Siasi Reef should be used 
only in fair weather and with a favorable light for seeing the edges 
of the reef. It is not recommended for large vessels. 

To enter the inlet leading toward Punungan it would be well first 
to mark the channel and to Keep on the Siasi side, as the reefs on that 
side show lumps of coral and have more water near the edge. 

Tolen Point, on the northwest coast of Siasi and 2 miles north of the 
town, is low and wooded. From it and from Busbus Point, farther 
to the south, a coral reef which uncovers at low water extends west- 
ward % mile. Northward and westward of this reef, at 400 yards 
from it, are two detached coral patches covered by 13 feet of water, 
and beyond them a shoal of 4% fathoms extends to % mile west of 
Tolen Point. An isolated shoal, 4^4 fathoms, ^ mile in extent, lies 
1,200 yards northwesterly from Tolen Point. Within the channel 
two shoals of 4:% fathoms lie off the Siasi shore, about midway 
between Tolen Point and Siasi town. The northernmost shoal ex- 
tends halfway across the channel. A small patch of 4% fathoms 
lies 700 yards north of Siasi fort and 400 yards from shore. 

Siasi. — The town of Siasi is situated on the west side of the island 
facing the channel between Siasi and Lapac. It is of very little 
commercial importance. There is a military post there at the 
present time and it is connected with Jolo by cable. A small red 
light, visible about 2 miles, is shown at an elevation of about 20 feet, 
from a framework near the end of the pier. From the north en- 
trance it should be seen bearing between 169° (167° mag.) and 197° 
(195° mag). 

Currents. — November 1 to 4, 1901, when the southwest monsoon 
was weak and with no unusual local winds, the tidal current ran 
strong through the strait from south to north during the ebb tide. 
The current during the flood tide was weak, setting from north to 
south. The directions of the currents are reported as being changed 
by heavy winds. 

Anchorage. — Vessels anchor in mid-channel, abreast of the town. 
The depth of water here is greater than shown, the 62-foot hole 
covering nearly the whole channel abreast of the wharf. 

Directions. — No particular directions are necessary for entering 
Siasi; Gorro Peak, on a 135° (133° mag.) bearing, clears the banks 
to the northward. After passing Tolen Point, on the eastern side of 
the entrance, from which foul ground extends % mile, a mid-channel 
course should be held. 

The southern entrance is very narrow and fit only for vessels of 
light draft; the bottom is foul and the tidal currents strong. It 
should not be attempted without a pilot. 

Lapac Island, situated westward of Siasi, is about 5 miles long in a 
northeast and southwest direction and 3 miles wide; unlike Siasi, 
it has two conspicuous peaks with a great dip between them, so that 
at a distance on a southeast bearing it looks like two islands. A 
reef runs 3y 2 miles to the southward and eastward of this island 



SIASI AND LAPAC ISLANDS. 277 

and nearly joins the reef running to the southward and westward of 
Siasi. About y s mile from the southwest point of this island there 
is a dangerous point of rocks. 

Alican Point, the northeastern point of Lapac, forms the western 
entrance point to Siasi Channel. A shoal of 3^ to 4% fathoms ex- 
tends about 600 yards 0° (358° mag.) to 340° (338° mag.) from this 
point, and another of 3% fathoms 400 yards eastward. South of 
Alican Point the Lapac shore is clean as far as a conspicuous beach 
opposite the town of Siasi. 

Luangat Point, the northernmost point of Lapac, situated 1 mile 
294° (292° mag.) from Alican Point, is of rock and clean, and may 
easily be recognized by a small hill inland close to it. 

Busluc Point, about y 2 milo 261° (259° mag.) of Luangat Point, is 
easily distinguished from it by being formed of huge rocks, and also 
by its being quite separated from "the mountain. 

Pandami Island lies close to the northwest side of Lapac, with 
which the northern end is connected by a shoal having a least depth 
of 10 feet over it. 

Anchorage. — There is good anchorage in from 7 to 12 fathoms, 
sand and coral bottom, southward and westward of Pandami Island, 
and immediately off the village of Pandami. 

Sirun Island is a small island situated about 2y 2 miles northwesterly 
from Lapac. It is about % mile long, 157 feet high, covered with 
trees and steep-to, with a clear channel between it and Lapac. 

Manubul Island is situated on the south part of Lapac Reef and has 
a large fishing village on the northeastern side. 

Tapaan Island is a low island southwest of Lapac. It is of semi- 
circular form with its concave side to the westward and very narrow 
in the middle, being in some places only 100 yards across. It stands 
on a coral reef that is bare at low water, with a small sand cay on the 
north and an extensive one on the south side, curved toward the coast 
of Lapac. The channel between Lapac and Tapaan is about iy 2 
miles wide, and when entering from the south, Sirun, just open of 
Lapac, clears the reef off the southeast point of Tapaan. Steering 
northward with this mark on until the southeast point of Lapac bears 
70° (68° mag.) a. course 306° (304° mag.) leads through the channel 
northward of Tapaan. 

Tapaan Passage, which is formed by Tapaan and Lapac eastward 
and Bubuan and Maniacolat Island westward, is about 6 miles wide 
at the narrowest part, which is between Maglumba, a small island 
121 feet high, off Maniacolat, and the northwest side of Tapaan. 
This passage is clear for a steamer and would be convenient for a 
sailing vessel, as the tides make fairly through it, and in calms or 
light winds a vessel could always anchor to await the change of tide. 

Crest of Wave Shoal is in the fairway of the Tapaan Passage, and 
the shoalest part of 4% fathoms lies about 52° (50° mag.) 4% miles 
from the little conical island of Parangaan, 88 feet high, on the 
southwest side of the passage. It is composed of sand and coral and 
the bottom is rather uneven, the 10-fathom limit extending 134 miles 
in a north and south and more than 1 mile in an east and west direc- 
tion. As a rule, it is easily discerned by the tide rippling around the 
edge of the shoal water; the discoloration of the sea is also very 
marked. 



278 SULU ARCHIPELAGO. 

Tapaan Shoal is a small shoal of coral and sand nearly midway be- 
tween Tapaan and Bubuan Islands. It is a little more than 1 mile 
in extent north and south and % mile wide northward, terminating 
in a narrow point southward. The least water shown on the chart is 
4% fathoms. 

TAWITAWI GROUP. 

Tawitawi Group, the western group of the Sulu Archipelago, ex- 
tends about 65 miles in an east-northeast and west-southwest direc- 
tion and includes all the islands and reefs between the Tapaan and 
.Sibutu Passages. 

Parangaan Islet, the most northeasterly point of the group, is a 
small conical islet clothed with light grass and is 88 feet high. About 
700 yards westward of this islet there is a small flat-topped islet, 14 
feet high, with a narrow 7-f athom channel between the dry reef run- 
ning eastward from it and Parangaan. 

Maniacolat and Parangaan are connected by a bank with soundings 
from 7 to 10 fathoms. Maniacolat is thickly wooded, 1% miles long 
north and south and % mile wide. The peak, 771 feet high, shows 
from nearly every direction as a perfect cone. 

Batman Islet, about 59 feet high and wooded, lies nearly 800 yards 
west of the southwest extremity of Maniacolat, with a channel be- 
tween. 

Maglumba Islet, about 300 yards long and 121 feet high, lies about 

1 mile 81° (79° mag.) from the north point of Maniacolat. There is 
a deep channel westward of this islet. 

Bubuan Island is about 2% miles long northwest and southeast and 

2 miles wide, with a shallow channel, y 2 mile wide, between it and 
Maniacolat. Bubuan is covered with trees, and from the highest 
peak (457 feet) a chain of hills extends eastward, terminating at the 
north point. 

On the west side of Bubuan there is a shallow lagoon with the bar 
nearly bare at low water, in which the pearl-fishing boats seek pro- 
tection from stress of weather. 

Mid-Channel Bank. — The chart shows a shoal northwest of Mania- 
colat, extending 7 miles in a northwesterly and southeasterly direc- 
tion, covered by 4 to 9 fathoms, with rocks awash about the middle, 
and two patches of 1% fathoms on the British chart but marked as 
shoals that bare on the Spanish chart. 

A dangerous rock, awash at spring tides and in smooth water hardly 
discernible until close-to, lies on the bank about 2% miles 238° (236° 
mag.) from Parangaan. 

Caeataan Island, though low and flat, is covered with trees the tops 
of which are 105 feet above the sea. It is about 1 mile long northwest 
and southeast, with a reef that bares 600 yards from its northwestern 
extremity. 

Sigboye Island, one of the highest islands of this group, is thickly 
wooded to the summit, 777 feet above sea level. It lies 216° (214° 
mag.), 6 miles from Caeataan. It is steep-to on the north side, but a 
rock with 2% fathoms lies 650 yards southward of the island. 

Tambagaan Island, the northeast point of which lies 249° (247° 
mag.), iy 2 miles from the west point of Sigboye, is about 3 miles long 
east and west and 1% miles broad, with a conical green peak 724 feet 
high on its eastern part. 



TAWITAWI GROUP. 279 

Off the south point of this island there are two rocks or islets. The 
rock nearer the island, 24 feet high, is surrounded by reefs. From 
the other rock, 8 feet high, the west side of Tambagaan bears 328° 
(326° mag.), and the larger rock 62° (60° mag.). There is a deep 
channel with strong overfalls between Sigboye and Tambagaan. 
Good anchorage may be had southward of Tambagaan. 

Simaluc and Kuad Basang Islands. — The east point of Simaluc, 
which is the eastern and larger of these two islands, lies 5 miles north- 
westward of Tambagaan Island. These islands are similar in shape, 
being of horseshoe form with concave sides eastward. The indenta- 
tion of Simaluc is nearly filled with numerous small islets. 

Both are surrounded by a fringing reef, and between the two there 
is a shallow coral patch, % mile long north and south, on which the 
sea breaks heavily during the northeast monsoon. There is anchor- 
age both east and west of this patch, but it is not recommended, as 
the anchorage southward of Tambagaan, only 6 miles distant, is pre- 
ferred. The islands are wooded, similar in appearance, and the tops 
of the trees are 127 feet above the sea. There are no houses on either 
island, but the natives visit them in great numbers, the fishing ground 
inside of the reef being good. It is said that the natives take to the 
woods on the approach of a boat or steamer and that it is difficult to 
hold communication with or obtain information from them. 

Magpeos Island is a small island situated about 5 miles southward 
of the west end of Bubuan Island. It is almost a perfect cone, rising 
to a height of 417 feet. There is a reef with a rock awash at the end 
of it, extending a little over 600 yards in an east-northeast direction, 

Tagao Island, somewhat larger than Magpeos, from which it bears 
about south by west, distant 1% miles, has four small peaks, the high- 
est of which, on the northwest extremity of the islands, is 270 feet 
above the sea. It is hilly on the west, but flat on the east side, the 
whole covered with trees. There is a deep channel between this 
island and Magpeos. A rock has been found with 1% fathoms on it, 
y 3 mile southeast of Tagao Island, and this island should be given a 
berth of 1 mile when passing eastward of it. 

Tancolaluan Islet is a small coral islet lying 5 miles westward of 
Tagao Island. It is covered with trees and about 170 feet high. 
There is a small rock that seldom covers and on which the sea breaks 
heavily with strong northeasterly winds lying about 400 yards west- 
ward of Tancolaluan. 

Pandanan Islet, lying west by north, 3% miles from Tancolaluan, is 
a small coral tree-covered islet, 88 feet high. 

Kinapnsan Islands, lying about 10 miles southward of Bubuan 
Island, consist of the three low, densely wooded coral islands Taba- 
wan, Bintoulan, and Kinapnsan. Tabawan has several small islands 
and islets on a large reef extending nearly 2 miles southward and is 
separated from Bintoulan and Kinapusan, which latter islands lie on 
the same reef, by a 4-fathom channel. There is also a clear channel 
between Tabawan and Loran, which lies westward of it. 

The reef off Kinapusan, the eastern island, extends 1% miles east- 
ward from that island, and near the outer edge there is a sand cay 
that bares 3 feet at low water. 

As the reefs southward of these islands are steep-to and the lead 
consequently gives no warning, care should be taken when navigating 



280 STJLU AKCHIPELAGO. 

in this vicinity. The tidal currents here also have considerable 
velocity. 

Two miles south of the western islet of Tabawan, on the corner of 
the reef, there is a patch or rock that seldom covers except at very 
high tides. 

Anchorage. — The best anchorage is with the west extremity of 
the village of Tahingtahing, on the north side of Tabawan, about 
160° (158° mag.), % mile from shore. 

The tides here are regular and not very strong. 

Supplies. — The island of Tabawan is thickly populated, but Bin- 
toulan and Kinapusan are only resorted to for fishing, this being the 
chief occupation of the natives, upon which they depend principally 
for the means of subsistence. Numerous boats also leave Tabawan in 
the season for the pearl oyster banks. No provisions are to be ob- 
tained here except fish and coconuts in small quantities. 

Loran Island. — The northwest point of this island is 210° (208° 
mag.), distant &y 2 miles from the south point of TagaoT It is 1% 
miles long northwest and southeast, about 600 yards wide, and ele- 
vated on the northwest side 157 feet above the sea. It is connected by 
a coral reef with the little islet Manote to the southward. 

The northern point of Loran is steep-to. A fringe of coral sur- 
rounds the remaining shores at a distance of from 200 yards on the 
northeast to 1,200 yards on the southwest. On this reef, southward, 
are several small islets. Loran is inhabited and partly cleared and 
cultivated, as also is South Ubian Island, southward. 

South TJbian Island, about % miles southwest from Loran Island, is 
triangular in shape with the apex to the northwest. It is the best 
cultivated and most thickly populated island in this vicinity. The 
principal houses are built on the northeast and southwest sides. The 
island is surrounded by a coral reef extending from it to a distance 
of % mile on the east side, having several small islets upon it, the 
highest of which is only 8 feet above low water. There is no passage, 
except for boats or small vessels, between South Ubian and Loran 
Islands. 

Tabuan Islands, about 2 miles southward and westward of South 
Ubian Island, consist of a number of rocks and islets, the largest of 
which, Tabuan, is inhabited. The group lies on the eastern edge of a 
large coral reef called Bueutcut, which stretches northwestward for 5 
miles from Tabuan Islet, with the Lijatlijat Rocks on the northwest- 
ern extremity, and 1 mile southward, with numerous sand cays upon 
it. In the center there is a cluster of rocks 15 feet high. The north- 
east edge of the bank is marked by the Celandat Islets. The chart 
shows a 1-fathom patch about 1 mile from the southwestern edge of 
the bank, with Tabuan Islet bearing 83° (81° mag.), distant 2y 2 
miles. 

Pasegan Samal is a low coral island 5 miles west-northwest of 
South Ubian, covered with trees the tops of which are 88 feet above 
the sea. It is fringed with a reef northward and eastward to a dis- 
tance of 800 yards from shore, with soundings of 2% to 6% fathoms 
at the edge. About 1,200 yards northwest of the island there is a 
narrow shoal nearly 1 mile in length covered by 2y 2 to 5 fathoms, 
with 5y 2 to 8 fathoms at its edge. 

Pasegan Guimba, situated V/ 2 miles westward of Pasegan Samal, is 
very similar to it. Northwest, east, and southeast of this island are 



TAWITAWI ISLAND. 281 

several banks separated by narrow channels. Those to the southeast 
almost join the Lijatlijat Rocks on the northwest edge of the Bucutcut 
Bank. 

Anchorages.— There is a fair anchorage off the north end of the 
channel, between Loran and South Ubian Islands, in from 7 to 12 
fathoms, sand bottom, and on the bank east of Pandanan Island, in 
from 8 to 10 fathoms, sand bottom. Anchorage may also be had 
east of Cacataan in 10 fathoms, sand bottom, and on the mid-channel 
bank between Cacataan and Bubuan Islands, both to the southwest 
and north of the rocks awash ; at the former anchorage in 7 and at the 
latter in 8 fathoms, bottom sand and shells. 

Tidal currents. — Between Sulade and Cacataan Islands the flood 
tide runs to the northwest and the ebb to the northeast, not with 
much force in the open channel but very strong around the islands. 

In the channels on either side of the mid-channel bank the flood 
tide runs nearly north and the ebb about south with a velocity of 
from 1 to 3 knots. 

Off Pandanan the tides run about north-northwest and south- 
southeast and at the anchorage north of South Ubian Island the flood 
tide runs northwest and the ebb tide southeast with a velocity from 
1 to 3 knots. 

It is high water, full, and change at 6 h 15 m and springs rise 5 feet. 

South of South Ubian and between that island and the Tabuan 
Islands the tide runs fully 4 knots at springs around the edges of the 
reefs, where its greatest strength is felt. 

Supplies. — At present there are no supplies to be obtained from 
any of the islands of the Tawitawi Group. Vessels navigating these 
waters are advised to be very cautious as the natives are very treach- 
erous and not to be depended on. 

Tawitawi Island, the principal one of the group, is 29 miles long 
and 13 miles greatest width. A range of mountain traverses its en- 
tire length. To the northeast Mount Bujimba rises to a height of 791 
feet. Mount Bntua, overlooking Port Dos Amigos, is 1,078 feet; in 
the center is Mount Dromedario, which culminates in four peaks, the 
highest of which is 1,754 feet ; and Thumb Hill, which rises near the 
western end of the island to a square-topped hill, 725 feet in height. 
The appearance of the island is very varied and presents a number of 
wooded tracts separated by spaces of bright green. 

Islands off the east coast of Tawitawi. — Basbas Island, situated off the 
northeast point of Tawitawi, from which it is separated by a channel 
nearly 14 m ^ e wide, is low and covered with mangroves. There is a 
hill in the middle of the western side 256 feet high. The island is 
clean and steep-to, except to the northeast, where there are three 
rocks 800 yards offshore, while off the south point two rocks are near 
the end of the bank, which extends more than 1 mile southeastward 
with several heads above water. 

Pajumajan Island lies 1 mile eastward of Basbas and has on its 
northwest extremity a hill 112 feet high. It is surrounded by a nar- 
row bank of sand with a rock on a small shoal and two great rocks, 
named Pamacalan and Pamagbaran, situated, respectively, 400 and 
800 yards from the south coast. There are several rocks in the 
channel between Pajumajan and Basbas. 

Basbas Channel, between Basbas Island eastward and Tawitawi and 
Tabulunga westward, is 2y 2 miles long and 800 yards wide. The 



282 SULU ARCHIPELAGO. 

northern part is direct and safe, with 11 to 4:% fathoms' depth, but 
the southern part is narrowed by shoals, patches of % to 1 fathom in 
the fairway being shown on the chart. In the northern part of the 
channel there is sheltered anchorage with good holding ground for 
vessels of all sizes ; there are no dangers in it and the sides are steep,- 
but the entrance points are surrounded by sand shoals which extend 
300 yard out. 

Directions. — Bring the highest part of Basbas Island to bear 137° 
(135° mag.) and steer for it; when fairly in the entrance keep in 
mid-channel and anchor when the highest part of Basbas bears 47° 
(45° mag.) in 5 fathoms, sandy bottom. It is not advisable to go 
farther in as the bottom is foul above this position. 

Tabulunga is separated from Tawitawi by a narrow and presumably 
impracticable channel. There are 2 and 3 fathoms close inshore on 
its eastern side. This coast and the banks which extend southeast 
from Basbas Island toward Daluman Island form the continuation 
of the Basbas Channel, which is narrowed here by an islet and a 
steep bank, covered by y 2 fathom of water, with a rock on its northern 
end. 

Daluman Island, lying 1% miles southeasterly from Basbas, has a 
small shoal on the northwest side and another on its south point, A 
rock, awash at low water, lies north of Daluman, about midway 
between it and Pajumajan, and a similar rock lies about 400 yards 
from the northeast coast. 

Tancan Islet, lying 600 yards southeasterly from Daluman, is round, 
600 yards in diameter, and surrounded by depths of 5 to 7 fathoms. 
In the middle of the enannel, which separates it from Daluman, there 
are 2% fathoms, and near Tancan 6 fathoms. 

Tonkian Islets are two small islets, clean and steep-to, tying % mile 
south of Daluman. In the middle of the channel between them and 
Daluman there are 7 fathoms. 

Tubutubu Island lies westward of Tonkian Islets, from which it is 
separated by a passage 400 yards wide and 2 to 5 fathoms deep. 

Baturrapa Islet lies 1% miles southeasterly from Tancan and is 
clean and steep-to. There are 6 fathoms in the channel between it 
and Tancan. 

Dangers. — At 1,400 yards 192° (190° mag.) from the eastern ex- 
tremity of Baturrapa there is a rock that uncovers, surrounded by 
5 fathoms, and at 1,800 yards 171° (169° mag.) there is another rock 
covered by y 2 fathom. A patch of y 2 fathom lies 600 yards north- 
easterly from the east point of Baturrapa and another of y 2 fathom 
lies I14 miles east of the same point. 

Tandubato Island, separated from the east end of Tawitawi by an 
almost impracticable channel named Gallo Malo, is nearly round and 
about 5 miles in diameter. A peak rises to a height of 528 feet from 
a chain of hills on the northeast coast. The highest part of the 
island is a peak in the southeast part, which attains an elevation of 
633 feet. The shores of the island are skirted by a labyrinth of 
reefs and islets. Timbaunan is a small islet off the north coast. 
Taruc is a low island about iy 2 miles in extent, almost joined to 
Tandubato. It is surrounded by shoals and islets, and the space 
northward and westward between it and the Tonkian Islands is 
filled with unnamed islets, surrounded by very little water. The 



TAWITAWI AND ADJACENT ISLANDS. 283 

islets and shoals surrounding Taruc on the eastern and southern 
sides form the western side of the Nochebuena Channel. One of the 
islets on the northeast side, Nahuan, 282 feet high, is a mark for the 
Nochebuena Channel. A shoal, covered by a least depth of y 2 
fathom, extends northeast parallel to and about % mile distant from 
the west coast of Calupag Island. 

Calupag and Tigungun Islands form the eastern side of the Noche- 
buena Channel and the western side of Calaitan Channel. Together 
they are 5 miles long. They are divided by a narrow channel. 
There are several hills, the highest of which is 591 feet above the 
sea. Northward Calupag is clean, with deep water near it, but the 
southern part of Tigungun is surrounded by reefs and islets, near 
which the depth is 2y 2 to 5y 2 fathoms. 

Calaitan Islets lie on an extensive reef between the southeast coast 
of Tigungun Island and the Bucutcut Bank. 

Little Calupag Island lies y 2 mile northeast of Calupag Island. It 
has on its northwest and southeast extremities two conical peaks, 371 
and 354 feet high. When seen from Pasegan and South Ubian 
Islands it appears united to Tawitawi. The island is clean and 
steep-to. 

At % mile northeast of its northeast point there is a patch covered 
by 2% fathoms. ' 

Bakeke Islet, about 40 feet high, lies about 700 yards from the 
northwest point of Little Calupag. 

Charuc Islet is a little clean islet. It lies in the passages between 
the Calupag Islands, which is y 2 mile wide, and divides it into two 
deep channels. 

Channels east of Tawitawi. — There are four channels between the 
islands and reefs that lie east of Tawitawi and west of Bucutcut 
Reef. Of the four, two only are navigable by vessels of any draft, 
these two being Nochebuena, or Tambiluanga, and Cambaeamba, or 
Lijatlijat. The other two are foul and of little depth. 

Cambaeamba Channel, between Bucutcut Reef to the east and the 
reefs of Calaitan to the west, is 2 miles long north and south and y 3 
mile wide in the narrowest part, with a depth of 9 fathoms. To enter 
>it from northward a vessel should pass between Calupag and Pasegan 
Ouimba or between the two Pasegans. This channel is considered 
preferable to that of Ubian for vessels of good draft of water, but 
should not be attempted at night. The currents in it are very 
strong. 

Calaitan Channel, between the edge of the Calaitan Islands Reef and 
the southeast coast of Tigungun Island, is only practicable for handy 
vessels of less than 6 feet draft. The north entrance is divided into 
two arms by Batan Bank. The southern end joins the Camba- 
eamba Channel by the Sipungut Channel, which runs east and west 
and is practicable for small craft. The little channel north of Tan- 
dubas is impracticable. 

Nochebuena Channel, between Calupag and Tigungun Islands and 
Tandubato Island, allows a passage to the south of Tawitawi with- 
out leaving the archipelago, and without exposure to the sea of the 
open waters, which is sometimes very heavy during the southwest 
monsoon. It is practicable for vessels of 19 feet draft and there is 
anchorage anywhere in it. It is 6 miles long and 700 yards wide in 
the narrowest part. 



284 SULU AKCHIPELAGO. 

Directions for Nochebuena Channel. — Coming from the north, 
when westward of and near to Little Calupag, a vessel should steer 
224° (222° mag.) for a hill 282 feet high on the southeast part of 
Nahuan Islet and continue that course until a hill 591 feet high on 
the eastern part of Calupag bears 140° (138° mag.), in line with a 
smaller one 476 feet high near the beach. She should then steer 
203° (201° mag.) and pass in mid-channel between a narrow bank 
westward, covered by 13 feet on the northern end and 3 feet on the 
southern end, and a rocky shoal covered by 10 feet, eastward, until 
abreast of the little verdure-clad islets, Tampatampa and Gandol, 
which must be passed close-to. She should then steer 224° (222° 
mag.) for a hill 633 feet high on the southeast coast of Tandubato 
Island and continue this course in mid-channel to between Sinag- 
buan Islet westward and Sibaloc eastward, and when the southern 
end of Sibaloc is abeam the course should be altered southward to 
pass 200 yards eastward of a remarkable and clean rock (designated 
A) east of Tambiluanga Island and close to it; thence a 173° (171° 
mag.) course should be steered to pass midway between the Ambilon 
and Casapaan Shoals in 5~y 2 to 6% fathoms, with some patches of 
4% fathoms, which can be avoided by borrowing somewhat eastward, 
where the depth is greater; then the passage is to the west, between 
the islets Plus and tJltra into the great bay south of Tawitawi. The 
channel between the islands is narrow and the least depth 4 fathoms. 
Another passage practicable for small vessels is north of Plus and 
Pintada Islets, which lie on the same bank. 

Caution. — It is not prudent to pass Plus and Ultra Islets with 
the sun low and in the face. At other times the banks can be dis- 
tinctly seen and no mistake can be made with the chart under the eyes. 

Water. — On the southeast part of Tambiluanga Island there are 
three wells of good water, but the supply is not great. 

G-allo Malo Channel, between Tandubato and the east coast of Tawi- 
tawi, can be navigated by small craft. The sides of the channel are 
high and covered with lofty trees. Many inlets open into it, and it 
is supposed that there is in the locality an important town named 
Mapait by the natives. 

Islands south of Tawitawi. — Tandubas, Secubun, and Latvian Islands 
are low. They are inhabited and cultivated in the interior, with 
wooded coasts. They lie so close together that they generally appear 
as one island. The outer edge of the reef on which they are situated 
is very distinct and steep, there being no bottom with 114 fathoms 
at 200 yards distance from it. The passage between Tandubas to 
the northeast and Secubun is only fit for native craft. The channel 
between Secubun and Latuan, called Paragua Channel, can be used 
by vessels of any size. It is narrow, tortuous, and deep. The edges 
of the reef can always be seen from aloft. 

Mantabuan and Banaran are two flat islands united by a reef on 
which there is an islet, Sasa. Mantabuan is inhabited but Banaran is 
not. The channel between Mantabuan and Latuan has a least depth 
of 5 fathoms. The edges of the Mantabuan reef can be clearly seen, 
and it is very steep, but the western end of the Latuan reef projects 
farther and is not so clear. In order to enter this channel from the 
south a vessel should be placed with the north point of Mantabuan 
bearing 288° (286° mag.) and the south point 241° (239° mag.). 
From this position a course should be steered 308° (306° mag.), on 



TAWITAWI ISLANDS AND CHANNELS. 285 

•which bearing a small sand bank named Circe Bank, that generally 
uncovers, may be seen. 

The channel west of Banaran is wide and has 6% fathoms of- water 
in the middle. It can be navigated by keeping in the middle between 
the edges of the reefs. 

Basibuli Reef, with Basibuli Islets in the center, some smaller islets 
to the southwest, and Panampanang Islet on the northeast end, 
imcovers at low water. The reef is of sand and coral, steep-to, and 
may be passed close-to. The channel westward of the reef is clear 
and deep. 

Bilatan Island and Bilocbiloe Bank. — Bilatan is an island about 2>y 2 
miles long, on the eastern side of the Bilocbiloe Bank, that runs 
south from the highest part of Tawitawi Island. There appear to 
be some large villages in the interior of this island, and, judging 
from the number of boats passing between it and Tawitawi and the 
islands to the southwest, there is considerable traffic carried on be- 
tween them. 

From the southwest end of Bilatan the coral reef runs southwest- 
ward for about 6 miles. It is from iy 2 to 2y 2 miles wide and upon 
the reef is a chain of small islets running to the southwest, known as 
the Tijitiji Islets, the largest of which, Tumbucan, has a large tree 
in the center. 

Tijitiji Bank is a bank about 2y 2 miles in extent, lying westward of 
the southwest end of Bilocbiloe Bank, from which it is separated by 
Balseyro Channel, having a depth .of 5 fathoms. This channel is 
shown on the Spanish charts and described in the Derrotero, but on 
the British survey the reef appears continuous. There is a sand cay 
on the northern edge of Tijitiji Bank and also one on the western part. 

Balambing Channel separates Bilocbiloe Bank from the coast of 
Tawitawi. The northwest extremity of the reef is not easily distin- 
guished ; vessels using the channel should therefore keep on the coast 
side. On the northwest part of the reef, about 1 mile south of the 
town of Balambing, are two flat-topped rocks standing 12 feet above 
the water, named Dulangdulang, from which the reef bares as far 
eastward as can be seen, dotted here and there with little black 
bowlders. From the Dulangdulang Bocks the reef runs southward 
for about 5 miles and then trends southwestward toward Simonor 
Island. 

Laa Island, of coral formation and covered with trees, the highest 
being 116 feet above the sea, lies about iy 2 miles from the northwest 
edge of Tijitiji Bank. 

Sangaisiapo is a low coral islet with a few straggling bushes on it, 
standing on a coral reef that runs in a west-northwest and opposite 
direction, about 1% miles long. This reef is steep to the east-south- 
east, but from its west-northwest extremity a shallow bank of sand 
and' coral runs out, the 5-fathom limit of which is iy 2 miles west- 
northwest of the western end. There is also a patch of rocks and a 
rock awash about 327° (325° mag.), distant 1 mile from the highest 
bush on the island. 

Danger. — Between Laa Island and Sanguisiapo is a dangerous 
coral reef about *4 mile in extent, and northwestward of this is a 2 1 / 4- 
fathom shoal. 



286 SULU ARCHIPELAGO. 

Simonor and Manucmanca are the two largest off -lying islands south- 
ward of Tawitawi. Simonor has a fringe reef of coral, around it 
which is steep-to, and there is no anchorage around the coast. There 
is a shallow lagoon in the middle of this island, in which the native 
craft take refuge on the approach of danger. 

Manucmanca has a fringe reef nearly all around it and is also 
steep-to. There is a deep channel between these islands, as well as 
between Simonor and the islets and reefs north and east of it. There 
are several large towns on Simonor, and both it and Manucmanca are 
well populated. 

Dieections.— If bound to Balambing from southward and eastward 
the north sandy point of Manucmanca should be steered for until the 
west end of Laa Island comes in line with a remarkable cliffy hill on 
Tawitawi, called Thumb Hill, bearing 358° (356° mag.), which leads 
nearly in mid-channel between Simonor and Tijitiji Bank. When 
near Laa Island the vessel may be hauled to the northeast, passing it 
at about 400 yards distance. 

Bongao Island, the most western of the Tawitawi Group, is about 
2% miles long by 1% broad. Mount Vigia, the highest peak, is 1,138 
feet above the sea, but other peaks attain nearly the same altitude. 
All the peaks are cliffy northward and present a curious appearance 
on some views from that direction, the summit of the island having 
apparently been broken up by volcanic agency. With the exception 
of the cliffs before mentioned, the whole island is heavily wooded, 
the jungle being impenetrable for more than a few yards, and it is 
uninhabited except by a few refugee slaves from Tawitawi. 

Sangasanga Island is about 6 miles long in a northeast and south- 
west direction and 3y 2 miles across at the widest part. It lies imme- 
diately northward of Bongao, between it and Tawitawi Island, and 
separated from the former by a narrow passage for boats of very 
light draft. It is reported that there is not less than 2 fathoms in 
this passage. 

Unlike Bongao, this island is not high, has no conspicuous hill on 
it, and is covered with trees. There are a few small patches of culti-* 
vation on the southeast side, near Pandan Bay, but there are none in 
any other part of the island. 

Papahag Island lies south of Sangasanga and east of Bongao and 
divides the entrance into Port Bongao into two narrow channels, each 
having a navigable width of about 150 yards and a depth of 3% to 8 
fathoms. The southwest side of the island is well planted with coco- 
nut trees, but it does not appear to be thickly inhabited. About 800 
yards west of Matos Point, the south point of the island, there is a 
coral patch of 3 fathoms, and foul ground extends y 2 mile eastward 
of the same point. 

Port Bongao (chart 4514) is formed by the islands Bongao, Sanga- 
sanga, and Papahag and would be a fine harbor were it not for the 
numerous reefs, which contract the anchorage space to a basin about 
600 yards in diameter, having a depth of about 6 fathoms in the cen- 
ter. There is at present a constabulary post on the west side of a 
rocky point making out from the northeast point of Bongao Island, 
from the end of which a reef, partly bare at low water, extends out 
into the channel. At the extremity of the reef there is a beacon com- 
posed of three piles with slats attached. There is a wharf imme- 



BONGAO ISLAND AND VICINITY. 287 

diately inside of the point that is said to have 10 feet of water at 
low water at the end. Bongao is of little commercial importance and 
few vessels are seen there except an occasional Government steamer. 
Vessels bound in here generally use the southern channel, pass the 
beacon close-to, and round it sharply if bound to the wharf. The 
space between the end of the wharf and the reef in the middle of the 
port is only about 150 yards wide. No water or stores of any kind are 
obtainable. Vessels bound into Port Bongao by the southern en- 
trance should keep Thumb Hill open of the east end of Papahag 
Island to clear the shoals extending from Martinez Point, and when 
the middle of the channel between Bongao and Papahag Islands bears 
322° (320° mag.) it may be steered for. 

Tides and currents. — At Bongao it is high water, full and change, 
at 6 h 40 m ; springs rise 6 feet. The flood stream sets northwest and 
the ebb southeast at the rate of 2 to 4 knots an hour, but it takes many 
directions around the reefs. Southward of Bongao, and between 
Simonor and Sanguisiapo, it runs like a race with whirls and heavy 
overfalls, even in a calm. 

Chongos Bay. — On the south side of Sangasanga there is a snug 
anchorage, well sheltered from all winds, with good holding ground, 
taking care if going close in to avoid the rock awash and the 6-foot 
coral patch in the middle of the entrance. The best anchorage is, 
however, outside the bay, in 12 fathoms, muddy bottom, with the 
south point of Sangasanga 250° (248° mag.) and the east tangent of 
Papahag 155° (153° mag.). Vessels bound into this anchorage or 
into Port Bongao by the northern channel should not bring Thumb 
Hill to bear eastward of 39° (37° mag.) until Matos Point bears 272° 
(270° mag.) to clear the reef extending southeastward of Papahag 
Island. 

Supplies. — There are no supplies to be obtained, the few people 
there being in a state of semistarvation, their existence almost de- 
pending on the few fish they catch. 

Tangao is a small islet, covered with trees, about 1% miles 81 (79 
mag.) from Papahag Island and has a reef running 100 yards south- 
ward of it, the extremity of which bares at half ebb. There is a clear 
passage on either side of this islet when bound to Pandan. A rocky 
point on the southern shore of Tawitawi Island, off which a reef ex- 
tends for 400 yards, lies 1% miles eastward of Tangao, while a reef 
that bares about 2 feet lies % mile eastward of the rocky point; from 
this to Lubucan there are no outlying dangers. 

Lubucan Island, nearly 6 miles eastward of Tangao, is moderately 
high There is no passage between this island and Tawitawi, the 
two being connected by a reef bare at low water. Between this and 
Balambing Point there is an extensive bight, with Samanput Island, 
276 feet high, in the N middle, westward of which there is anchorage in 
9 fathoms, muddy bottom. N 

Balambing, a town on the south coast of Tawitawi, was destroyed 
by a Spanish squadron in 1871, since when, on the smoke of a steamer 
being seen, the inhabitants take to their boats with all of their goods 
and chattels and seek refuge in some of the well-sheltered islets that 
abound to the northeastward and where boats would find difficulty m 

\hlvaxe pStes when opportunity offers, taking and enslaving the 
crews of any trading paraos that may happen to be weaker than them- 



288 SUI/U ARCHIPELAGO. 

selves. This was the great boat-building establishment for nearly 
the whole of Tawitawi, but since the destruction of the town they 
have removed about 2 miles northeastward. 

Anchorage. — There is good anchorage anywhere along the south 
coast from Bongao to Balambing, in about 13 fathoms, sand and coral, 
muddy bottom being sometimes obtained west and southwest of 
Lubucan Island, where the holding ground is good. There is also 
good anchorage on the Sanguisiapo Bank in from 6 to 10 fathoms, 
sand bottom, but there is none south of a line drawn between the 
north end of Simonor and the sand cay on the north end of Tijitiji 
Bank. 

Tawitawi Bay. — The interior of this great bay, lying south of Tawi- 
tawi Island, is filled by banks and shoals with navigable channels 
between them too numerous and intricate to describe. By piloting 
from the masthead and with the aid of the chart the navigation is 
easy, but the sun should be at a goad altitude and behind the pilot. 
It is also essential that the vessel be handy, as many of the turns in 
the channels are very sharp. 

Lupa Island, eastward of Balambing, is separated from Tawitawi 
by an impracticable channel. 

Euan Island is in the great bay north of Balambing and near the 
coast of Tawitawi. It is 396 feet high, well cultivated, and has good 
water. There is a remarkable tree in the center of the island. Large 
vessels can anchor about 2 miles south of Buan in 10 fathoms, while 
vessels of lighter draft can anchor north of it in 4 to 5 fathoms. 

Simanale Channel (chart 4514) , which separates Sangasanga Island 
-from the west ,end of Tawitawi, is about 4=y 2 miles long and from 
Y 8 to 1 mile wide. The navigable channel is narrow and tortuous, 
and the least depth of water between the southern entrance and 
Simanale Anchorage is 8 feet. 

Simanale Bay is in the northern part of Simanale Channel. Tusang 
Bongao Island shelters and almost conceals the northern entrance to 
this anchorage, which is ^ mile in extent and 29 feet deep in the 
middle. Vessels drawing over 16 feet should moor. 

Winds. — On the coast of Tawitawi and at the anchorage south of 
Bongao, during the months of February and March, the winds were 
from the north-northeast to northeast, with occasional calms, and 
light airs from the northward. The squalls from the northeast blew 
very heavily at the anchorage at Bongao. During April and the 
eariy part of May it still blew fresh from the northeast, but after the 
6th of May calms and light airs were experienced until the end of the 
month, when it began to blow steadily from east-northeast to south- 
east, force 1 to 3. These southeast winds prevailed steadily in the 
Sulu Sea until July. 

Weather. — Heavy showers were experienced in January and Feb- 
ruary, with, misty weather. March and April being finer, but the 
weather was still misty. May was almost free from rain, with the 
exception of an occasional passing shower, the atmosphere being gen- 
erally clear. In June it was clear between the passing showers, 
which were, however, very heavy and frequent. 

Tataan Islands consist of a chain of nine small islands or coral 
reefs, extending for nearly 8 miles northeast and southwest, nearly 
parallel to the north coast of Tawitawi, leaving between it and them 



TAWITAWI NORTH COAST. 289 

a clear, commodious channel 1 to 2 miles wide, which forms- Tataan 
Pass. The two Simalac Islands are the most easterly of the group. 
They lie close together, are very narrow, surrounded by a beach 
broken by mangroves, and are covered with high trees visible 12 miles 
off. Cabancauan Island lies % mile southwest and consists entirely 
of mangroves on a flooded reef. These three islands rest on a great 
coral reef which almost bares at low water and which extends % mile 
northeast of the smaller Simalac. On the northern part of the reef 
there is a cay of sand and gravel, visible 4 miles off, which serves to 
indicate the reef. Another shoal on the northwest part is generally 
covered. 

Nusa Lajit and Nusa Tacbu are two wooded islands lying % mile 
west-southwest of Cabancauan. The reef they stand on is separated 
from those on each side by navigable channels known as the Nusa 
Tacbu Channel eastward and Basun Channel westward. The reef 
extends nearly 1 mile northward of the islands and has on its north- 
east end a sand cav which marks the western edge of the Nusa 
Tacbu Channel. Southeastward of the islands the reef extends to 
400 yards and has off it a chain of coral patches extending 400 yards 
farther out and from one channel to the other, making the approach 
dangerous. 

Basuns and Tinagta. — The Basuns are two wooded islands which lie 
y 2 mile west of the Nusa Islands. Tinagta, which is small and cov- 
ered by high trees, lies over 1 mile southwest of the Basuns and on the 
southwest extremity of the reef on which these three islands stand. 
The reef, which is of sand and coral with mangrove islets on it, 
reaches more than y 2 mile to the north and northwest and is steep-to. 
On the northern part there is a cay of broken coral, glistening white 
and visible more than 4 miles off. This cay marks the western edge 
of the entrance to the Basun Channel. Southeastward of the Basuns 
the reefs run out in two points to a distance of y 2 mile. 

Sipayu, the westernmost of the Tataan chain, lies 2% miles south- 
westward from Tinagta and nearly y 2 mile from the coast of Tawi- 
tawi, from which it is separated by a clear, deep channel. The 
island is of clean sand. It stands on the southern edge of a coral 
reef which extends Y 2 mile northward and westward and has on its 
northern part a cay of sand and coral which serves to mark it. The 
channel between Tinagta and Sipayu is of uneven depth and has in it 
several shoals with very little water over them ; bottom, sand and coral 

Bacun Point, at the eastern entrance of Tataan Channel, is a low, 
prominent point, covered with tall trees and surrounded by a reef 
about 100 yards in extent. The little bay of Moco lies nearly 2 miles 
eastward, and midway between it and Bacun Point is a noticeable 
beach, the rest of the shore consisting of mangroves. 

Anchorage. — During strong southwest winds a heavy sea sets up 
Tataan Pass, and at such times a good anchorage can be found east- 
ward of Bacun Point, about 14 mile from shore, m 8 fathoms ; bot- 
tom, sand and shells. 

Tataan.— From Bacun Point the coast trends west-southwest for 
W 2 miles to the next point, including a slight indentation at the 
mouth of the Bacun Kiver ; from this point, which is opposite Caban- 
cauan Island, and is clean and steep-to, the coast trends south-south- 



290 SXJLU ARCHIPELAGO. 

west for about 2 miles toward the head of the bay, having in it two 
small shoals which uncover at low water, and then west-southwest to 
the settlement of Tataan. The settlement is on a small hill and con- 
sists of a fort and a few houses. 

Anchorage. — The best anchorage is in 9 to 11 fathoms, with the 
mole in line with the fort. Farther westward the depth is 14 
fathoms and is a better berth for large vessels. The anchorage is 
exposed to gales from the northwest and southwest which blow in 
. the months of June and December, when a sea sets in. Vessels can 
then anchor eastward of Cabancauan Island, where there is shelter 
from all winds. 

Tides and currents. — It is high water, full and change, at Tataan 
at 7 h 23 m . Springs rise 3% feet at the equinoxes and 6% at the sol- 
stices. The tidal streams are weak inside, the islands. 

Supplies. — There are no supplies to be had here except fish and 
water. An unlimited supply of fresh water may be obtained by ves- 
sels carrying at least 300 feet of hose. 

From the settlement the coast, which is thickly wooded, continues 
west-southwest for 3 miles to a bay almost closed by a coral reef. It 
then continues in a generally westerly direction for 3 miles more — 
low, wooded, and fringed by a reef which extends out about 200 
yards to Bagut Lapit Point, which is fringed by a reef to the distance 
of 200 yards. 

Directions. — The northeastern channel, between Bacun Point and 
the Simalac Islands, is the best. It is 1 mile wide and 12 fathoms 
deep in the middle, decreasing on either side to 8 fathoms near the 
coast and near the Simalac Reef. Within, the channel widens to 2 
miles and deepens to 17 fathoms. A vessel making for the Tataan 
Anchorage should bring the fort to bear 185° (183° mag.) and steer 
for it. This course will pass clear of the two shoals previously 
mentioned. 

Nusa Tacbu Channel, between Cabancauan and Nusa Tacbu, is ^ 
mile wide and 4% to 7 fathoms deep and runs north and south in a 
direct line toward Port Tataan. Vessels using this channel should 
keep a mid-channel course while north of Nusa Tacbu, but after 
passing that island the reef off Cabancauan, which is steep-to, should 
be closed in order to avoid the shoals extending southeast of the 
Nusa Tacbu Reef. 

Basun Channel separates the Basun and Nusa reefs. Its northern 
entrance is marked by the cay of broken coral already described. 
The southern part of the channel is dangerous on account of two 
shoals of 6 and 10 feet off the extremity of Nusa Lajit Reef. In 
taking this channel, therefore, it is better to keep on the western 
side. With this exception this channel is shown as deep and clear. 

Western Channel lies between Sipayu and the coast. In this channel 
there are two small banks. One, covered by 23 feet of water, lies 
200 yards northward of the edge of the shore reef ; the other, of 4% 
fathoms, lies 400 yards from the coast, in front of the little bay east- 
ward of Bagut Lapit Point. Between these shoals and Sipayu Island 
there is a clear channel over 14 mile wide, with depths of from 10 to 16 
fathoms. The southern shore of Sipayu is clear. It is best, therefore, 
to keep on that side of the channel. 

Port Dos Amigos (chart 4514) is situated 6 miles eastward of Bacun 
Point. The entrance between Tocanhi and Lamnuyan Points, both 



TAWITAWI NORTH COAST. 291 

of which are clean, is nearly y 2 mile wide. The port extends south- 
ward for Yz mile from Tocanhi Point and then turns northeast for 
about 1 mile with a width of 300 yards, the depth diminishing from 
15 to 20 fathoms at the entrance to 8 fathoms at the turning and to 
5y 2 and 3 fathoms at the head of the port. The best anchorage is at 
the turning in 8 fathoms, sand and mud bottom. There is a good 
watering place in the port. 

Shoal.— The chart shows a shoal of 4% fathoms about % mile west- 
ward of Lamnuyan Point. 

TANGUTARANG GROUP AND ISLA.NDS WESTWARD. 

Pangutarang, the largest of this group, is low and level. Little 
more than the trees are visible above water. It is thickly inhabited 
and carries on a brisk trade with Jolo. The principal place, Maglacob, 
lies on the east side, some distance inland. The coast near it is en- 
veloped by coral and sand banks, between which there is an entrance 
at high water into the lagoon formed by the" coast and the reefs. 
The island contains numerous groves of timber and coconut trees. 

Panducan is a long island east of Pangutarang extending north and 
south. Like the rest of the group it is covered with trees, a con- 
spicuous peaked clump on its south end being the highest. The 
passage between Panducan and Pangutarang is about 2y 2 miles wide. 

Kulassein is about 4% miles northward of Panducan and is joined 
to it by a chain of black rocks on a bed of white sand. Over these 
rocks are 6 to 9 feet of water and between them 3 to 4 fathoms. 

The charts show a small island lying 9 miles northward of Kulas- 
sein, in latitude 6° 35' N.. longitude 120° 41' E. ; marked existence 
doubtful. The U. S. S. Annapolis passed 4 miles north and 1 mile 
south of this position, and, although the conditions were favorable, 
did not see any land. 

Caution. — Large vessels should not attempt to pass between the 
islands northeast of Pangutarang, for the tidal streams have a ve- 
locity of 6 knots at springs. 

Tubigan, situated about 3 miles northeasterly from Kulassein, is a 
wooded island with a small river and good drinking water. 

Teomabal, lying about 9 miles eastward of Panducan, is low and 
wooded. The reefs off Teomabal extend more than 12 miles to the 
northeast. 

Pangutarang Passage lies between Pangutarang Island to the north 
and North Ubian and Usada Islands on the south; it has an average 
width of 5 miles and is very deep. North Ubian and Usada are the 
largest of a group of thickly wooded islands lying southward and 
westward of Pangutarang. 

North Ubian is about 3 miles long east and west and 2% miles wide; 
it is inhabited, the largest town, Suangbunah, being on the southwest 
side in a deep bight, well protected by a coral reef. There is a village 
in the interior named Aloh, but it is not visible from the sea. An 
automatic acetylene light, showing one white flash every 2 seconds, 
visible 10 miles, is exhibited, 35 feet above high water from a white 
concrete beacon on the northern point of North Ubian Island. 

From North Ubian a bank with from 7 to 11 fathoms over it runs 
in a west-southwest direction for nearly 19 miles to Cap Island. I his 
bank affords a good stopping place for a vessel taking the ^anguta- 



292 SULU ARCHIPELAGO. 

rang Passage ; its northern edge is very steep and the lead should be 
kept going when approaching from this direction. 

Malicut, a small island southwest of North Ubian, distant about 
3V 2 miles, is a little more than y 2 mile long by % mile wide. 

A reef extends 14 m il e northwestward, bare at low water, and is 
continued by a bank in the same direction, the 5-fathom limit of 
which is about 310° (308° mag.), 1% miles from the northwest ex- 
tremity of the island. 

Ticul lies about % mile eastward of North Ubian, with a deep 
channel between them ; it is % mile long and off its north end are two 
sand cays with trees on them, while immediately south of this point 
is a lagoon of salt water. There are paths through this island, all 
converging to a well near the center ; the water, however, is brackish, 
but it is said that the natives of North Ubian come here for water. 

Usada, southeast of Ticul, is fringed by a reef ; there is a lagoon on 
the western side of the island with a break in the reef through which 
native boats pass at high water. Usada appears to be well inhabited 
from the number of canoes and paraos seen, but no towns are visible 
from the sea. 

Cunilan is about \y 2 miles southwest of Usada, with a passage be- 
tween the two islands; it is about 1 mile long in a northwest and 
southeast direction by about y 2 mile broad; the tops of the trees on 
this island are 67 feet above the sea. 

Basbas, which is about 2% miles 205° (203° mag.) from Cunilan, is 
covered with trees, the tops of which are about 63 feet high ; in fact, 
all the islands of this group appear to have been coral reefs or sand 
cays at one time, as the surface of the soil is not much above the high- 
water level of extraordinary spring tides. 

A shoal covered by a least known depth of 2 fathoms is reported to 
exist about 2y 2 miles northward from Deatobato Islet. 

Anchorage. — There is anchorage between Malicut and North 
Ubian in from 5 to 10 fathoms, but the bottom is hard and smooth. 
Anchorage may also be had i/ 2 mile south of the rocky islets at the 
entrance of the inlet on the southwest side of Usada, in 11 fathoms, 
sand and coral bottom, with.fair holding ground. 

There is also anchorage about 1 mile westward of the north end 
of Malicut, in 7 to 9 fathoms, but the tidal currents run strongly at 
springs. 

Laparan Island is situated 23 miles 240° (238° mag.) from Malicut; 
it is 5 miles long from north to south and 2 to 3 miles wide, and is 
covered with trees. Westward it is fronted by a coral reef with 
several small islets on it, the reef being steep-to. There is no an- 
chorage westward of Laparan. It has been reported that a coral 
reef extends from the east side of Laparan to Deatobato Islet, about 
3 miles eastward and about iy 2 miles across. Soundings of 4^ to 5 
fathoms were obtained on this reef midway between the islands. 
Mariners are warned that this locality is absolutely unsurveyed. 

Doc Can is separated from the southwest extremity of Laparan 
Island by a channel % mile wide. In the center of this island there 
is a large lagoon with several islets in it. A shoal with 5 to 8 fathoms 
extends about 2 miles to the northwest of Doc Can Island. 

Anchorage. — There is anchorage south and west of Doc Can, but 
none north of it. Outside of the 20-f athom limit the bank is steep-to ; 



PANGUTARANG ISLANDS. 293 

on the southern side of the island a ship should anchor as soon as 9 
or 10 fathoms is obtained, as deeper water will be found between those 
soundings and the edge of the reef. 

Tides. — It is high water, full and change, at 6 h ; springs rise 5 feet. 
The observation was made at the time of the equinox when there was 
only one tide in the 24 hours, and the flood stream ran for nine hours 
and the ebb for three hours; the flood setting north-northwest, ebb 
southwest, 3 to 5y 2 miles per hour. 

Billanguan Island, about 18 miles southeastward of Doc Can, is 
about % mile long northwest and southeast, and, like the majority of 
islands in this locality, is low and covered with trees. A bank with 
about 9 to 12 fathoms extends nearly 3 miles southward of this island, 
where a vessel may anchor if necessary, but the holding ground is not 
good. 

Bambannan, another low coral island, covered with trees, is about 
4^ miles southeast of Billanguan. It is only visited by the natives 
of Tawitawi occasionally for fishing purposes. Off the south side 
there is anchorage in about 13 fathoms during the northeast monsoon. 

TJwaan, Mamamic, and lahatlahat, lying northeast of Billanguan 
and Bambannan, are similar to those islands in formation and char- 
acter. 

The other islands included between North Ubian, Laparan, and 
Bambannan have not been surveyed and vessels should not pass be- 
tween them. 

Tablas Shoal is a large shoal covered by a least known depth of 4 
fathoms and surrounded by deep blue water, lying between Deatobato, 
Sipang, and Tubalubac Islands. 

This shoal has not been examined and probably less water exists. 

Approximate position of the center of the south edge is latitude 
5° 54' ST., longitude 120° 21' E. 

Depths of 4 to 12 fathoms have also been recently reported between 
Datu Bato and Sipang Islands. 

Currents. — Great caution should be used at all times and par- 
ticularly during the prevalence of the northeast monsoon in the navi- 
gation of the southern part of the Sulu Sea, because of the strength 
of the currents. This effect has been particularly observed between 
meridians 119 E. and 121 E., where the currents set toward Sibutu 
Passage and the channels between the islands of the Jolo Group. The 
following is the experience of the steamer Kudat: After setting at 
nightfall a course from Taganak Island for a position 28 miles north 
of the north end of Pangutarang Island, an additional allowance of 
6° being made for leeway, as the night was thick and rainy, next 
morning Pangutarang Island was reported ahead and the course was 
changed to the southward, and then, as the land appeared strange, the 
ship was anchored in 18 fathoms ; on the weather clearing up she was 
found to be at the south and west of Cap Island. The vessel had 
drifted 48 miles during the night, and had her course been set as 
usual for the north end of Pangutarang Island there is no doubt but 
that she would have grounded on Pearl Bank. 

Unusual care should be taken when the wind is fresh from the 
northward, as the currents are then strongest. 

Pearl Bank. — This extensive bank, on which are Taj a and Zau 
Islets, situated about 10 miles westward of Doc Can, is a formation 



294 STJLU ARCHIPELAGO. 

of coral and sand about 15 miles long northeast and southwest, about 
9 miles wide, and is steep-to. Nearly in the middle of the bank is a 
circular coral reef about 7 miles in diameter, which bares in patches 
at low-water spring tides. The opening leading into this lagoon has 
a bar extending across it with 9 to 13 feet of water over it. 

The reef has several small islands and islets on its west, south, and 
east sides, the highest (50 feet) being near the southeast extremity ; 
all these are low, covered with bushes, and hardly visible at a distance 
of 6 miles. 

In running down at night to pass either east or west of this bank, 
the soundings would give warning of the vicinity of the center reef, 
but it is too steep to the north and south for the lead to be of much use 
unless going very slowly. 

An automatic acetylene light, showing one white flash every 6 
seconds, visible all around the horizon for a distance of 13 miles, is 
exhibited, 65 feet above mean high water, from a white steel tower 
erected on Zau Island. 

Anchorage. — There is fair anchorage on the bank on either side 
according to the season, but tides are very strong, running at the rate 
of from 3 to 5 knots. 

Tides. — It is high water, full and change, at 6 h 05 m ; springs rise 5 
feet. 

Talantam Shoal is composed of sand and coral, the shoalest part of 
5 fathoms being in latitude 5° 42' N., 119° 26' 30" E. It is about 3 
miles long northwest and southeast and 1% miles wide, with an av- 
erage depth of 8 fathoms within the 10-fathom curve. A report 
states that the German S. S. Offenbach obtained a sounding of 4^ 
fathoms, under favorable conditions, about in the middle of the shoal. 
Deep-draft vessels should therefore avoid crossing it, as less depths 
are liable to exist. 

With wind against the tide there are heavy tide rips around this 
bank, sometimes extending as far as the eye can see, and much re- 
sembling broken water. 

SIBUTU PASSAGE. 

Sibutu Passage separates the Borneo Islands from the Sulu Archi- 
pelago.^ It is a safe and deep channel, 18 miles wide between Sibutu 
and Simonor Islands, the shore on either side being steep-to. 

Tides and tidal currents. — When navigating this passage, great 
attention must be paid to the tides, which run with a velocity of 2 to 
4 knots. The times of high water at Sibutu Island, Dent Haven, Port 
Bongao, Pearl Bank, Doc Can, and Sagayan Sulu are from 6 h to 
6 h 40 m , and the streams run for three hours after high and low water, 
but it must be borne in mind that the times of high water at Tambisan, 
and on the Borneo coast northward, are from 10 h 52 m to 12 h , and that 
the streams are weaker than in the offing. 

The officers of H. M. S. Nassau remarked during the survey in 1872 
that the tidal streams in the main channel were very steady in direc- 
tion, the flood stream setting northwest and the ebb south, but there 
was uncertainty as to duration, the streams occasionally running as 
much as 10 hours at a time, probably influenced by the winds and also 
by changes of the moon's declination, as with the tides on the south 
coast of Mindanao. 



SIBUTU ISLAND. 295 

In the channel west of Sibutu Island the officers of H. M. S. Egeria 
in 1892 observed the flood stream to set south, and the ebb north, with 
a velocity of from 3 to 4 knots an hour, and the streams to turn with 
high and low water by the shore. 

Sibutu Islands and Reefs lie directly on the route between Dent 
Haven and Sibuko Bay. The channel between their northern limits 
and the southern shore of Tanjong Labian, upward of 16 miles wide, 
forms the main approach to Darvel Bay from northward and east- 
ward. 

Navigation amongst these reefs is rendered easy by the help of the 
islets, which are readily distinguished and are conveniently situated 
for fixing a ship's position. 

The channel on the western side of Meridian and Frances Reefs, 
and eastward of Blake Reef, Payne Rock, and James Patch, is con- 
venient as affording anchorage in every part ; the only narrow part 
of it is when passing Maranas Islet, which may be passed on either 
side, and no special directions are necessary. 

The channel westward of the line joining Blake Reef and Payne 
Rock and eastward of Riddells Reef is 27 miles long and 3 miles 
wide in its narrowest part between Blake Reef and Siluag Islet. It 
is perhaps the most convenient to use generally, being more direct 
than those farther eastward, whilst the tidal streams do not attain 
the same strength as in the channels westward. 

The channel west of Siluag Islet and Riddells Reef and east of 
Bajapa Reef is 7 miles long, with a minimum breadth of 1% miles. 
The tidal streams run here with great strength, and they should be 
well considered before using this route. 

The channel between Bajapa Reef and Alice Reef is about 6 miles 
long and iy 2 miles wide between the steep edges of the reefs on either 
side. The tidal streams run straight through the channel with con- 
siderable strength. 

Along the southern edge of the bank on which these reefs stand, a 
rim of shoaler water runs close within and parallel to the 100-fathom 
line, but nothing less than 17 to 20 fathoms could be found on this 
rim. The edge falls steeply to depths of over 100 fathoms and is very 
clearly marked by tide rips and overfalls, which give the appearance 
at times of shoaler water than actually exists. 

Sibutu Island, the north end of which is in latitude 4° 55' N. and 
longitude 119° 27%' E., runs nearly north and south, and is 16 miles 
long with an extreme breadth of 2y 2 miles in the middle, narrowing 
toward the extremities. The eastern coast is slightly convex and the 
western coast concave. With the exception of a conical hill 500 feet 
high on the east coast, the island is flat and densely wooded. 

The coast line is mostly a low cliff of upraised coral, broken here 
and there by a sandy beach. A narrow reef fringes the coast on both 
sides and northward, but from the south point the reef extends south- 
ward for 4^4 miles, with a breadth of 2% miles, inclosing a shallow 
lagoon 6 miles long, lying close to and parallel with the southeast 
coast but no entrance to the lagoon could be discovered in passing on 
cither side. 

The reef bares in patches at low water, and near the southern end 
there is a sand bank with a wooded islet on it, the trees on the sum- 
mit reaching to a height of 120 feet. Another smaller wooded islet, 



296 STJLU ARCHIPELAGO. 

fiat-topped, lies % mile southward, and a low bushy islet lies % mile 
northwestward of the first islet. 

The fringing reef is steep-to all around, and there is no anchorage, 
but a ship might stop a tide by dropping anchor in 15 fathoms north 
of Sibutu Island, swinging round withm 150 yards of the fringing 
reef. On the western shore, at 4% miles southward of the northern 
point, there is a village with a small wooden pier for landing. 

An automatic acetylene light, showing one white flash every 8 
seconds, visible 15 miles, is exhibited 94 feet above mean high water 
from a white steel-framed structure erected on Saluag Isand, Sibutu 
Group. 

Omapui, Sipankot, and Tumindao are a chain of Jow flat-topped 
wooded islets on an extensive reef lying 2 to 3 miles west of Sibutu 
Island. Tumindao is the largest of these islands. It is 7y 2 miles 
long north and south, with an extreme breadth of l 1 /^ miles, and, 
like the other islands, is wooded and of uniform height, the tops 
of the trees being from 130 to 190 feet high. A chain of small islets 
and rocks stretches for 3 miles south of Tumindao. 

Sitanki, the first islet southward from Tumindao, although very 
small, is of considerable importance, as most of the trade between 
Borneo and the Bongao district centers there. It is inaccessible 
except by small boats at high water; by keeping under steam in the 
channel between Sibutu and Tumindao a boat may be sent across the 
reefs and return the same tide. 

Sitanki may also be visited by boat from the anchorage in the 
southern lagoon, following the rising tide over the reefs and in most 
cases stopping in Sitanki till the next tide and starting to return 
as soon as the boat floats. 

It is stated that there are few permanent inhabitants on any of 
these islands, but they are much frequented by fishermen from S'imo- 
nor and Borneo for trepang, which is found in great profusion on 
the reefs westward. The natives report that wild cattle are very 
numerous in Sibutu .and that Omapui aboun